Natural Products

Natural Product LibraryA unique collection of 2661 natural products for high throughput screening (HTS) and high content screening (HCS).
Catalog No. Product Name Information
E0840 Yakuchinone A Yakuchinone A, a natural product isolated from Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel (Zingiberaceae), has strong inhibitory effects on the synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs).
E2012 Ginkgolide K Ginkgolide K, isolated from Ginkgo biloba, induces protective autophagy through the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 signaling pathway, and possesses neuroprotective activity.
S0970 Curzerene Curzerene, a sesquiterpene isolated from the rhizome of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn with anti-cancer activity, inhibits glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) mRNA and protein expression and induces cell apoptosis.
E0583 Isoscabertopin

Isoscabertopin is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from <i>Elephantopus scaber L</i> and shows anti-tumor activities.

E0543 OJV-VI

OJV-VI is isolated from <i>ophiopogonis</i>.

S6370 Dendrophenol Dendrophenol (Moscatilin) is from Dendrobium nobile, a naturally occurring bibenzyl compound with potential antimutagenic activity. Dendrophenol (Moscatilin) almost completely suppresses (97%) the AFB1-induced SOS response with an IC50 of 0.08 μM.
S0938 Sakuranetin Sakuranetin belongs to the group of methoxylated flavanones, with a widely bioactivity of antiproliferative against human cell lines typical for B16BL6 melanoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and colon cancer (Colo 320), antiviral activity towards human rhinovirus 3 and influenza B virus, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antiparasitic, antimutagenic, and antiallergic properties.
E0505 Olive oil Olive oil comes from the fruits of Olea europae trees with a beneficial effect on human health, including the antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory activity when olive oil is in regular diet.
E0506 Soybean oil Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean (Glycine max).
E0656 7-Methylcoumarin 7-Methylcoumarin can inhibit the growth of S. aureus and the growth of Gram-positive bacteria within a concentration of 0.8–3.6 μg/ml, and also has a strong hepatoprotective activity.
E0748 Opoponax oil Opoponax oil is isolated and extracted from Commiphora erythraea (opoponax), with a promising insecticidal property.
E1124 Narciclasine Narciclasine (Lycoricidinol), an isocarbostyril alkaloid narciclasine, targets STAT3 via distinct mechanisms in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. Narciclasine suppresses phosphorylation, activation, dimerization, and nuclear translocation of STAT3 by directly binding with the STAT3 SH2 domain and leads STAT3 degradation. Narciclasine is a plant growth modulator. Narciclasine modulates the Rho/Rho kinase/LIM kinase/cofilin signaling pathway, greatly increasing GTPase RhoA activity as well as inducing actin stress fiber formation in a RhoA-dependent manner.
E0650 γ-Terpinene γ-Terpinene (γ-TPN), a monoterpene, is an orally active antioxidant compound which can scavenge radicals directly.
E0651 Garlic oil Garlic oil blocks tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced lung tumorigenesis by inducing phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes.
S4448 Imidacloprid-urea Imidacloprid-urea with a role as a marine xenobiotic metabolite, is the primary imidacloprid soil metabolite, whereas imidacloprid-olefin is the main plant-relevant metabolite and is more toxic to insects than imidacloprid.
E0653 Trans-ferulic acid Trans-ferulic acid is a potent activator of AMPKunder high glucose condition.
E0478 Procyanidin C1 Procyanidin C1 is a polyphenolic component of grape seed extract, increases the healthspan and lifespan of mice through its action on senescent cells. PCC1 is a natural senotherapeutic agent with in vivo activity and a potential intervention to delay, alleviate or prevent age-related pathologies.
S0936 Aloin B Aloin B (Isobarbaloin), isolated from Aloe vera, is one isomer of Aloin and has anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) acyivity.
S0944 Benzoylaconitine Benzoylaconine (Isaconitine, Pikraconitin) is an alkaloid derived from the Chinese traditional medicine Radix Aconiti Lateralis Preparata (Fuzi). Benzoylaconitine inhibits production of IL-6 and IL-8 via MAPK, Akt, NF-κB signaling in IL-1β-induced human synovial cells.
E0239 (-)-Catechin gallate (-)-Catechin gallate ((-)-CG) is a catechin polyphenol that has been found in green tea extracts with diverse biological activities.
E0240 Procyanidin B1

Procyanidin B1, a natural polyphenolic compound that has antioxidant properties, inhibits Kv10.1 channel and suppresses the evolution of hepatoma.

E0241 Asiaticoside B

Asiaticoside B is a triterpene glycoside isolated from Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, with anti-cancer activity.

E0242 Picrocrocin Picrocrocin, the chemical most responsible for the bitter taste of saffron, is isolated from saffron and inhibits proliferation of cancer cells.
E0243 Emodin-8-glucoside Emodin-8-glucoside (Emodin glucoside B, Anthraglycoside B, Emodin glucoside B) is an anthraquinone derivative isolated from Aloe vera, binds to minor groove of DNA.
E0244 Acevaltrate Acevaltrate, an active component derived from the herbal plant Valeriana jatamansi Jones, is strikingly potent to induce GBM cell apoptosis. Acevaltrate inhibits the Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the rat kidney and brain hemispheres with IC50 of 22.8 μM and 42.3 μM, respectively.
E0246 β-Anhydroicaritin β-Anhydroicaritin is isolated from Boswellia carterii Birdware, has antiosteoporosis, estrogen regulation and antitumor properties.
E0247 Militarine Militarine is a major chemical constituent of the tuber of Bletilla striata (Thunb.) Reichb.f., with a prominent neuroprotective effect.
E0248 Rehmannioside D (Rhmannioside D) Rehmannioside D (Rhmannioside D) is an iridoid glycoside that has been found in Rehmannia glutinosa.
E0249 Pseudolaric Acid A Pseudolaric acid A, a Hsp90 inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.60 μM, 2.72 μM, 1.36 μM, 2.92 μM and 6.16 μM in HL-60, A549, SMMC-7721, HeLa and SW480 cells respectively, is the main bioactive ingredient in Pseudolarix cortex, and induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and promotes cell death through caspase-8/caspase-3 pathway, demonstrating potent antiproliferation and anticancer activities.
E0212 Cornuside

Cornuside is a bisiridoid glucoside compound isolated from the fruit of Cornus officinalis SIEB. et ZUCC. Cornuside suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory mediators by inhibiting NF-κB activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Cornuside attenuates apoptosis in rat cortical neurons.

E0213 Bruceine D

Bruceine D, isolated from Brucea javanica (L.) Merr. (Simaroubaceae), shows antineoplastic properties in various human cancers including pancreas, breast, lung, blood, bone, and liver. Bruceine D induces apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells via mitochondrial pathway.

E0215 Isorhapontigenin

Isorhapontigenin (ISOR), isolated from Belamcanda chinensis, is a derivative of stilbene. Isorhapontigenin possessed potent antioxidative activity. Isorhapontigenin suppresses interleukin-1β-induced inflammation and cartilage matrix damage in rat chondrocytes.

E0216 Hinokiflavone

Hinokiflavone, isolated from Selaginella P. Beauv, Juniperus phoenicea and Rhus succedanea, possesses excellent pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor activity. Hinokiflavone induces apoptosis and inhibits migration of breast cancer cells via EMT signalling pathway.

E0190 Invert sugar

Invert Sugar is a popular sweetener.

E0211 Dihydroberberine

Dihydroberberine, a hydrogenated derivative of Berberine (BBR), exerts anti-inflammatory effect via dual modulation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

S0941 3,29-O-dibenzoyloxykarounidiol 3,29-O-dibenzoyloxykarounidiol is a triterpenoid isolated from Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim.
S5813 Isoginkgetin Isoginkgetin is a naturally derived biflavonoid with anti-tumor activity. Isoginkgetin directly inhibits the chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and caspase-like activities of the 20S proteasome. Isoginkgetin also is a general inhibitor of Pre-mRNA splicing.
S0958 Zingibroside R1 Zingibroside R1, isolated from rhizomes of Panax zingiberensis Wu et Feng (Araliaceae), has some anti-HIV-1 activity. Zingibroside R1 shows the inhibitory effects on the 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) uptake by EAT cells with IC50 of 91.3 µM and the growth of MT-4 cells with CC50 of 46.2 µM.
E0206 Ginkgetin

Ginkgetin is a biflavone from Ginkgo biloba leaves with anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-adipogenic, and neuroprotective activities.

E0207 Chebulinic acid

Chebulinic acid, a phenolic compound isolated from Terminalia chebula fruit, is a novel Influenza viral neuraminidase inhibitor. Chebulinic acid is a antiangiogenic agent through inhibiting the actions of VEGF. Chebulinic acid shows antitumour activity.

E0208 Herbacetin

Herbacetin is a natural flavonoid compound found in flaxseed with strong antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory activity.

E0209 Cinobufotalin

Cinobufotalin, extracted from the skin secretion of the giant toad, is a novel SREBP1 inhibitor that suppresses proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting lipogenesis.

E0210 Quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucuronide

Quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucuronide (Miquelianin, Q3GA) is one of the quercetin metabolites with antioxidant activity.

E0222 Glaucocalyxin A

Glaucocalyxin A is a biologically active ent-kauranoid diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx with antitumor and anti-inflammatory activity. Glaucocalyxin A induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the PI3K/Akt pathway in human bladder cancer cells.

E0225 Licochalcone B

Licochalcone B (Lico B), extracted from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch, induces the cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human hepatoma cell HepG2. Licochalcone B specifically inhibits the NLRP3 inflammasome by disrupting NEK7‐NLRP3 interaction.

E0226 Chebulagic acid

Chebulagic acid, isolated form Terminalia chebula Retz, is a reversible and non-competitive inhibitor of maltase with a Ki value of 6.6 μM. Chebulagic acid shows potent anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Chebulagic acid also shows potent COX–LOX dual inhibition activity with IC50 values of 15 μM, 0.92 μM and 2.1 μM for COX-1, COX-2 and 5-LOX respectively.

E0233 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide

14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (deAND), a diterpenoid in Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees with hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-asthma, and anti-cancer activities.

E0177 Hydrocortisone sodium succinate

Hydrocortisone sodium succinate (Hydrocortisone 21-hemisuccinate sodium salt) has significant inhibitory effects on the IL-6 bioactivity with IC50 of 6.7 μM. Hydrocortisone sodium succinate can bind to glucocorticoid receptor, initiating the transcription of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive mediators.

E0201 Hypaconitine Hypaconitine (Deoxymesaconitine) is an active diterpene alkaloid derived from Aconitum species. Hypaconitine inhibits TGF-β1-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition.
E0202 Benzoylmesaconine Benzoylmesaconine (Mesaconine 14-benzoate) is a main Aconitum alkaloid isolated from several Aconitum species with potent pharmacological activities, such as analgesia and anti-inflammation.
E0204 Poricoic acid A Poricoic acid A is isolated from the surface layer of Poria cocos. Poricoic acid A activates AMPK to attenuate fibroblast activation and abnormal extracellular matrix remodelling in renal fibrosis. Poricoic acid A also is a modulator of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1).
E0205 Strictosamide Strictosamide is the main representative constituent of Nauclea officinalis Pierre ex Pitard (Rubiaceae) with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.
S7758 Trabectedin Trabectedin (Ecteinascidin 743, ET-743) is a marine alkaloid isolated from the Caribbean tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata with antitumour activity. Trabectedin binds to the N2 of guanine in the minor groove, causing DNA damage and affecting transcription regulation in a promoter- and gene-specific manner.
S0651 N-Butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone N-Butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (N-Butanoyl-L-homoserine lactone, N-Butyrylhomoserine lactone, C4-HSL) is a cleavable ADC linker applied into the synthesis of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs). N-Butyryl-L-homoserine lactone is a small diffusible signaling molecule involved in quorum sensing, controlling gene expression, and cellular metabolism.
E0160 Hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride

Hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride (5-Aminolevulinic acid hexyl ester hydrochloride) is a tumour photosensitizer.

E0365 Fucoidan

Fucoidan is an anionic sulfated polysaccharide extracted from marine brown algae with a large range of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-viral, anti-oxidation, anticoagulant, antithrombotic, anti-angiogenic and anti-Helicobacter pylori, etc.

S0920 Ginkgolide J Ginkgolide J is a minor constituent of terpene trilactone mixture of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract that inhibits GlyR-operated channels with IC50 of 2.0 μM. Ginkgolide J also inhibits cell death of rodent hippocampal neurons caused by Aβ1–42. Ginkgolide J exhibits anti‑inflammatory activity.
E0198 Pristane

Pristane (2,6,10,14-Tetramethylpentadecane, TMPD) is a natural saturated terpenoid alkane obtained primarily from shark liver oil that is widely used to induce tumorgenesis in mice and arthritis and lupus nephritis in rats.

E1029 Miglustat

Miglustat (Zavesca, N‐butyldeoxynojirimycin, OGT 918) is an orally administered ceramide glucosyltransferase inhibitor which prevents the lysosomal accumulation of glucocerebroside.

E0196 Alloxan Monohydrate

Alloxan Monohydrate is the most popular diabetogenic agents used for assessing the antidiabetic or hypoglycemic capacity of test compounds.

S9793 4-Hydroxynonenal

4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, HNE, 4-hydroxy Nonenal, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) is one of the major end products of lipid peroxidation and has been widely accepted as an inducer of oxidative stress.

E0150 Carrageenan

Carrageenan (kappa-Carrageenan) is a natural carbohydrate (polysaccharide) obtained from edible red seaweeds. Carrageenan shows anticoagulant activity, antithrombotic activity, antiviral activity, anti-tumour activity and immunomodulatory activity.

E0149 Papain

Papain (papaya proteinase I) is a sulfhydryl protease from the latex of the papaya fruit. Papain breaks down intercellular matrix of cartilage.

E0156 Thioacetamide

Thioacetamide (TAA) is a hepatotoxin frequently used for experimental purposes which produces centrilobular necrosis after a single dose administration.

E0154 Taurocholic acid sodium salt

Taurocholic acid sodium salt (Sodium Taurocholate, TANa) is a sodium salt of taurocholic acid and occurs in the bile of mammals. Taurocholic acid  is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.

E0143 ITE

ITE (2-(1′H-indole-3′-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester) is a potent endogenous agonist of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) that directly binds to AHR with a Ki of 3 nM.

S6812 Z-Guggulsterone Z-Guggulsterone, a constituent of Ayurvedic medicinal plant Commiphora mukul, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Z-Guggulsterone exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in microglia. Z-Guggulsterone induces apoptosis in gastric cancer cells through the intrinsic mitochondria-dependent pathway.
E0129 Oxysophocarpine Oxysophocarpine (OSC) is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora alopecuroides. Oxysophocarpine inhibits the growth and metastasis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) by targeting the Nrf2/HO-1 axis. OSC protects cells against apoptosis and inflammatory responses and compromised miR-155 activity by attenuating MAPK and NF-κB pathways.
E0130 Apigenin-7-O-glucuronide

Apigenin-7-O-glucuronide (Apigenin-7-glucuronide) is the major flavonoid found in milk thistle. Apigenin 7-o-glucuronide inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and total nitrite release in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.

E0015 Iberiotoxin

Iberiotoxin (IbTX) is a toxin purified from the scorpion Buthus tamulus. Iberiotoxin is a potent blocker of the large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel with a Kd of ~1 nM.

S0947 Cafestol Cafestol is a natural diterpenes extracted from coffee beans. Cafestol induces apoptosis and regulates a variety of inflammatory mediators to reduce inflammation. Cafestol inhibits PI3K/Akt pathway. Cafestol also can reduce the production of ROS in the leukemia cell line HL60.
E0023 5,7-Dihydroxychromone

5,7-Dihydroxychromone (DHC), a natural antioxidant extracted from plants, is a potent activator of Nrf2/ARE signal. 5,7-dihydroxychromone also is a potent activator of PPARγ and LXRα. 5,7-Dihydroxychromone may contributes to regulate blood glucose levels and shows anti-diabetic property.

E0046 β-Cyclodextrin β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD, Beta-Cyclodextrin) is a cyclic derivative of starch prepared from partially hydrolyzed starch (maltodextrin) by an enzymatic process. β-Cyclodextrin can be used as complexing agents to increase aqueous solubility of poorly soluble drugs and to increase their bioavailability and stability.
E0124 Chelerythrine

Chelerythrine (Toddaline, Broussonpapyrine) is a potent, selective antagonist of PKC with an IC50 of 0.66 μM. Chelerythrine also inhibits the BclXL-Bak BH3 peptide binding with an IC50 of 1.5 μM. Chelerythrine shows antitumor, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activity.

S8152 Cucurbitacin I

Cucurbitacin-I (Elatericin B, JSI 124, NSC 521777), a natural cell-permeable triterpenoid isolated from Cucurbitaceae, is a novel selective inhibitor of JAK2/STAT3.

S7580 Leptomycin B Leptomycin B (LMB, CI 940, Elactocin, Mantuamycin, NSC 364372) is a potent antifungal antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces and acts as a specific inhibitor of the nuclear export factor CRM1. Leptomycin B rapidly induces cytotoxic effects in cancer cell lines via covalent inhibition of CRM1 with IC50 values of 0.1 nM–10 nM.
E0037 Bradykinin

Bradykinin is a potent vasodilator peptide that exerts its vasodilatory action through stimulation of specific endothelial B2 receptors, thereby causing the release of prostacyclin, NO, and EDHF.

S0950 Hibifolin Hibifolin (Gossypetin-8-O-β-D-glucuronide) is a flavonol glycoside and acts as a potential inhibitor of adenosine deaminase (ADA) with a Ki of 49.92 μM. Hibifolin prevents β-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cortical neurons.
E0010 Hypocrellin A Hypocrellin A (HA) is a perylenequinone isolated from Shiraia bambusicola that shows antiviral, antimicrobial and anticancer activity through mediating multiple signaling pathways. Hypocrellin A also is a selective and potent inhibitor of PKC.
E0027 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a naturally existing component in mammalian genomic DNA and is regarded as the sixth DNA base. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is an intermediate metabolite in active DNA demethylation. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is epigenetic marks known to affect global gene expression in mammals.
E0025 2-Hydroxybenzylamine 2-Hydroxybenzylamine (2-(Aminomethyl)phenol, 2-HOBA, NSC 127870) is a naturally occurring compound found in buckwheat and is a selective scavenger of dicarbonyl electrophiles that protects proteins and lipids from being modified by these electrophiles. 2-HOBA reduces inflammation and plaque apoptotic cells and promotes efferocytosis and features of stable plaques. 2-HOBA has potential for use as a nutrition supplement due to its ability to protect against the damaging effects of oxidative stress.
E0008 Atractylodin Atractylodin (Atractydin) is one of the major constituents of the rhizome of Atractylodes lancea and inhibits N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase (NAAA) activity with an IC50 of 2.81 µM. Atractylodin also inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6) by blocking NPM-ALK activation and MAPKs.
E0009 Harmane Harmane (Harman, Aribine, Aribin, Locuturine, Locuturin, Loturine, Passiflorin, 1-Methylnorharman, NSC 54439) is a common compound in several foods, plants and beverages. Harmane is a selective monoamine oxidase inhibitors with IC50s of 0.5 μM and 5 μM for human MAO A and MAO B, respectively. Harmane also inhibits the apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease activity of the UV endonuclease induced by phage T4.
E0022 Ophiopogonin D Ophiopogonin D (OJV-VI, Deacetylophiopogonin C) is a steroidal glycoside isolated from Chinese herb Radix ophiopogonis and shows anti-tumor property. Ophiopogonin D could suppress TGF-β1-mediated metastatic behavior of MDA-MB-231 cells by regulating ITGB1/FAK/Src/AKT/β-catenin/MMP-9 signaling axis. Ophiopogonin D attenuates PM2.5-induced inflammation via suppressing the AMPK/NF-κB pathway in mouse pulmonary epithelial cells.
S9197 Maltohexaose Maltohexaose (Amylohexaose) is a polysaccharide with 6 units of glucose and can be classified as a maltodextrin.
S0943 Arenobufagin Arenobufagin is a natural bufadienolide from toad venom and induces apoptosis and autophagy in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.
S6909 Levomefolic acid Levomefolic acid (5-MTHF, LMSR, Metafolin, Nutrifolin) is a natural, active form of folic acid used at the cellular level for DNA reproduction, the cysteine cycle and the regulation of homocysteine among other functions.
S6927 Dihydroresveratrol Dihydroresveratrol is a natural product possessing significant biological activities. Dihydroresveratrol, a potent phytoestrogen, is a hormone receptor modulator.
S3166 Calcium 2-oxoglutarate Calcium 2-oxoglutarate (Calcium oxoglurate, Calcium 2-oxopentanedioate, Calcium α-ketoglutarate, Calcium AKG, Calcium 2-ketoglutaric acid, Calcium oxoglutaric acid) is the Calcium salt form of 2-oxoglutarate. 2-oxoglutarate is naturally found in organisms and is a well-known intermediate in the production of ATP or GTP in the Krebs cycle. 2-oxoglutarate is a reversible inhibitor of tyrosinase with IC50 of 15 mM.
S6100 Picrotoxin Picrotoxin (Picrotin, Cocculin, Cocculus, NSC 403139), a plant alkaloid, is a non-competitive antagonist of neuronal GABA and glycine receptors.
S5910 Alpha-Estradiol Alpha-Estradiol (α-Estradiol, 17 alpha-Estradiol, Alfatradiol, Epiestradiol, Epiestrol, Alora, 17 α-E2), a natural, non-feminizing stereoisomer, a hormonally almost inactive isomer of physiological 17 beta-estradiol (17 β-E2), is a weak inhibitor of estrogen.
S3761 Eucalyptol Eucalyptol (NSC 6171, 1,8-Cineol, 1,8-cineole, 1,8-Epoxy-p-menthane, 1,8-Oxido-p-menthane, Cineol, Cineole) is a monoterpenoid oil present in many plants, principally the Eucalyptus species, and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects. Eucalyptol controls airway mucus hypersecretion and asthma via anti-inflammatory cytokine inhibition.
S5417 Spectinomycin dihydrochloride pentahydrate Spectinomycin dihydrochloride pentahydrate (Trobicin) is a widely used antibiotic that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by blocking translocation of messenger RNA and transfer RNAs on the ribosome.
S5972 Hydrocortisone hemisuccinate Hydrocortisone hemisuccinate (A-hydrocort, Hydrocortisone 21-hemisuccinate), a physiological glucocorticoid with anti-inflammatory properties, is an inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokine with IC50 of 6.7 μM and 21.4 μM for Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-3, respectively.
S9827 Iodoacetamide Iodoacetamide (IA, IAM, 2-Iodoacetamide) is an alkylating agent that is commonly used for alkylation of cysteine during sample preparation for proteomics.
S5958 Metformin Metformin (1,1-Dimethylbiguanide), a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes, activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in hepatocytes. Metformin promotes mitophagy in mononuclear cells. Metformin induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through activating JNK/p38 MAPK pathway and GADD153.
S5937 DL-Carnitine DL-Carnitine ((±)-Carnitin) is a racemic mixture of L-Carnitine and D-Carnitine that regulates fatty acid transport in the mitochondrion. DL-carnitine is found to be ineffective or toxic, for example, to muscle cells and to the myocardium. DL-Carnitine causes symptoms of myasthenia and cardiac arrhythmias.
S5955 Thiamine nitrate Thiamine (Vitamin B1) nitrate is an essential vitamin that plays an important role in cellular production of energy from ingested food and enhances normal neuronal actives.
S5888 Beclamide Beclamide (N-Benzyl-3-chloropropionamide, beta-chlorpropionamide) exhibits sedative and anticonvulsant properties.
S5199 Oxytetracycline hydrochloride Oxytetracycline (OTC, Oxycycin, Stevacin, Terramycin) hydrochloride is a prescription antibiotic, interfering with the ability of bacteria to produce essential proteins.
S4486 Thiamine monochloride Thiamine (Vitamin B1) monochloride is an essential vitamin that plays an important role in cellular production of energy from ingested food and enhances normal neuronal actives.
S4495 Quinine Quinine, an alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree, is an anti-malaria agent and a potassium channel inhibitor that inhibits mSlo3 (KCa 5.1) channel currents evoked by voltage pulses to +100 mV with IC50 of 169 μM.
S4490 Tetracycline Tetracycline (TC) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that exhibits activity against a wide range of microorganisms including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, chlamydiae, mycoplasmas, rickettsiae, and protozoan parasites.
S3590 Triolein Triolein is an inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and reduces both the expression of IL-6 and ROS generation in irradiated keratinocytes.
S4713 Atropine Atropine (Atropen, Atnaa, Tropine tropate, DL-Hyoscyamine) is a competitive muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist with anti-myopia effect.
S5193 L-Thyroxine sodium salt pentahydrate L-Thyroxine (Levothyroxine, L-T4) sodium salt pentahydrate is a synthetic T4 hormone used to counterbalance hypothyroidism.
S5260 ATP ATP (Adenosine-Triphosphate, Adenosine 5'-triphosphate) is a multifunctional nucleoside triphosphate and an important endogenous signaling molecule in immunity and inflammation.
S5790 Folinic acid Folinic acid (Leucovorin) is a biological folic acid that increases the level of reduced folates in tissues, which promotes the inhibition of thymidylate synthase (TS).
S6466 Eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester Eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101, EPA ethyl ester, Ethyl eicosapentaenoate) is an omega-3 fatty acid agent that significantly reduces the triglyceride (TG) levels and improves other lipid parameters without significantly increasing the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels.
S4979 Procaine penicillin G Penicillin G Procaine (PGP, Penicillin G Procaine, Bicillin C-R), a crystalline complex combining penicillin G with procaine, is a β-lactam antibiotic.
S5922 L-Carnitine hydrochloride L-Carnitine ((R)-Carnitine, Levocarnitine) hydrochloride improves oxygen saturation, and inhibits leukotriene synthesis. L-Carnitine hydrochloride functions to transport long chain fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria for degradation by β-oxidation.
S0911 Hypaphorine Hypaphorine which is abundantly found in vaccaria semen, counteracts inflammation via inhibition of ERK or/and NFκB signaling pathways.
S4857 L-Ornithine L-ornithine ((S)-2,5-Diaminopentanoic acid) has an antifatigue effect by increasing the efficiency of energy consumption and promoting the excretion of ammonia. It is one of the key reactants in the urea cycle.
S3578 Pyrroloquinoline quinone Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, Methoxatin) is a natural anti-oxidant with anti-oxidative and anti-aging effects. Pyrroloquinoline quinone prevents estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis.
S4496 Maltose monohydrate Maltose (Maltobiose, Malt Sugar, Beta-Maltose, D-Maltose) monohydrate, an non-essential nutrient that provides energy, is an intermediate in the intestinal digestion of glycogen and starch, and is found in germinating grains (and other plants and vegetables).
S9631 Puromycin aminonucleoside Puromycin aminonucleoside (NSC 3056, PAN, Stylomycin aminonucleoside, ARDMA, SAN), the aminonucleoside portion of the antibiotic puromycin, is a reversible inhibitor of dipeptidyl-peptidase II and cytosol alanyl aminopeptidase that induces apoptosis in mesangial cells (MCs) accompanied by declined cell viability and enhanced inflammatory response.
S7428 Rocaglamide Rocaglamide (Roc-A), isolated from Aglaia species, is a potent inhibitor of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) activation with IC50 of ~50 nM for HSF1. Rocaglamide inhibits the function of the translation initiation factor eIF4A. Rocaglamide also inhibits NF-κB activity. Rocaglamide exhibits anti-tumor activity.
S3569 Spermidine Spermidine is a natural polyamine that stimulates cytoprotective macroautophagy/autophagy.
S4438 Benzophenone Benzophenone (Diphenyl ketone, Benzoylbenzene) filters out both UVA and UVB rays and is widely used in a great variety of sunscreens and personal care products.
S4440 2-Phenylacetamide 2-Phenylacetamide, the main compound isolated from the seeds of Lepidium apetalum Willd (LA) with estrogenic activities, increases the expression of Estrogen receptorα (ERα), ERβ and GPR30 in the uterus and MCF-7 cells.
S4425 Rifamycin S Rifamycin S, a quinone and an antibiotic against Gram-positive bacteria (including MRSA), is a clinical drug used to treat tuberculosis and leprosy. Rifamycin S generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibits microsomal lipid peroxidation.
S4436 Pleuromutilin Pleuromutilin (Drosophilin B, Mutilin 14-glycolate), the lead compound for novel antibiotics, inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit of bacteria.
S4494 Methionine Methionine (MRX-1024, D-Methionine) is an activitor of GABAA receptor that modulates neuronal activity.
S3588 Hexylene glycol Hexylene glycol (HG, 2-Methyl-2,4-pentanediol, MPD) is an oxygenated solvent derived from acetone that has been used widely in industrial chemicals and cosmetics. Hexylene glycol exhibits antibacterial and antifungal properties.
S3595 D-Gluconic acid D-Gluconic acid is an antifungal agent.
S6446 Sodium citrate dihydrate Sodium citrate dehydrate (Trisodium citrate dihydrate, Citric acid trisodium salt dihydrate) is the preferred anticoagulant.
S3594 Adipic acid Adipic acid (Hexanedioic acid) is an important dicarboxylic acid used for the manufacture of nylon and polyurethane plastics.
S3596 Polyvinylpyrrolidone Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, Polyvidone, Povidone) is an inert, water-soluble, non-toxic, temperature-resistant, pH-stable, biocompatible, biodegradable polymer that helps to encapsulate and cater both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. Polyvinylpyrrolidone has been widely tested and used as an effective wound healing accelerator.
S3598 Sucrose Sucrose (D-(+)-Saccharose), a common sugar produced naturally in plants, is a disaccharide, a molecule composed of two monosaccharides:glucose and fructose.
S4424 Hyaluronidase Hyaluronidase (Hyaluronate 4-glycanohydrolase, Hyaluronoglucosaminidase, Amphadase, Hydase, Vitrase) is a naturally occurring enzyme that degrades hyaluronic acid, which constitutes an essential part of the extracellular matrix.
S0235 Lavendustin B Lavendustin B inhibits HIV-1 integrase (IN) interaction with its cognate cellular cofactor lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75). Lavendustin B is an inhibitor of Tyrosine Kinase and also a competitive inhibitor of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1).
S9794 Melittin Melittin (MLT, Forapin, Forapine) is an activator of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) that stimulates the activity of the low molecular weight PLA2, while it does not the increase the activity of the high molecular weight enzyme.
S3168 cis-Resveratrol cis-Resveratrol (cis-RESV, cRes, (Z)-Resveratrol) is the Cis isomer of Resveratrol. Resveratrol is a natural phenolic compound with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and anti-cancer properties. Resveratrol is an inhibitor of pregnane X receptor (PXR) and an activator of Nrf2 and SIRT1 and may induce apoptosis. Resveratrol also inhibits a wide spectrum of targets including 5-lipoxygenase (LOX), cyclooxygenase (COX), IKKβ, DNA polymerases α and δ with IC50 of 2.7 μM, <1 μM, 1 μM, 3.3 μM and 5 μM, respectively.
S3499 Monocaprylin Monocaprylin (2,3-dihydroxypropyl octanoate, Monoctanoin, 1-Octanoyl-rac-glycerol, MC) exhibits an excellent antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
S0921 Wilforine Wilforine (WR), a sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloid found in T. wilfordii plants, significantly inhibits the efflux activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp).
S3351 Sodium phenylpyruvate Sodium phenylpyruvate (Phenylpyruvic acid sodium salt) inhibits amino acid formation and depresses oxygen consumption.
S2995 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (4-HPPA), an abundant colon metabolite of polyphenols, is a potent scavenger that suppresses levels of free radicals and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and contributes to reduced risk of colon cancer development.
S6918 Oleandrin (PBI-05204) Oleandrin (PBI-05204, Foliandrin, Neriolin, Neriostene, Folinerin, Corrigen, Neriol) is an inhibitor of Na+/K+-ATPase with IC50 of 0.62 μM. Oleandrin induces apoptosis and reduces migration of human glioma cells in vitro.
S6990 Phytohemagglutinin

Phytohemagglutinin (PHA, Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin) is expressed in Pichia pastoris using native signal peptides, or the Saccharomyces alpha-factor preprosequence, to direct proteins into the secretory pathway. Phytohemagglutinin induces apoptosis in human HEp-2 carcinoma cells via increasing proapoptotic protein Bax and activating caspases-3.

P1201 LL37 (Human cathelicidin) LL37 (Human cathelicidin, Ropocamptide) is a cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide with potent chemotactic and immunomodulatory properties.
S3069 Deoxycholic acid sodium salt

Deoxycholic acid sodium salt (Sodium Deoxycholate, Sodium Desoxycholate, Cholanoic Acid, ATX-101, Kythera, Belkyra, DCA) is specifically responsible for activating the TGR5 receptor (GPCR19) that stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic activity.

S3248 2'-Deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphate

2'-Deoxyadenosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-dAMP), an endogenous metabolite, is only photosensitized degraded under acidic conditions.

S3268 2'-Deoxycytidine 5'-monophosphate

2'-Deoxycytidine-5'-monophosphoric acid (dCMP) is an endogenous metabolite that can be used as a model to describe mechanisms of DNA-strand breaks induced by secondary electrons and decomposes primarily by dissociation of the C-O phosphoester bond.

S3318 N-Acetyl-L-arginine dihydrate

N-Acetyl-L-arginine (Ac-Arg-OH) dihydrate is an endogenous metabolite.

S3319 Levoglucosan

Levoglucosan (LG, LEV, Leucoglucosan, Glucosan, 1,6-anhydro-b-D-Glucose) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3324 Sodium 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)acetate

Sodium 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)acetate (3-Indoleacetic acid sodium, Indole-3-acetic acid sodium, 3-IAA sodium) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3326 Phytic acid dipotassium salt

Phytic acid dipotassium salt (Phytic acid potassium, IP6 (PS)), an endogenous metabolite in rice grain extract and digest, inhibits β-secretase 1 (BACE1) with IC50 of approximately 0.25 μM.

S3331 2-Aminoethylphosphonic acid

2-Aminoethylphosphonic acid (2-AEP, (2-Aminoethyl)phosphonic acid) is a type of abundant and ubiquitous naturally occurring phosphonate used as sources of phosphorus by many prokaryotic lineages.

S3335 Phospho(enol)pyruvic acid monopotassium salt

Phospho(enol)pyruvic acid monopotassium salt (Potassium 1-carboxyvinyl hydrogenphosphate) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3343 Methyl β-D-Galactopyranoside

Methyl β-D-Galactopyranoside (Methyl beta-D-galactoside, Methylgalactoside) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3370 3-Methoxytyramine hydrochloride

3-Methoxytyramine (3-O-methyl Dopamine, 3MT) hydrochloride, a major extracellular metabolite of dopamine, is a neuromodulator that in certain situations may be involved in movement control.

S3310 D-(+)-Galacturonic acid monohydrate

D-(+)-Galacturonic acid monohydrate (D-Galacturonic acid hydrate, d-GalA, D-galUA) is an endogenous metabolite that can be used in engineering Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

S3323 2-Hydroxycaproic acid

2-Hydroxyhexanoic acid (2-Hydroxyhexanoic acid) is an endogenous metabolite.

S2997 DL-Tartaric acid

DL-Tartaric Acid (2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid) is a white, crystalline organic acid isolated from many plants, particularly tamarinds and grapes and is used as an antioxidant and an additive agent to give a sour taste.

S3087 N-Acetyl-DL-methionine

N-Acetyl-DL-methionine is an active endogenous metabolite that decreases the hepatic glutathione level in male Bom:NMRI mice.

S3092 Glyoxylic acid monohydrate

Glyoxylic acid monohydrate (2,2-Dihydroxyacetic acid) is an atmospherically relevant ketoacid.

S3093 Pyrazole

Pyrazole (1H-pyrazole) is a five membered heteroaromatic ring with two nitrogen atoms is of immense significance. Pyrazole is an indispensable anchor for design and development of new pharmacological agents.

S3094 N-Acetyl-L-alanine

N-Acetyl-L-alanine (NAAL, Ac-Ala-OH) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3157 3-Hydroxybenzaldehyde

3-Hydroxybenzaldehyde (3-HBA), one of the benzaldehydes commonly found in nature, is produced by 3-hydroxybenzyl-alcohol dehydrogenase, and is a substrate of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in rats and humans (ALDH2). 3-Hydroxybenzaldehyde exhibits vasculoprotective effects.

S3315 6-Hydroxyindole

6-Hydroxyindole (1H-indol-6-ol) is an endogenous potent and long-lasting OATP1B1 inhibitor with IC50 of ~10 μM.

S3334 Glycolaldehyde dimer

Glycolaldehyde dimer (2,5-Dihydroxy-1,4-dioxane, 1,4-Dioxane-2,5-diol, DD) is an active endogenous metabolite that appears moderate absorbent and fluorescent, when it reacts with glycine (Gly)/ammonium sulfate (AS).

S3336 Heptadecanoic acid

Heptadecanoic acid (C17:0), an odd chain saturated fatty acid, significantly inhibits cell proliferation, and migration, while promoting apoptosis in PC‑9 and PC‑9/GR cells. Heptadecanoic acid is associated with several diseases, including the incidence of coronary heart disease, prediabetes and type 2 diabetes as well as multiple sclerosis.

S3337 L-Histidinol dihydrochloride

L-Histidinol dihydrochloride, a structural analogue of the essential amino acid L-histidine, is a reversible inhibitor of protein biosynthesis which evokes disparate responses from non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic cells in culture.

S3338 D-(-)-Lyxose

D-(-)-Lyxose (D-Lyxose) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3345 Nα-Acetyl-L-lysine

Nα-Acetyl-L-lysine (Ac-Lys-OH, N(alpha)-Acetyllysine) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3347 3-Methylglutaric acid

3-Methylglutaric acid (MGA, 3MG acid) is a conspicuous C6 dicarboxylic organic acid that can be used as a single solid-state NMR standard compound to perform all calibration steps except for magnet shimming.

S3348 O-Acetyl-L-serine hydrochloride

O-Acetyl-L-serine (OAS, O-Acetylserine, O-Acetyl-L-serine) hydrochloride (HCl) is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the amino acid cysteine in bacteria and plants that displays a signalling function leading to changes in transcript levels of a specific gene set irrespective of the sulfur status of the plant.

S3358 4-Acetamidobutyric acid

4-Acetamidobutanoic acid (N-acetyl GABA) is a derivative of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) resulting from the monoacetylation of the nitrogen of GABA.

S3360 Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate

Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (Dioctyl phthalate, DOP, Diplast O, ESBO-D 82, Ergoplast FDO, Ergoplast FDO-S, Etalon) induces DNA strand breaks and gene expression alterations in larval zebrafish Danio rerio.

S3095 Itaconic acid

Itaconic acid, a macrophage-specific (Mϕ-specific) metabolite, mediates crosstalk between macrophage metabolism and peritoneal tumors. Itaconic acid is also a precursor of polymers, chemicals, and fuels that can be synthesized by many fungi.

S3096 L-Histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate

L-Histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate (L-Histidine hydrochloride hydrate, H-His-OH.HCl.H2O), a structural analogue of the essential amino acid L-histidine, is a reversible inhibitor of protein biosynthesis which evokes disparate responses from non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic cells in culture.

S3098 N-Acetylglycine

N-Acetylglycine (NAGly, Aceturic acid, Acetamidoacetic acid), a minor constituent of numerous foods, is not genotoxic or acutely toxic.

S3097 5,6-Dimethylbenzimidazole

5,6-Dimethylbenzimidazole (5,6-DMB, Dimezol, Dimedazol, 5,6-Dimethyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole, 5,6-Dimethyl-1H-benzimidazole) is a vitamin B12 precursor.

S3107 D-Pyroglutamic acid

D-Pyroglutamic acid (D-5-Oxoproline, D-Pyr-OH, 5-oxo-D-proline, (R)-5-Oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid) is an active endogenous metabolite that antagonizes the disruption of passive avoidance behaviour induced by the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist AP-5.

S3109 N-Acetyl-L-leucine

N-acetyl-L-leucine is an active endogenous metabolite that accelerates vestibular compensation after unilateral labyrinthectomy by action in the cerebellum and thalamus.

S3111 Pyridoxal hydrochloride

Pyridoxal hydrochloride (HQ) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3365 (S)-(-)-1-Phenylethanol

(S)-(-)-1-Phenylethanol ((S)-1-Phenylethanol, (S)-(-)-Phenylethanol) is an enantiomer of 1-Phenylethanol with flavor properties.

S3366 Monoethyl malonic acid

Monoethyl malonic acid (Ethyl hydrogen malonate, Monoethyl malonate, 3-Ethoxy-3-oxopropanoic acid) is the major urinary metabolites of ethyl 3-ethoxypropionate (EEP).

S3320 (R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid

(R)-3-Hydroxybutanoic acid (R-3HB, D-3-hydroxybutyric acid) is a monomer of PHB (poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]) with wide industrial and medical applications. (R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid can also serve as chiral precursor for synthesis of pure biodegradable PHB and its copolyesters.

S3049 Calcium 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoate

Calcium 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoate is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3135 2-Amino-1-phenylethanol

2-Amino-1-phenylethanol (2-APE) is a noradrenaline analogue.

S3221 Thymidine 5'-monophosphate disodium salt

Thymidine-5'-monophosphate (5'-Thymidylic acid) disodium salt is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3311 Myosmine

Myosmine is not only one of the minor tobacco alkaloids but is also present in various foods. Myosmine has low affinity against a4b2 nicotinic acetylcholinergic receptors (nAChR) with Ki of 3300 nM.

S3321 N-Methylnicotinamide

N-Methylnicotinamide (MNA, Nicotinyl Methylamide, N-Methyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide) is an active endogenous metabolite that improves endothelial dysfunction and attenuates atherogenesis via the modulation of ADMA-DDAH axis.

S3325 L-Cysteic acid monohydrate

L-Cysteic acid monohydrate (CAM) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3329 (L)-Dehydroascorbic acid

(L)-Dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) is an oxidized form of l-Ascorbic acid (AsA) that efficiently scavenges non-thermal plasma-induced hydroxyl radicals in the presence of thiols and fails to scavenge hydroxyl radicals by itself.

S3342 Petroselinic acid

Petroselinic acid (PSA) is a positional isomer of oleic acid isolated from the vegetable oil of Coriandrum sativum fruits. Petroselinic acid can be used for the fermentation of new sophorolipids.

S3344 Serotonin creatinine sulfate monohydrate

Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine) creatinine sulfate monohydrate is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3346 1-Methylnicotinamide chloride

1-Methylnicotinamide (1-MNA, 3-Carbamoyl-1-methylpyridin-1-ium, Trigonellamide) chloride is an active endogenous metabolite of nicotinamide that exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic activities. 1-Methylnicotinamide enhances tumor vasculature formation and markedly increases prostacyclin (PGI2) generation.

S3349 Phosphocholine chloride calcium salt tetrahydrate

Phosphocholine (Phosphorylcholine) chloride calcium salt tetrahydrate is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3350 Cholesteryl linoleate

Cholesteryl linoleate is less polar lipid in human nasal fluid that contributes to the inherent antibacterial activity.

S3352 Tricosanoic acid

Tricosanoic acid is an aliphatic carboxylic acid that exhibits a strong hair-growing effect.

S3353 Lithium acetoacetate Lithium acetoacetate (LiAcAc, Acetoacetic acid lithium salt, Lithium 3-oxobutanoate) is an active endogenous metabolite that affects the growth of cells. Lithium acetoacetate can be used as an acetoacetate standard for the measurement of acetoacetate in biological samples.
S3354 DL-2,3-Diaminopropionic acid monohydrochloride

DL-2,3-Diaminopropionic acid monohydrochloride (2,3-Diaminopropanoic acid hydrochloride) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3355 3-Hydroxyanthranilic acid

3-Hydroxyanthranilic Acid (3-HAA, 3-HANA), a tryptophan metabolite, has an immunomodulatory effect that may result from inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and NF-κB activity, thereby decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators.

S3356 Phosphonoacetic acid

Phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) is an active endogenous metabolite that possesses a restricted potential to block DNA biosynthesis. Phosphonoacetic acid exhibits anti-viral activities.

S3357 Elaidic acid

Elaidic acid is a major trans fatty acid that inhibits cell viability, elevates cell apoptosis by enhancing oxidative stress. Elaidic acid can be used as a pharmaceutical solvent.

S3359 Isomaltulose hydrate

Isomaltulose (Palatinose) hydrate is a disaccharide carbohydrate widely used during exercise to maintain glycaemia and hydration.

S3361 (3-Carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride

(3-Carboxypropyl)trimethylammonium chloride (γ-Butyrobetaine, γBB hydrochloride) is an intermediary metabolite by gut microbes from dietary L-carnitine in mice.

S3362 D-Gulonic acid γ-lactone D-Gulonic acid γ-lactone (Gulonolactone, D-Gulono-1,4-lactone, 1,4-D-Gulonolactone) is an active endogenous metabolite.
S3363 DL-Mandelic acid

DL-Mandelic acid (MA, 2-Hydroxy-2-phenylacetic acid, Amygdalic acid, Almond acid) can be intercalated into Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) by an anion-exchange reaction to build a novel antimicrobial layered material.

S3367 cis-4-Hydroxy-D-proline

cis-4-Hydroxy-D-proline (H-D-cis-Hyp-OH) is an endogenous metabolite that can be used to study the specificity and kinetics of D-alanine dehydrogenase.

S3368 Uridine-5'-diphosphate disodium salt

Uridine-5'-diphosphate (UDP) disodium salt is a potent, selective and natural agonist of P2Y6 receptor with EC50 = 300 nM and pEC50 of 6.52, respectively. Uridine-5'-diphosphate (UDP) disodium salt is also an antagonist of P2Y14 receptor with pEC50 of 7.28.

S3371 N-Acetyl-D-mannosamine

N-Acetyl-D-mannosamine (ManNAc, N-acetyl-beta-mannosamine), a precursor of a sialic acid, improves the age-dependent attenuation of synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). N-Acetyl-D-mannosamine treatment is a potential therapeutic application for cognitive dysfunction.

S3088 (±)-Methyl Jasmonate

(±)-Methyl Jasmonate (MeJA, Methyl jasmonate, Methyl 2-(3-oxo-2-(pent-2-en-1-yl)cyclopentyl)acetate), a phytohormone that acts as a vital cell regulator in plants, is a new candidate for the treatment of Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), modulating the expression of the major classes of caspase-type protease families.

S3169 2'-Deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate disodium salt

2'-Deoxyuridine 5'-monophosphate disodium salt (dUMP) is a substrate for thymidylate synthase and is converted to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP). The inhibition of dUMP to dTMP at the methylation step is a key in controlling bacterial and eukaryotic cell growth.

S3322 Nicotinuric acid

Nicotinuric acid (NUA) is the major detoxification product of nicotinic acid and may serve as a simple quantitative index of hepatic biotransformation of nicotinic acid.

S3332 D-Mannosamine hydrochloride

D-Mannosamine hydrochloride ((2S,3R,4S,5R)-2-Amino-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxyhexanal hydrochloride) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3364 3-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid

3-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPAA) is a phenolic acid mostly found in olive oil wastewater and an intestinal metabolite of the dietary flavonoid quercetin. 3-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid exhibits antimicrobial properties.

S3040 Isocitric acid trisodium salt

Isocitric acid (DL-Isocitric acid) trisodium salt is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3089 12-Hydroxydodecanoic acid

12-Hydroxydodecanoic acid (G12) is an active endogenous metabolite.

S3341 Palmitoleic acid

Palmitoleic acid (POA, Palmitoleate) stimulates the uptake of glucose in liver through activation of AMPK and FGF-21, dependent on PPARα.

S2989 Nα-Acetyl-L-asparagine

Nα-Acetyl-L-asparagine (N-Acetylasparagine, (S)-2-acetamido-4-amino-4-oxobutanoic acid) is an endogenous metabolite that exists in human brain.

S2991 Thiamine monophosphate chloride dihydrate

Thiamine monophosphate chloride dihydrate (Vitamin B1 Monophosphate Chloride, Sineurina, Phosphothiamine) is an endogenous metabolite.

S2992 Sodium mesoxalate monohydrate

Sodium mesoxalate monohydrate (sodium 2,2-dihydroxymalonate) is an endogenous metabolite.

S2993 D-Saccharic acid potassium salt

D-Saccharic acid potassium salt (D-Glucaric acid potassium, Potassium bisaccharate) is an endogenous metabolite.

S2999 Acetic acid octyl ester

Acetic acid octyl ester (Octyl acetate) is one of the major components of essential oils in the vittae, or oil tubes, of the wild parsnip (Pastinaca sativa). Acetic acid octyl ester exhibits antioxidant activity.

S3006 Methyl isoeugenol

Methyl isoeugenol (Methylisoeugenol) is an eugenol analogue isoeugenol isolated from Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma. Methyl isoeugenol is a highly attractive lure for Z. diversus and would be a valuable inclusion as an attractant in monitoring and male annihilation programs.

S3009 Menthone

Menthone is one of the main volatile components of the essential oil of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Menthone is used as antioxidant agent and has a good compensatory effect with significant reduction in DNA damages in sperm cells.

S3091 Methyl acetoacetate

Methyl acetylacetate (MAA, Acetoacetate methyl ester, Methyl 3-oxobutanoate, Methyl 3-oxobutyrate, Methyl acetoacetate, Methyl acetylacetate), an endogenous metabolite, is used as a chemical reagent used in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals.

S2998 Isophorone

Isophorone (IPHO), an α,β-unsaturated cyclic ketone, is a clear liquid with a camphor-like odor. Isophorone is used as a precursor to polymers.

S3313 Nudifloric Acid

Nudifloric acid (1-Methyl-6-oxo-1,6-dihydropyridine-3-carboxylic acid), isolated from Cordyceps bassiana, which is one of Cordyceps species with anti-oxidative, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenic, and anti-nociceptive activities.

S3317 cis-3-Hexenyl hexanoate

Cis-3-Hexenyl hexanoate ((Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate) is a kind of plant volatile that brings tropical and pulpy profile with citrus and green nuances to all kinds of fruit flavors.

S3327 Disodium 5'-inosinate monohydrate

Disodium 5'-inosinate monohydrate (Inosine 5'-monophosphate disodium salt hydrate) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3333 (2R,3R)-(-)-2,3-Butanediol

(2R,3R)-(-)-2,3-Butanediol ((2R,3R)-Butane-2,3-diol) is an endogenous metabolite.

S2990 Dihydroxyfumaric acid hydrate

Dihydroxyfumaric acid hydrate (DHF) is an endogenous metabolite. The diester derivative of dihydroxyfumaric acid hydrate (DHF) has been used exclusively as an electrophile in organic synthesis.

S2988 DL-5-Hydroxylysine hydrochloride

DL-5-Hydroxylysine hydrochloride, an endogenous metabolite, is a racemic mixture of D- and L- enantiomers of 5-hydroxylysine which may be used as potential target markers for radical-induced protein oxidation.

S2994 DL-Homocysteine

DL-Homocysteine is a weak neurotoxin that affects the production of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the brain. DL-Homocysteine inhibits the activity of both KYNA biosynthetic enzymes, kynurenine aminotransferases (KATs) I and II.

S3099 δ-Valerolactone

δ-Valerolactone (Tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one, 5-Valerolactone, oxan-2-one) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3328 N-Formyl-L-methionine

N-Formyl-L-methionine (For-Met-OH) is an endogenous metabolite.

S6955 Insulin (human) Insulin (human) (Insulin regular) is a polypeptide hormone that regulates the level of glucose. Insulin is commonly used to treat hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. Potency: 29 units/mg.
S2986 9-Methoxycanthin-6-one

9-Methoxycanthin-6-one is present in intact plant parts and in callus tissues of different explants with anti-tumour activity.

S3108 2,5-Dimethylpyrazine

2,5-Dimethylpyrazine (NSC 49139) is an endogenous metabolite.


L-DAB HBR (L-Dab Hydrobromide, L-2,4-Diaminobutyric acid hydrobromide) is an inhibitor of GABA (Gamma-aminobutyric acid) transaminase with IC50 of >500 μM. L-DAB HBR exhibits antitumor activity.

S3029 Malonic acid

Malonic acid (MOA), one of the major dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) in aerosols, has been identified experimentally and computationally to be a strong acid. Malonic acid (MOA) acts as a mediate bridge for the formation of pure SA-A-based clusters.

S3086 Maleic acid

Maleic acid inhibits glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) activity, thus enhances acid sensitivity of Listeria monocytogenes. Maleic acid affects the extracellular GABA levels.

S3090 trans-Aconitic acid

trans-Aconitic acid (TAA) is an abundant constituent in the leaves of Echinodorus grandiflorus, a medicinal plant used to treat rheumatoid arthritis in Brazil.

S3101 2-Deoxy-D-ribose

2-Deoxy-D-ribose (Thyminose, Deoxyribose) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3118 L-Homoserine

L-Homoserine (L-Hse) is an important biosynthetic intermediate of threonine, methionine and lysine.

S3123 3-Methyl-2-buten-1-ol

3-Methyl-2-buten-1-ol (Prenol, Prenyl alcohol, Dimethylallyl alcohol) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3143 Pyruvic acid

Pyruvic acid (Acetylformic acid) is an important organic chemical intermediate that plays a role in cardiomyocyte pathophysiology and therapy. Pyruvic acid markedly increases the level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) and reduces the level of Ca2+Mg2+-ATPase and Na+K+-ATPase.

S3084 Guanosine 5'-triphosphate trisodium salt

Guanosine 5'-triphosphate (5'-GTP, Guanosine triphosphate, H4GTP) trisodium salt is an enhancer of myogenic cell differentiation in a murine cells. Guanosine 5'-triphosphate trisodium salt up-regulates miRNA (specifically miR133a and miR133b) and myogenic regulator factor and induces human myogenic precursor cells to release exosomes stuffed with guanosine based molecules (mainly guanosine) in the extracellular milieu.

S3125 N-Formylglycine

N-Formylglycine (2-formamidoacetic acid, For-Gly-OH, FGly) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3126 Sodium 2-hydroxybutanoate

Sodium 2-hydroxybutanoate (Sodium 2-hydroxybutyrate, Sodium DL-2-hydroxybutyrate), converted from 2-Aminobutyric acid, is an intermediate metabolite.

S3127 2,4-Dihydroxypyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid

2,4-Dihydroxypyrimidine-5-carboxylic Acid (Uracil 5-carboxylic acid, Isoorotic acid, 5-Carboxyuracil) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3128 N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine

N-Acetyl-D-galactosamine (D-N-Acetylgalactosamine) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3131 L-(-)-Glucose

L-Glucose (L-(-)-Glucose) is an enantiomer of D-glucose. L-Glucose promotes food intake while cannot be used by cells as an energy source because it cannot be phosphorylated by hexokinase.

S3134 D-(-)-Tartaric acid

D-(-)-Tartaric acid is the unnatural isomer of Tartaric acid which is an important chiral chemical building block with broad industrial and scientific applications.

S3141 Maleimide Maleimide exhibits fluorescence quenching ability and can be used for the specific detection of thiol analytes as fluorogenic probes. Maleimide is also used for production of antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) which is used in cancer research.
S3142 Potassium sorbate

Potassium sorbate (Sorbic acid potassium) is a nonpoisonous food preservative isolated from Sorbus aucuparia. Potassium sorbate is an effective inhibitor of most molds and yeasts and some bacteria.

S3145 Pimelic acid

Pimelic acid (Heptanedioic acid, 1,5-Pentanedicarboxylic acid, 1,7-Heptanedioic acid) originating from fatty acid synthesis pathway is a bona fide precursor of biotin in B. subtilis.

S3152 Glutaric acid

Glutaric acid (GA) is an attractive C5 dicarboxylic acid with wide applications in the biochemical industry.

S3159 Citraconic acid

Citraconic acid (CA) is a kind of methyl-branched fatty acids that exists in wild soybean.

S3316 5-Hydroxy-1-tetralone

5-hydroxy-1-tetralone is a fluorescent labeling reagent for the determination of glycosphingolipid from small amounts of biological samples.

S3330 Maleamic acid

Maleamic acid ((Z)-4-Amino-4-oxobut-2-enoic acid) is an endogenous metabolite.

S3339 3-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid

3-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid (Melilotic acid, Melilotate, 2-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acid) is an endogenous metabolite.

S2987 4-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid 4-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid (Ketoleucine, 4-MOV, KIC, 4-Methyl-2-oxopentanoic acid, alpha-Ketoisocaproic acid, alpha-ketoisocaproate, 2-Oxoisohexanoate) is released by Astrocytes to neurons and can be reaminated by aminotransferase to leucine. 4-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid reduces the rate of protein degradation in skeletal muscle. 4-Methyl-2-oxovaleric acid acts as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and as a metabolic inhibitor possibly through its inhibitory effect on alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, OGDC) activity.
S3266 L-Anserine nitrate salt

L-Anserine nitrate salt, a dipeptide found in most animal tissues, exhibits antioxidant properties, anti-crosslinking, and anti-glycation activities. L-Anserine protects against neurotoxicity induced by ER-stress inducers.

S1273 Amarogentin

Amarogentin (AG), a secoiridoid glycoside mainly extracted from Swertia and Gentiana roots, exhibits anti-oxidative, anti-tumour, and anti-diabetic activities. Amarogentin is an agonist for the bitter taste receptor TAS2R1 and inhibits in LAD-2 cells substance P-induced production of newly synthesized TNF-α. Amarogentin induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells (SNU-16) through G2/M cell cycle arrest and PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. Amarogentin (AG) interacts with the α2 subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and activates the trimeric kinase with EC50 of 277 pM.

S0923 Isoliquiritin apioside Isoliquiritin apioside (ISLA, ILA), a component isolated from Glycyrrhizae radix rhizome (GR), significantly decreases PMA-induced increases in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities and suppresses PMA-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB. Isoliquiritin apioside possesses anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic abilities in malignant cancer cells and ECs, with no cytotoxicity.
S2869 Adamantane

Adamantane is a colorless, crystalline chemical compound first isolated from petroleum with a camphor-like odor. Adamantane is used to treat influenza A virus infections.

S9690 Caerulein (FI-6934) Caerulein (Ceruletide, Cerulein, FI-6934), a cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor agonist, is a safe and effective cholecystokinetic agent and small bowel and exocrine pancreatic stimulant.
S6924 D-Luciferin sodium salt D-Luciferin (D-(-)-Luciferin, Firefly luciferin) sodium salt is the natural substrate of luciferases that catalyze the production of light in bioluminescent insects.
S3290 Procyanidin B2 Procyanidin B2 (PCB2), a natural flavonoid found in commonly consumed foods, possess anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer activities. Procyanidin B2 activates PPARγ to induce M2 polarization in mouse macrophages. Procyanidin B2 significantly suppresses the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in the lung tissue induced by paraquat in the rat model.
S9700 Tapinarof Tapinarof (GSK2894512, Benvitimod, WBI 1001, DHPS, DMVT 505) is a natural agonist of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and induces nuclear translocation of AhR in immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) with EC50 of 0.16 nM. Tapinarof induces cellular apoptosis in CD4+ T cells in a dosedependent manner with IC50 of 5.2 μM.
S6919 Brevilin A Brevilin A (6-O-Angeloylplenolina), a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Centipeda minima, is a selective inhibitor of STAT3 and attenuates the JAKs activity by blocking the JAKs tyrosine kinase domain JH1. Brevilin A induces apoptosis and autophagy of colon adenocarcinoma cell CT26 via mitochondrial pathway and PI3K/AKT/mTOR inactivation.
S0924 Pteryxin Pteryxin ((+)-Pteryxin), a dihydropyranocoumarin derivative found in Apiaceae family, is a potent inhibitor of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with IC50 of 12.96 μg/ml. Pteryxin inhibits LPS-induced nitric oxide production in mouse peritoneal macrophages with IC50 of 20 µM. Pteryxin is potential for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment.
S0973 Wilforgine Wilforgine, one of the major bioactive sesquiterpene alkaloids in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F., induces microstructural and ultrastructural changes in the muscles of M. separata larvae, and the sites of action are proposed to be calcium receptors or channels in the muscular system.
S3254 Plantagoside Plantagoside, a flavanone glucoside isolated from the seeds of Plantago asiatica, is a specific and non-competitive alpha-mannosidase inhibitor with IC50 of 5 μM.
S3253 Xylobiose Xylobiose (1,4-β-D-Xylobiose, 1,4-D-Xylobiose), a disaccharide of xylose monomers, is a natural substrate that can be hydrolysed by Beta-D-Xylosidase/alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Selenomonas ruminantium (SXA).
S3252 Xylotriose Xylotriose (1,4-b-D-Xylotriose, 1,4-beta-D-xylotriose) is a natural xylooligosaccharide substrate that can be hydrolysed by catalytically efficient beta-D-xylosidase from Selenomonas ruminantium (SXA).
S3222 Raspberry ketone glucoside Raspberry ketone glucoside (RKG), a natural product in raspberry fruit, is an antioxidant that has the inhibitory effect on the melanin synthesis.
S3223 L-Quebrachitol L-Quebrachitol (L-QCT), a natural product isolated from many plants, promotes proliferation and cell DNA synthesis. L-Quebrachitol upregulates bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) and regulatory genes associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, while down-regulating the receptor activator of the nuclear factor-κB(NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) mRNA level.
S3226 Dehydroabietic acid Dehydroabietic acid (DAA, DHAA), a naturally occurring diterpene resin acid derived from coniferous plants such as Pinus and Picea, displays anti-inflammatory activity via suppression of Src-, Syk-, and TAK1-mediated pathways.
S3278 Kaempferol-3-O-neohesperidoside Kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside (Kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside), a flavonoid isolated from the leaf extract of Primula latifolia Lapeyr. and Primula vulgaris Hudson, stimulates glycogen synthesis in rat soleus muscle via PI3K - GSK-3 pathway and MAPK - PP1 pathway.
S3289 Daphnoretin Daphnoretin (Dephnoretin, Thymelol), a biologically active compound isolated from Wikstroemia indica C.A. Mey., is a protein kinase C (PKC) activator. Daphnoretin inhibits the proliferation, invasion, and migration of tumor cells and promote its apoptosis by regulating the activity of Akt signal pathway.
S3295 Taxifolin 7-rhamnoside Taxifolin 7-rhamnoside (TR, Taxifolin 7-O-rhamnoside, Taxifolin 7-O-α-L-rhamnoside), a flavonoid isolated from Hypericum japonicum, shows antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
S3224 Cinobufagin Cinobufagin (Cinobufagine), an active ingredient of Venenum Bufonis, inhibits tumor development. Cinobufagin increases ATM and Chk2 and decreases CDC25C, CDK1, and cyclin B. Cinobufagin inhibits PI3K, AKT and Bcl-2 while increases levels of cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3. Thus, Cinobufagin induces cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and apoptosis.
S3230 L-Fucitol L-Fucitol (1-Deoxy-D-galactitol), a galactitol analogue isolated from Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg), inhibits galactitol-positive strains of Escherichia coli K12.
S3233 Emetine hydrochloride Emetine hydrochloride (NSC 33669), a principal alkaloid extracted from the root of ipecac clinically used as an emetic and antiprotozoal drug, reduces HIFs (hypoxia-inducible factors; HIF-1α and HIF-2α), PDK1, RhoA, Rho-kinases (ROCK1 and ROCK2) and BRD4. Emetine hydrochloride inhibits cellular autophagy and has anti-malarial, anti-viral, anti-bacterial and anti-amoebic effect.
S3236 Mesaconitine Mesaconitine, one of the aconite alkaloids in Aconiti tuber, increases the [Ca2+]i level in endothelial cells by influx of Ca2+ from extracellular spaces.
S3238 Resibufogenin Resibufogenin (Bufogenin, Recibufogenin), a component of huachansu with anticancer effect, triggers necroptosis through upregulating receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) and phosphorylating mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein at Ser358. Resibufogenin exerts cytotoxic effect by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Resibufogenin induces apoptosis and caspase-3 and caspase-8 activity. Resibufogenin increases Bax/Bcl-2 expression, and suppresses cyclin D1, cyclin E, PI3K, p-AKT, p-GSK3β and β-catenin protein expression.
S3245 Nodakenetin Nodakenetin (NANI), a plant-derived coumarin isolated from Angelica decursiva, inhibits α-glucosidase, PTP1B, rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), AChE, BChE, and β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). Nodakenetin alters the protein expression of Bax and Bcl-2, and prompts mitochondrial apoptosis. Nodakenetin exhibits anti-tumor activity.
S3251 Goitrin Goitrin (DL-Goitrin, (R, S)-Goitrin, R,S-goitrin) is one of the main constituent of Radix isatidis (Banlangen) which is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine for treating fever and removing toxic heat. Goitrin exhibits antiviral and antiendotoxin activity.
S3262 Scopolin Scopolin, a coumarin isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), attenuates hepatic steatosis through activation of SIRT1-mediated signaling cascades, a potent regulator of lipid homeostasis.
S3267 Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside Kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (Nicotiflorin, Nikotoflorin, Kaempferol 3-O-β-rutinoside), a flavonoid extracted from Carthamus tinctorius, alters the shape and structure of injured neurons, decreases the number of apoptotic cells, down-regulates expression of p-JAK2, p-STAT3, caspase-3, and Bax and decreases Bax immunoredactivity, and increases Bcl-2 protein expression and immunoreactivity.
S3271 Caudatin Caudatin (Cauldatin), one species of C‑21 steroidal from Cynanchum auriculatum (C. auriculatum), effectively inhibits human glioma growth in vitro and in vivo through triggering cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
S3273 Hypericin Hypericin (Hyp, HY) is a naturally occurring substance found in the common St. John's Wort (Hypericum species) with antidepressive, antineoplastic and antiviral (human immunodeficiency and hepatitis C virus) activities. Hypericin has inhibitory effects on MAO (monoaminoxidase), PKC (protein kinase C), dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, reverse transcriptase, telomerase and CYP (cytochrome P450).
S3291 Myristicin Myristicin (Myristicine), a terpene-like active component in Nutmeg which is the seed of Myristica fragrans, is a weak inhibitor of monamine oxidase (MAO) and a mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP1A2.
S3296 Hispidulin Hispidulin (Dinatin), an active natrual ingredient in a number of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, exhibits inhibitory activity against the oncogenic protein kinase Pim-1 with IC50 of 2.71 μM. Hispidulin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of P13k/Akt signalling pathway in HepG2 cancer cells. Hispidulin exerts anti-osteoporotic and bone resorption attenuating effects via activating the AMPK signaling pathway.
S3300 Desoxyrhaponticin Desoxyrhaponticin (DC, DES), a stilbene glycoside from Rheum tanguticum Maxim. ex Balf. (rhubarb) which is a traditional Chinese nutritional food, is a fatty acid synthase (FAS/FASN) inhibitor. Desoxyrhaponticin (DC, DES) is also a competitive inhibitor of glucose uptake with IC50 of 148.3 μM and 30.9 μM in rabbit intestinal membrane vesicles and in rat everted gut sleeves, respectively. Desoxyrhaponticin has apoptotic effect on human cancer cells.
S3301 Cynarin Cynarin (Cynarine) is an artichoke phytochemical that possesses a variety of pharmacological features including free-radical scavenging, antioxidant, antihistamic and antiviral activities. Cynarin blocks the interaction between the CD28 of T-cell receptor and CD80 of antigen presenting cells. Cynarin triggers Nrf2 nuclear translocation, restores the balance of glutathione (GSH) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inhibits mitochondrial depolarization.
S3305 Medicagenic acid Medicagenic acid (Castanogenin), a bioactive triterpenoid pentacyclic glycoside isolated from Herniaria glabra L., has low xanthine oxidase, collagenase, elastase, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity.
S3240 Phaseoloidin Phaseoloidin, a homogentisic acid glucoside from Nicotiana attenuata trichomes, contributes to the plant's resistance against lepidopteran herbivores. Phaseoloidin has anti-complement effects.
S3242 Loureirin B Loureirin B (LB, LrB), a flavonoid extracted from Dracaena cochinchinensis, is an inhibitor of PAI-1 with IC50 of 26.10 μM. Loureirin B downregulates p-ERK and p-JNK in TGF-β1-stimulated fibroblasts. Loureirin B promotes insulin secretion mainly through increasing Pdx-1, MafA, intracellular ATP level, inhibiting the KATP current, influx of Ca2+ to the intracellular.
S3246 Picfeltarraenin IB Picfeltarraenin IB, a cucurbitacin glycoside isolated from Picriafel-terrae, is an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Picfeltarraenin IB can be used for the treatment of herpes infections, cancer and inflammation.
S3260 3'-hydroxy Puerarin 3'-hydroxy Puerarin is an isoflavone isolated from Puerariae Lobatae Radix.
S3264 Atractyloside potassium salt Atractyloside potassium salt (ATR potassium salt), a toxic diterpenoid glycoside isolated from the fruits of Xanthium sibiricum (Cang'erzi), is a powerful and specific inhibitor of mitochondrial ADP/ATP carriers. Atractyloside potassium salt inhibits chloride channels from mitochondrial membranes of rat heart.
S3269 Acetylcorynoline Acetylcorynoline, a major alkaloid component derived from Corydalis bungeana which is a traditional Chinese medical herb, shows anti-inflammatory properties. Acetylcorynoline may decrease egl-1 expression to suppress apoptosis pathways and increase rpn5 expression to enhance the activity of proteasomes.
S3270 Genipin 1-O-beta-D-gentiobioside Genipin 1-O-beta-D-gentiobioside (GG, Genipin 1-β-D-gentiobioside, Genipin 1-gentiobioside, Genipin 1-β-gentiobioside, Genipin gentiobioside) is a bioactive iridoid glycoside isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Zhizi in Chinese) that exhibits hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antithrombotic activities.
S3275 Senkyunolide I Senkyunolide I (SEI, SENI) is an orally active compound isolated from Ligusticum chuanxiong with analgesic, anti-migraine, neuroprotective, anti-oxidation and anti-apoptosis activities. Senkyunolide I (SEI, SENI) up-regulates the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and induces Nrf2 nuclear translocation with enhanced HO-1 and NQO1 expressions. Senkyunolide I (SEI, SENI) promotes the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax and inhibits the expressions of cleaved caspase 3 and caspase 9.
S3297 Hosenkoside A Hosenkoside A is a bioactive baccharane glycoside isolated from the seeds of impatiens balsamina.
S3303 Cyperotundone Cyperotundone (CYT) is an active constituent in Chuanxiong Rhizoma and Cyperi Rhizoma (CRCR) for treating migraine.
S3307 Galangin 3-methyl ether Galangin 3-methyl ether (3-O-Methylgalangin, 3-Methylgalangin), isolated from Lychnophora markgravii aerial parts, shows strong antibacterial and antifungal effects.
S3308 Caftaric acid Caftaric acid (CA, Caffeoyl tartaric acid) is a natural product that shows anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
S3276 Hosenkoside K Hosenkoside K is a bioactive baccharane glycoside isolated from the seeds of impatiens balsamina.
S6906 Capric acid Capric acid (DA, Decanoic acid, Decylic acid), a component of medium-chain triclycerides occurring naturally in coconut oil and palm kernel oil, contributes to seizure control through direct AMPA receptor inhibition. Capric acid is also a modulating ligand for PPARs. Due to its specific melting range the product may be solid, liquid, a solidified melt or a supercooled melt.
S6899 Licochalcone D Licochalcone D (Lico D, LCD, LD), a flavonoid isolated from a Chinese medicinal plant Glycyrrhiza inflata, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Licochalcone D inhibit phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 in LPS signaling pathway. Licochalcone D inhibits JAK2, EGFR and Met (c-Met) activities and induces ROS-dependent apoptosis. Licochalcone D also induces caspases activation and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage.
S3265 9''-Methyl salvianolate B 9''-Methyl salvianolate B (9'-methyllithospermate B, 9'-Methyl lithospermate B, 9'''-Methyl salvianolate B) is an active constituent in ethanol extract of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae.
S6885 Ailanthone Ailanthone (AIL, Δ13-Dehydrochaparrinone), a natural anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) component in Ailanthus altissima, induces G0/G1-phase cell cycle arrest by decreasing expression of cyclins and CDKs and increases expression of p21 and p27. Ailanthone triggers DNA damage characterized by activation of the ATM/ATR pathway. Ailanthone induces apoptosis which is mitochondrion-mediated and involves the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in Huh7 cells. Ailanthone is also a potent inhibitor of both full-length Androgen Receptor (AR-FL) and constitutively active truncated AR splice variants (AR-Vs, AR1-651) with IC50 of 69 nM and 309 nM, respectively.
S0917 Allosecurinin Allosecurinine (Phyllochrysine) is a Securinega alkaloid isolated from M.indica and M.discoidea with antifungal activity.
S0906 6-Methoxydihydroavicine 6-Methoxydihydroavicine (6-Methoxy Dihydrosanguinarine) is an lkaloid isolated from the fruits of M.cordata.
S3288 Absinthin Absinthin (Absynthine) is a naturally produced triterpene lactone from Artemisia absinthium with anti-inflammatory properties. Absinthin significantly enhances the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and is a possible treatment candidate for Acute lung injury (ALI).
S3287 Rosamultin Rosamultin is a 19 α-hydroxyursane-type triterpenoid isolated from Potentilla anserina L. that inhibits HIV-1 protease. Rosamultin has protective effects on H2O2-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis.
S6340 Guanidinoacetic acid Guanidinoacetic acid (Guanidino acetic acid, GAA, Glycocyamine, Guanidinoacetate), the natural precursor of creatine, is under investigation as a dietary agent. Guanidinoacetic acid exhibits potential ergogenic benefits for physically active men and women.
S3220 Trigonelline Trigonelline (Trigenolline) is a plant alkaloid and a major component of coffee and fenugreek with anti-degranulation, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Trigonelline inhibits FcεRI-mediated intracellular signaling pathways, such as phosphorylation of PLCγ1, PI3K, and Akt. Trigonelline (Trigenolline) also inhibits the microtubule formation in RBL-2H3 cells.
S3235 Sinapine Sinapine is an alkaloid isolated from seeds of the cruciferous species with antioxidant, antitumor and radio-protective activities. Sinapine inhibits the proliferation of Caco-2 cells via downregulation of P-glycoprotein.
S3261 Myrislignan Myrislignan, a lignan isolated from Myristica fragrans Houtt, possesses anti-inflammatory activities. Myrislignan inhibits interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Myrislignan significantly inhibits the expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) dose-dependently in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. Myrislignan inhibits the NF-κB signalling pathway activation.
S3279 Polyphyllin B (Formosanin C) Polyphyllin B (Formosanin C, FC), a diosgenin saponin isolated from Paris formosana, is an immunomodulator with antitumor activity. Polyphyllin B (Formosanin C, FC) induces apoptosis.
S3280 Linderene Linderene (Lindenenol) is a furanosesquiterpenoid isolated from Lindera pulcherrima with antibacterial and antioxidant activities.
S3281 Quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucose-7-O-β-D-gentiobioside Quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucose-7-O-β-D-gentiobioside (Quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucose-7-O-β-D-gentiobiosiden, Quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucose-7-O-beta-D-gentiobioside) is an active constituent of Descurainiae Semen.
S3298 Caulophylline (N-Methylcytisine) Caulophylline (N-Methylcytisine, Caulophyllin, NMC) is a tricyclic quinolizidine alkaloid with anti-inflammatory activities. Caulophylline binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) from squid optical ganglia with Kd of 50 nM. Caulophylline significantly reduces myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, blocks the activation of NF-κB by inhibiting IκB and IKK phosphorylation.
S3302 β,β-dimethyl-acryl-alkannin β,β-dimethyl-acryl-alkannin (AN-I, β,β-Dimethylacrylalkannin) is a napthoquinone isolated from roots of Arnebia nobilis Reichb.f. that has the potential to be used as an anti-aging ingredient.
S3304 Stylopine Stylopine ((R,S)-Stylopine, Tetrahydrocoptisine) reduces nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and the IL-6 production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity caused by the LPS stimulation. Stylopine is a major component of the leaf of Chelidonium majus L.
S3306 1,1,1,1-Kestohexaose 1,1,1,1-Kestohexaose is a major DP 6 fructan in crested wheatgrass leaves.
S3205 Perillaldehyde Perillaldehyde (Perilladehyde, Perillal, PAE, PA), the main component of Perilla frutescens (a traditional medicinal antioxidant herb), inhibits BaP-induced AHR activation and ROS production, inhibits BaP/AHR-mediated release of the CCL2 chemokine, and activats the NRF2/HO1 antioxidant pathway.
S3227 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) is an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3As that markedly decreases the expression of CYP3A11 and CYP3A25 in the liver. 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) is also a potent Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP, ABCG2) inhibitor. 5,7-Dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) is one of the major components of Kaempferia parviflora with anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, and antineoplastic effects.
S3237 Deoxyaconitine 3-Deoxyaconitine is a diterpenoid alkaloid isolated from the root of Aconitum Carmichaeli Debx.
S3241 Loureirin A Loureirin A is a flavonoid extracted from the red resin of the herbs of Dracaena cochinchinensis, which is known as Dragon's Blood. Loureirin A inhibits platelet activation by an impairment of PI3K/Akt signaling. Loureirin A inhibits Akt phosphorylation.
S3247 Icariside I Icariside I (Icarisid I) is one of the main components in Epimedii Folium that significantly stimulates cell proliferation and osteoblasts differentiation.
S3249 Corypalmine Corypalmine ((R)-(+)-Corypalmine), an alkaloid isolated from Stephania cepharantha, is an inhibitor of prolyl endopeptidase/oligopeptidase (PREP/POP) with IC50 of 128.0 μM.
S3255 Pectolinarigenin Pectolinarigenin, an active anti-inflammatory ingredient in Cirsium chanroenicum, is a dual inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX).
S3256 Tectochrysin Tectochrysin (Techtochrysin, NSC 80687) is one of the major flavonoids of Alpinia oxyphylla Miquel. Tectochrysin significantly increases the expression of DR3, DR4 and Fas and inhibits activity of NF-κB. Tectochrysin induces apoptotic cell death.
S3257 Rebaudioside B Rebaudioside B (Reb B) is one of the minor steviol glycosides (SGs) isolated from Stevia rebaudiana and has a better taste quality than many of the major SGs.
S3259 Rebaudioside D Rebaudioside D (Reb D) is one of the several glycosides (SGs) found in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) which has been identified as a potential sweetener.
S3272 Steviol (Hydroxydehydrostevic acid) Steviol (Hydroxydehydrostevic acid, Hydroxy Dehydrostevic Acid, NSC 226902), a major metabolite of the sweetening compound stevioside, inhibits CFTR activity, reduces AQP2 expression and promotes AQP2 degradation.
S3274 Glucosyl-vitexin Glucosyl-vitexin (Glucosylvitexin), the major C-glycosylflavone present in millet, inhibits thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity.
S3282 Rebaudioside M Rebaudioside M, isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, is a natural non-caloric potential sweetener in food and beverage products.
S3283 Marmesin Marmesin (S-(+)-Marmesin, (+)-Marmesin, (S)-Marmesin) is a natural coumarin with COX-2 and 5-LOX dual inhibitory activity.
S3284 Tracheloside Tracheloside is a lignan glycoside isolated from seeds of Carthamus tinctorius with anti-estrogenic effects. Tracheloside significantly decreases the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) (an estrogen-inducible marker enzyme) with IC50 of 0.31 μg/ml. Tracheloside promotes keratinocyte proliferation through ERK1/2 stimulation.
S3285 Dihydrolycorine Dihydrolycorine is a derivative of lycorine, an alkaloid isolated from Lycoris radiata Herb. Dihydrolycorine blocks protein synthesis in ascites cells and stabilize HeLa cell polysomes in vivo. Dihydrolycorine exhibits antihypertensive and neuroprotective activities.
S3299 Demethyleneberberine Demethyleneberberine (DMB), a component of Cortex Phellodendri Chinensis (CPC), significantly alleviates the weight loss and diminishes myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, while significantly reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and inhibits the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Demethyleneberberine (DMB) potentially ameliorates NAFLD (Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) by activating AMPK pathways.
S0553 Butyl isobutyl phthalate  Butyl isobutyl phthalate (BIP), isolated from the rhizoid of Laminaria japonica, is a non-competitive inhibitor of α-glucosidase with IC50 of 38 μM. Butyl isobutyl phthalate displays a significant hypoglycemic effect and has the potential for diabetes treatment.
S3206 5a-Pregnane-3,20-dione 5a-Pregnane-3,20-dione (5alphaP, 5-a-dihydroprogesterone, 3,20-allopregnanedione, 5-Alpha-Dihydro Progesterone) is the endogenous progesterone metabolite. 5a-Pregnane-3,20-dione depolymerizes actin and decreases expression of actin and vinculin. 5a-Pregnane-3,20-dione is involved in promoting breast neoplasia and metastasis by affecting adhesion and cytoskeletal molecules.
S2440 Vindesine sulfate Vindesine sulfate (Eldesine, Eldisine, Desacetyl Vinblastine amide, Desacetylvinblastine amide, DAVA, DVA, VDS), a vinca alkaloid derived from Catharanthus roseus, is a potent inhibitor of mitosis with antineoplastic activities. Vindesine binds to the microtubular proteins of the mitotic spindle, leading to crystallization of the microtubule and mitotic arrest or cell death.
S0949 Cucurbitacin IIb Cucurbitacin IIb (CuIIb, Dihydrocucurbitacin F, 25-deacetyl hemslecin A) inhibits phosphorylation of STAT3, JNK and Erk1/2, enhances the phosphorylation of IκB and NF-κB, blocks nuclear translocation of NF-κB and decreases mRNA levels of IκBα and TNF-α. Cucurbitacin IIb exhibits anti-inflammatory activity and induces apoptosis. Cucurbitacin IIb is isolated from Hemsleya amabilis.
S6852 Gossypol Gossypol (BL 193) is an orally-active polyphenol isolated from cotton seeds and roots. Gossypol is a potent inhibitor of 5α-reductase 1 and 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with IC50 of 3.33 μM and 0.52 μM in cell-free assay, respectively. Gossypol also inhibits the binding of BH3 peptide to Bcl protein with IC50 of 0.4 μM and 10 μM for Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, respectively. Gossypol induces apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in various cancer cells.
S3210 3'-Hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone 3'-Hydroxy-4'-methoxyacetophenone (Acetoisovanillone, Isoacetovanillone, Diosmin EP Impurity A) is an active P. spinosa extract with anti-inflammatory potential.
S3213 Veratryl alcohol Veratryl alcohol (VA, Veratrole alcohol, 3,4-Dimethoxybenzyl alcohol), a secondary metabolite of some lignin degrading fungi, is the natural substrate of Lignin peroxidase (LiP).
S3214 Veratraldehyde (3,4-Dimethoxybenzaldehyde) Veratraldehyde (3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, VD, VAD, VAld, Verapamil Related Compound E, Methylvanillin), a derivative of vanillin, is the chemical that is found and isolated from peppermint, ginger, bourbon vanilla, and fruits such as raspberry. Veratraldehyde is widely used as a flavorant and odorant because of its pleasant woody fragrance. Veratraldehyde also acts as a redox cycle agent.
S3215 2-O-α-D-Glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid 2-O-α-D-Glucopyranosyl-l-ascorbic acid (AA-2G), which is a glucoside derivative of ascorbic acid (AA), shows vitamin C activity after enzymatic hydrolysis to ascorbic acid. The antitumor activity of AA-2G is caused by ROS generated by AA released by rapid hydrolysis of AA-2G.
S3203 D-Alanine D-alanine (Ala, (R)-Alanine, Ba 2776, D-α-Alanine, NSC 158286) is an endogenous co-agonist at the glycine site of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.
S3293 Gardenoside Gardenoside is a natural compound extracted from Gardenia fruits, with hepatoprotective properties. Gardenoside inhibits TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NFκB activation. Gardenoside also has an inhibitory effect on free fatty acids (FFA)-induced cellular steatosis. Gardenoside suppresses the pain in rats model of chronic constriction injury by regulating the P2X3 and P2X7 receptors.
S3292 Falcarindiol Falcarindiol (FAD, (3R,8S)-Falcarindiol, FaDOH) is a natural polyacetylene compound found rich in many plants of the Umbelliferae family. Falcarindiol suppresses LPS-stimulated expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Falcarindiol attenuates the LPS-induced activation of JNK, ERK, STAT1, and STAT3 signaling molecules.
S3263 Agarotetrol Agarotetrol is a chromone derivative found in high concentrations in the water-extract fraction of agarwood. Agarotetrol contributes to the fragrance of agarwood through the generation of LACs upon heating.
S3216 Uridine 5'-diphosphoglucose disodium salt Uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose (UDPG, UDP-Glc, UDP-D-Glucose, UDP-α-D-Glucose) activates the P2Y(14) receptor, a neuroimmune system GPCR. Uridine-5'-diphosphoglucose is the precursor of glucose-containing oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animal tissues and in some microorganisms.
S3250 Veratrine Veratridine (Cevadine, Cevadin, Cevadene), a steroidal alkaloid found in plants of the lily family, is a voltage-gated sodium channel activator. Veratridine induces anxiogenic-like behaviors in rats.
S7904 2',3'-cGAMP Sodium Salt 2',3'-cGAMP Sodium Salt (2'-3'-cyclic GMP-AMP Sodium) is produced in response to DNA in the cytoplasm in mammalian cells and binds STING with high affinity and is an effective inducer of interferon-β (IFNβ). 2',3'-cGAMP binds to STING with Kd of 3.79 nM.
S6630 Dimethylcurcumin (ASC-J9) Dimethylcurcumin (ASC-J9, Dimethyl curcumin, GO-Y025) is an androgen receptor (AR) degradation enhancer that suppresses castration-resistant prostate cancer growth through degradation of full-length and splice variant androgen receptors.
S2766 Glycerol Glycerol (Glycerin) is a clear, colourless and viscous liquid that can be used as emollient, solvent or sweetening agent. Glycerol changes the separation characteristics of polyacrylamide nucleoprotein gels.
S8587 Withaferin A Withaferin A (WA, WFA) potently inhibits NF-κB activation by preventing the tumor necrosis factor-induced activation of IκB kinase β via a thioalkylation-sensitive redox mechanism. Withaferin A binds to the intermediate filament (IF) protein, vimentin with antitumor and antiangiogenesis activity. Withaferin A is a steroidal lactone isolated from Withania somnifera.
S2653 9-amino-CPT (9-Aminocamptothecin) 9-amino-CPT (9-Aminocamptothecin, 9-AC, Aminocamptothecin, 9-amino-20(S)-camptothecin) is a Topoisomerase I inhibitor with potent anticancer activities. 9-amino-CPT (9-Aminocamptothecin) is an active, water-insoluble derivative of camptothecin.
S8620 6-Diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine 6-Diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (Diazooxonorleucine, L-6-Diazo-5-oxonorleucine, DON), an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces, is a glutaminase antagonist with IC50 of ~1  mM for cKGA (kidney-type glutaminase). 6-Diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine exhibits analgesic, antibacterial, antiviral and anticancer properties.
S2654 Neoruscogenin Neoruscogenin, a natural sapogenin isolated from R. rhizoma, is a potent and high-affinity agonist of RAR-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα or nuclear receptor NR1F1).
S8970 HQNO HQNO (2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide) is a natural quinolone secreted by P. aeruginosa. HQNO is a potent inhibitor of the electron transport chain with Kd of 64 nM for the ubiquinol-ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase segment (Complex III) of the respiratory chain. HQNO is also an inhibitor of bacterial and mitochondrialType II NADH : quinone oxidoreductase (NDH-2) with IC50 of 7.3 μM in the presence of 50μM menadione.
S7895 Thapsigargin Thapsigargin is a potent, non-competitive inhibitor of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) with IC50 of 0.353 nM or 0.448 nM for the carbachol-evoked [Ca2+]i-transients with or without a KCl-prestimulation. Thapsigargin induces cell apoptosis. Thapsigargin is extracted from a plant, Thapsia garganica.
S7905 3',3'-cGAMP 3',3'-cGAMP (3',3'-cyclic GMP-AMP, Cyclic GMP-AMP, cGAMP) activates the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident receptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING), thereby inducing an antiviral state and the secretion of type I IFNs.
S7821 Bufalin Bufalin (BF) is a potent inhibitor of steroid receptor coactivator SRC-3, SRC-1 and Na+/K+-ATPase. Bufalin binds to the subunit α1, α2 and α3 of Na+/K+-ATPase with Kd of 42.5 nM, 45 nM and 40 nM, respectively. Bufalin is a major digoxin-like immunoreactive component isolated from the Chinese medicine Chan Su with anti-cancer activity.
S7862 Rottlerin Rottlerin (Mallotoxin, NSC 56346, NSC 94525), a natural compound purified from Mallotus Philippinensis, is a specific Protein kinase inhibitor with IC50 of 3 μM, 6 μM and 5.3 μM for PKCδ(from baculovirus-infected Sf9 insect cells), PKCδ(from porcine spleen) and CaM kinase III, respectively. Rottlerin also inhibits PKCα, PKCγ, PKCβ, PKCη, CKII and PKA with IC50 of 30 μM, 40 μM, 42 μM, 82 μM, 30 μM and 78 μM, respectively.
S2447 Ansamitocin p-3 (Maytansinol isobutyrate, NSC292222) Ansamitocin p-3 (Maytansinol isobutyrate, NSC292222, Antibiotic C 15003P3) is a potent inhibitor of tubulin polymerization with IC50 of 3.4 μM.
S6790 Ellipticine hydrochloride Ellipticine Hydrochloride (NSC 71795, PZE) is a potent inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II and forms covalent DNA adducts mediated by its oxidation with cytochromes P450 (CYP) and peroxidases. Ellipticine Hydrochloride is a natural product isolated from the Australian evergreen tree of the Apocynaceae family with antineoplastic activity.
S8964 Actinomycin D (Dactinomycin) Actinomycin D (Dactinomycin, Act D, RASP-101) is a significant polypeptide antibiotic isolated from soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. Actinomycin D (Dactinomycin) inhibits DNA repair and rests the cell cycle at G1 phase with IC50 of 0.42 μM and 0.4 nM, respectively. Actinomycin D is an autophagy activator, induces p53-independent cell death and prolongs survival in high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
S2288 Rubitecan Rubitecan (9-NC, 9-Nitro-camptothecin, Partaject Orathecin, Partaject rubitecan, RFS 2000) is a topoisomerase I inhibitor extracted from the bark and leaves of the Camptotheca acuminata tree, which is native to China. Rubitecan is an oral camptothecin with antitumour activity.
S2009 Indirubin-3'-monoxime Indirubin-3'-monoxime (Indirubin-3'-oxime) is a selective CDK inhibitor with IC50 of 0.18 μM, 0.44 μM, 0.25 μM, 3.33 μM, 0.065 μM for CDK1-cyclinB, CDK2-cyclinA, CDK2-cyclinE, CDK4-cyclinD1, CDK5-p35,respectively. Indirubin-3'-monoxime is a direct and selective 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor with IC50 of 7.8-10 µM.
S1031 3-Hydroxybutyric acid 3-Hydroxybutyric acid (3-hydroxybutanoic acid, β-Hydroxybutyric acid, BHB) is a small molecule metabolite that is elevated in type I diabetes.
S2342 Phloretin (RJC 02792) Phloretin (RJC 02792, NSC 407292, Dihydronaringenin) is a dihydrochalcone found in apple tree leaves, which shows beneficial effects on diabetes.
S9440 Naringenin chalcone Naringenin chalcone (Chalconaringenin, Isosalipurpol, trans-2'4'6'4-tetrahydroxychalcone) is the main active component of tomato skin extract, has been proposed as an antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory, and a regulator of fat and sex hormone metabolism.
S2325 Morin Hydrate Morin hydrate (Aurantica) is a flavonoid isolated from Maclura pomifera (Osage orange), Maclura tinctoria (old fustic) and from leaves of Psidium guajava (common guava).
S6670 GPNA (L-γ-Glutamyl-p-nitroanilide) GPNA (L-γ-Glutamyl-p-nitroanilide) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the glutamine (Gln) transporter ASCT2(SLC1A5) with Ki of 55 µM.
S2210 Sphingosine Sphingosine (2-amino-4-trans-octadecene-1,3-diol, C18 Sphingosine) is an 18-carbon amino alcohol with an unsaturated hydrocarbon chain, which forms a primary part of sphingolipids, a class of cell membrane lipids that include sphingomyelin, an important phospholipid.
S6674 Cytosporone B Cytosporone B is a naturally occurring agonist for nuclear orphan receptor Nur77(NR4A1) with an EC50 of 0.278nM.
S6474 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2, NSC 90469) is an endogenous metabolite of thyroid hormones. 3,5-Diiodo-l-thyronine has been proposed as a potential hypolipidemic agent for treatment of obesity and hepatic steatosis.
S9218 Phytolaccagenin Phytolaccagenin, a triterpenoid saponin, is the active component of Radix Phtolaccae.
S6653 Nigericin (NSC 292567) sodium salt Nigericin (NSC 292567) sodium salt is an antibiotic derived from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that works by acting as an H+, K+, and Pb2+ ionophore.Nigericin can activate NLRP3 inflammasome to induce pro-inflammatory and immunostimulatory processes.
S3911 Veratramine Veratramine (NSC 17821, NSC 23880), a major alkaloid from Veratrum nigrum L., has distinct anti-tumor and anti-hypertension effects. It is a good membrane permeant, undergoes rapid passive diffusion, and has a good stability in the gastrointestinal tract during its absorption.
S9403 Ecliptasaponin A Ecliptasaponin A, a natural triterpenoid glucoside, has protective effects against the pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin via reducing the oxidative stress, lung tissue inflammation, and the subsequent epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
S3928 Baccatin Ⅲ Baccatin Ⅲ is a polycyclic diterpene which can be used for the semi-synthesis of paclitaxel and analogs. It exhibits immunomodulatory and anticancer chemotherapeutic activities.
S4938 Cedrol Cedrol, a natural occuring sesquiterpene alcohol, is a potent competitive inhibitor of CYP2B6-mediated bupropion hydroxylase with inhibition constant (Ki) value of 0.9 μM. It also inhibits CYP3A4-mediated midazolam hydroxylation with a Ki value of 3.4 μM while only weakly inhibits CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 activities.
S3942 Cardamonin Cardamonin (Alpinetin chalcone), isolated from the fruits of Alpinia species, is a chalconoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity. It has been shown to be a novel antagonist of hTRPA1 cation channel with IC50 of 454 nM while does not interact with TRPV1 nor TRPV4 channel.
S3756 Methyl salicylate Methyl salicylate (Betula oil, Gaultheria oil, Methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate, Natural wintergreen oil) is an organic ester naturally produced by many species of plants, particularly wintergreens. It is an agonist for TRPA1 and TRPV1.
S3763 Cinnamaldehyde Cinnamaldehyde is a flavonoid that is naturally synthesized by the shikimate pathway. Its supplementation can improve glucose and lipid homeostasis in diabetic animals; a TRPA1 agonist.
S3605 Borneol Borneol is a bicyclic monoterpenoid compound extracted from medicinal plants such as Blumea balsamifera, and Dryobalanops aromatica. It is a TRPM8 agonist that increases ocular surface wetness.
S4787 Methyl syringate Methyl syringate (Syringic Acid Methyl Ester), a plant phenolic compound, is a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist.
S3867 (E)-Cardamonin (E)-Cardamonin (Alpinetin chalcone, cardamomin) is a naturally occurring chalcone with strong anti-inflammatory activity. It is a novel TRPA1 antagonist with IC50 of 454 nM and also a NF-kB inhibitor.
S4714 (-)-Menthol (-)-Menthol is a levo isomer of menthol and used as a cooling agent that strongly activates TRPM8.
S2332 Neohesperidin Neohesperidin (NSC 31048), a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits, is an antioxidant agent.
S5755 Methyl Eugenol Methyl eugenol (4-allylveratrole, eugenyl methyl ether, O-methyleugenol), as a constituent in leaves, fruits, stems, and/or roots, is used as a flavoring agent, as a fragrance and as an anesthetic in rodents.
S2935 Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride is the chloride salt form of nicotinamide riboside(NR).NR is a new form pyridine-nucleoside of vitamin B3 that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) or NAD+ . Nicotinamide riboside chloride is a crystal form of Nicotinamide riboside (NR) chloride. Nicotinamide riboside chloride increases NAD[+] levels and activates SIRT1 and SIRT3, culminating in enhanced oxidative metabolism and protection against high fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. Nicotinamide riboside chloride is used in dietary supplements.
S3607 Sarsasapogenin Sarsasapogenin (SAR, Parigenin) is a steroidal sapogenin. It can provoke the generation of reactive oxygen species and activate unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways. SAR potently inhibits NF-κB and MAPK activation, as well as IRAK1, TAK1, and IκBα phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated macrophages.
S2425 Apocynin (NSC 2146) Apocynin (NSC 2146, Acetovanillone, NSC 209524) is a selective NADPH-oxidase inhibitor with IC50 of 10 μM.
S9332 (+)-Dipentene (+)-Dipentene, occurring commonly in nature as the fragrance of oranges, is a flavoring agent in food manufacturing.
S5578 Cadaverine Cadaverine is a foul-smelling diamine formed by bacterial decarboxylation of lysine that occurs during protein hydrolysis during putrefaction of animal tissue.
S5140 Cinene Cinene (Limonene, Dipentene) is a clear, colorless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic monoterpene, and is the major component in oil of citrus fruit peels. It is usually used to make fragrances and flavors.
S5408 Isoprene Isoprene, also called 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, is usually used as a chemical raw materia.
S6206 1-Butanol 1-Butanol occurs naturally as a minor product of the fermentation of sugars and other carbohydrates, and is present in many foods and beverages.
S6019 2-Phenylphenol 2-Phenylphenol, found in lemon, is an antifungal agent and preservative used in food seasonings.
S5429 Diallyl sulfide Diallyl sulfide, a thioether found naturally in garlic, is a selective inhibitor and also a substrate of CYP2E1 with an IC50 of 17.3 μM. It has protective effects against alcohol- and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in many studies.
S6751 Brevianamide F Brevianamide F, belonging to a class of naturally occurring 2,5-diketopiperazines, is the simplest member and the biosynthetic precursor of a large family of biologically active prenylated tryptophan-proline 2,5-diketopiperazines that are produced by the fungi A.fumigates and Aspergillus sp..
S6359 Purine Purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound which plays crucial roles in DNA and RNA. It is also significant components in a number of other important biomolecules, such as ATP, GTP, cyclic AMP, NADH, and coenzyme A.
S2353 Sapogenins Glycosides Sapogenins glycosides (Saponins) are a mixture of triterpene and steroid saponins isolated from medicinal plants such as Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hedera helix L. and Ruscus aculeatus L., which are claimed to be effective for the treatment/prevention of venous insufficiency.
S3627 Tryptamine Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid and may play a role as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter. It is an agonist of hTAAR1. It acts as a non-selective serotonin receptor agonist and serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA).
S5153 Tetrahydroberberine Tetrahydroberberine (Canadine) is an isoquinoline alkaloid with micromolar affinity for dopamine D2 (antagonist, pKi = 6.08) and 5-HT1A (agonist, pKi = 5.38) receptors but moderate to no affinity for other relevant serotonin receptors.
S3823 Schizandrol A Schizandrol A is one of the effective components in the dried fruit of Schizandra chinensis Bail and works by increasing dopamine, a neurotransmitter, in the brain.
S5642 Homovanillic acid Homovanillic acid (Vanillacetic acid) is a major catecholamine metabolite that is used as a reagent to detect oxidative enzymes, and is associated with dopamine levels in the brain.
S9087 Tenuifolin Tenuifolin, a secondary saponin isolated from hydrolysates of polygalasaponins, inhibits beta-amyloid synthesis in vitro and has nootropic activity in vivo via acetylcholine esterase inhibition and increases norepinephrine and dopamine production.
S2367 Tetrahydropapaverine HCl Tetrahydropapaverine (Norlaudanosine), one of the TIQs and an analogue of salsolinol and tetrahydropapaveroline, has been reported to have neurotoxic effects on dopamine neurons.
S3937 Pterostilbene Pterostilbene is a natural dietary compound and the primary antioxidant component of blueberries. It has been implicated in anticarcinogenesis, modulation of neurological disease, anti-inflammation, attenuation of vascular disease, and amelioration of diabetes.
S6428 Wilforlide A Wilforlide A is an active compound in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TW) which is a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of autoimmune diseases.
S5850 Vasicine Vasicine, an alkaloid isolated from A. vasica, is a potential natural cholinesterase inhibitor, exhibits promising anticholinesterase activity in preclinical models and has been in development for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
S7956 Brusatol Brusatol (NSC 172924), isolated from the fruit of B. javanica, is a NRF2 inhibitor.
S3781 Ginkgolide C Ginkgolide C (BN-52022), isolated from Ginkgo biloba leaves, is a flavone reported to have multiple biological functions, from decreased platelet aggregation to ameliorating Alzheimer disease. It is an activator of MMP-9.
S9513 Senkyunolide A Senkyunolide A is one of the major bioactive ingredients in Rhizoma Chuanxiong, a Chinese medicinal herb commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular ailments.
S6049 (+)-(S)-Carvone (+)-(S)-Carvone, a monoterpene found mainly in caraway and dill seed oils, is used in cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical preparations.
S6700 Castor oil Castor oil is a popular natural treatment for various common conditions and often used in natural beauty products.
S3830 Protodioscin Protodioscin (Furostanol I), a steroidal saponin compound found in a number of plant species, is able to stimulate testosterone production and it also has an androgen-mimetic action, binding and activating the testosterone receptors.
S8870 Epibrassinolide Epibrassinolide is a brassinosteroid isolated from various plants and has been shown to decrease toxicity and stimulate healthy plant growth in plants under stress.
S6701 Corn Oil Corn oil is a refined vegetable oil, and is used as delivery vehicle for fat-soluble compounds.
S9326 Scopolamine Scopolamine (Skopolamin) is a tropane alkaloid derived from plants of the nightshade family, specifically Hyoscyamus niger and Atropa belladonna, with anticholinergic, antiemetic and antivertigo properties.
S3860 Allicin Allicin (Diallyl Thiosulfinate), the main biologically active component of the freshly crushed garlic extracts, possesses various biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic effects.
S6493 n-Butylidenephthalide n-Butylidenephthalide ((Z)-Butylidenephthalide, 3-Butylidenephthalide, Butylidenephthalide), isolated from the chloroform extract of Angelica sinensis (AS-C), contributes to a range of biological activities, including diminution of angina, platelet aggregation, proliferation, non-specific spasmosis.
S6601 (±)-Equol (±)-Equol, an isoflavandiol estrogen, is a metabolite of the soy isoflavones, daidzin and daidzein.
S3687 Urea Urea (Carbonyldiamide, Ureophil) is a highly soluble organic compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
S3839 1-Deoxynojirimycin 1-Deoxynojirimycin (duvoglustat, moranolin) is a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor and most commonly found in mulberry leaves. It has therapeutic potency against diabetes mellitus.
S3190 N6-methyladenosine (m6A) N6-methyladenosine (m6A, NSC-29409, 6-Methyladenosine, N-Methyladenosine) is a base modified analog of adenosine and is found as a minor nucleoside in natural RNAs.
S2370 Ursolic Acid Ursolic acid (NSC 167406, NSC-4060, Prunol, Urson, Malol) is a pentacyclic triterpene acid, used in cosmetics.
S6426 Hesperidin methylchalcone Hesperidin methylchalcone is the Citrus original products with powerful antioxidant activity.
S3821 Nuciferine Nuciferine (Sanjoinine E, (-)-Nuciferine, VLT 049) is a major active aporphine alkaloid from the leaves of N. nucifera Gaertn and possesses anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hypotensive, anti-arrhythmic, and insulin secretagogue activities. Nuciferine is an antagonist at 5-HT2A (IC50=478 nM), 5-HT2C (IC50=131 nM), and 5-HT2B (IC50=1 μM), an inverse agonist at 5-HT7 (IC50=150 nM), a partial agonist at D2 (EC50=64 nM), D5 (EC50=2.6 μM) and 5-HT6 (EC50=700 nM), an agonist at 5-HT1A (EC50=3.2 μM) and D4 (EC50=2 μM) receptor.
S9227 Sinensetin Sinensetin (Pedalitin Permethyl ether), a natural polymethoxylated flavone, has potent antiangiogenesis activity.
S3973 L-SelenoMethionine L-SelenoMethionine (SeMet), a naturally occurring amino acid, is a major food-form of selenium. It has been used as a supplement, and exhibits some important functions like cancer prevention and antioxidative defense.
S2324 Sodium Monensin (NSC 343257) Sodium Monensin (NSC 343257), isolated from Streptomyces cinnamonensis, is a well-known representative of naturally polyether ionophore antibiotics.
S2348 Rotenone (Barbasco) Rotenone (Barbasco, Dactinol, Paraderil, Rotenon, Rotocide) is a botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport. Rotenone inhibits NADH/DB oxidoreductase and NADH oxidase with IC50 of 28.8 nM and 5.1 nM, respectively. Rotenone induces apoptosis through enhancing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production.
S2265 Artesunate (WR-256283) Artesunate (WR-256283) is a part of the artemisinin group of agents with an IC50 of < 5 μM for small cell lung carcinoma cell line H69. It is a potential inhibitor of STAT-3 and exhibits selective cytotoxicity of cancer cells over normal cells in vitro; A potent inhibitor of EXP1.
S6176 Scyllo-Inositol Scyllo-Inositol (Scyllitol, Cocositol, Quercinitol, AZD 103, Scyllo-Cyclohexanehexol) is a naturally occurring plant sugar alcohol found most abundantly in the coconut palm.
S6292 (S)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid (S)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid (L-Malic acid), is a naturally occurring isomer of malic acid, found mainly in sour and unripe fruits.
S6346 L-(+)-Arabinose L-(+)-Arabinose (DL-Arabinose, Pectinose) is used as a substrate to identify, differentiate and characterize pentose sugar isomerase(s).
S6061 DL-m-Tyrosine DL-m-Tyrosine is a potent, structurally unusual broad-spectrum phytotoxin exuded by the roots of some fine leaf fescue grasses.
S6163 Traumatic acid Traumatic acid (Trans-2-dodecenedioic acid) is a plant hormone that was first isolated from damaged green beans. It is a potent wound healing agent and an intermediate in prostaglandin synthesis.
S6264 Rutin hydrate Rutin (Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, Rutoside, Sophorin) is a glycoside found in a wide variety of plants including citrus fruit.
S6112 Oxalacetic acid Oxalacetic acid (Oxaloacetic acid, 2-Oxosuccinic acid, Ketosuccinic acid) is an intermediate of the citric acid cycle, where it reacts with acetyl-CoA to form citrate, catalysed by citrate synthase. It is also involved in gluconeogenesis, urea cycle, glyoxylate cycle, amino acid synthesis, and fatty acid synthesis. Oxaloacetate is also a potent inhibitor of Complex II.
S6221 Methyl cinnamate Methyl cinnamate, an active component of Zanthoxylum armatum, is a widely used natural flavor compound with antimicrobial and tyrosinase inhibitor activities. Methyl Cinnamate Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation via Activation of the CaMKK2--AMPK Pathway in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.
S6008 p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-Hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-Formylphenol, p-Formylphenol), which can be found in the orchids Gastrodia elata, Galeola faberi and vanilla, is a hydroxybenzaldehyde that reacts with NAD+ and H2O to produce 4-hydroxybenzoate, NADH, and 2 protons. p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde at 101.7 μM can significantly reduce the GABA-induced chloride current of GABAA receptors(α1β2γ2S subtype) expressed.
S6011 Acetamide Acetamide (ethanamide, Acetic acid amide) is an organic compound that can be used as a plasticizer and an industrial solvent.
S6018 2,3,4-Trihydroxybenzoic acid 2,3,4-Trihydroxybenzoic acid is a phenol constituent of Pachysandra terminalis with antioxidant activity.
S6043 3-Indoleacetonitrile 3-Indoleacetonitrile, a plant growth hormone, is a light-induced auxin-inhibitory substance that is isolated from light-grown cabbage (Brassica olearea L.) shoots.
S6045 L-Arabinitol L-Arabinitol (L-lyxitol) is a member of the class of compounds known as sugar alcohols that exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. It can be found in a number of food items such as sweet potato, deerberry, moth bean, and European chestnut, which makes L-arabitol a potential biomarker for the consumption of these food products.
S6047 Lactose Lactose is a disaccharide naturally found in milk and dairy.
S6071 3,5-Dimethoxyphenol 3,5-Dimethoxyphenol (Phloroglucinol dimethyl ether) is a toxin metabolite that can be found in human consuming yew (Taxus baccata) leaves.
S6076 Phenylacetylglutamine Phenylacetylglutamine is a product formed by the conjugation of phenylacetate and glutamine. It is a normal constituent of human urine, but other mammals such as the dog, cat, rat, monkey, sheep, and horse do not excrete this compound.
S9564 p-Hydroxy-cinnamic Acid p-Hydroxy-cinnamic Acid has in vitro antimalarial activity and in vivo anti-osteoporotic properties.
S2254 4-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin(NSC-122819,VM-26) 4-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin (NSC-122819, VM-26, DMEP) is an antimitotic agent which binds to monomeric tubulin, preventing micro-tubule polymerization. It is a potent inhibitor of microtubule assembly.
S2442 Inosine Inosine (NSC 20262, INO 495) is a nucleoside that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.
S2280 Chlorogenic Acid Chlorogenic acid (NSC 407296, Heriguard) is a hydroxycinnamic acid and a member of a family of naturally occurring organic compounds.
S6250 L-Lactic acid L-Lactic acid is a natural product that is used as a food additive.
S6275 (−)-β-Pinene (−)-β-Pinene (Nopinene) is a natural organic compound in various plants. It is lethal to S. littoralis third instar larvae (LD50 = 65 μg/larva), inhibits infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) replication (IC50 = 1.32 mM) and exhibits a cytotoxic concentration (CC50) value of greater than 10 mM in Vero cells.
S6287 3-Methylbutanoic acid 3-Methylbutanoic acid (Isovaleric acid, Delphinic acid, 3-Methylbutyric acid, Isopentanoic acid, β-methylbutyric acid) is a natural fatty acid found in a wide variety of plants and essential oils. It has a strong pungent cheesy or sweaty smell, but its volatile esters have pleasing scents and are used widely in perfumery.
S6296 Octanoic acid Octanoic acid (caprylic acid) is found naturally in the milk of various mammals, and as a minor constituent of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. It is used in the production of esters used in perfumery and also in the manufacture of dyes.
S6303 trans-2-Hexenal Trans-2-hexenal (Leaf aldehyde) is an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound protecting plants against harmful substances.
S5887 Khellin Khellin (Methafrone, Visammin, Ammivisnagen, Khellinorm, Medekellin, Viscardan, Kalangin), a compound isolated from the seeds of Ammi Visnaga Lam (Umbelliferae), is used to treat a variety of maladies.
S2331 Neohesperidin Dihydrochalcone (Nhdc) Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone(Nhdc, NCI-c60764), sometimes abbreviated to neohesperidin DC or simply NHDC, is an artificial sweetener derived from citrus.
S9432 Ginkgolic Acid Ginkgolic acid, toxic phenolic compounds present in the fruits and leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., is a potent sumoylation inhibitor also reported to inhibit histone acetylation transferase (HAT).
S9445 Ginkgolic Acid (C13:0) Ginkgolic Acid (C13:0) is a natural anticariogenic agent in Ginkgo biloba L. that exhibits antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and suppresses the specific virulence factors associated with its cariogenicity. Ginkgolic acid is a potent sumoylation inhibitor and reported to inhibit histone acetylation transferase (HAT).
S2360 Solanesol (Nonaisoprenol) Solanesol (Nonaisoprenol, Betulanonaprenol) is a long-chain polyisoprenoid alcohol compound with inhibitory activities toward FAK. It mainly accumulates in solanaceous crops, including tobacco, tomato, potato, eggplant, and pepper plants.
S2369 Troxerutin Troxerutin, a natural bioflavonoid isolated from Sophora japonica, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. Troxerutin, also known as vitamin P4, is a tri-hydroxyethylated derivative of natural bioflavonoid rutins which can inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depress ER stress-mediated NOD activation.
S5934 (-)-Fenchone Fenchone is a constituent of absinthe and the essential oil of fennel. It is used as a flavor in foods and in perfumery.
S6055 (S)-(−)-Limonene (S)-(−)-Limonene, a fragrance monoterpene mainly found in citrus peel oil, is also naturally occurs in the essential oils of herbs, tea tree oil, and turpentine oil.
S6058 β-Caryophyllene β-Caryophyllene is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is a constituent of many essential oils. It acts as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, a fragrance and a metabolite.
S6059 cis-3-Hexen-1-ol cis-3-Hexen-1-ol (Leaf alcohol) is a very important aroma compound that is used in fruit and vegetable flavors and in perfumes and acts as an attractant to many predatory insects.
S6118 Terpinen-4-ol Terpinen-4-ol, a naturally occurring monoterpene, is the main bioactive component of tea-tree oil and has been shown to have many biological activities such as antifungal properties.
S6150 Farnesyl Acetate (mixture of isomers) Farnesyl Acetate is a flavouring compound identified in foods such as blueberries.
S6162 2-Octenoic acid 2-Octenoic acid (2-Octenoate) is a normal organic acid produced by hepatic microsomal oxidation of aliphatic aldehydes and is a metabolite naturally found in the urine and plasma.
S6164 (-)-Citronellal (-)-Citronellal, a constituent of citronella oil, is used in the synthesis of bioactive compounds.
S6185 Arachidonic acid Arachidonic acid (Arachidonate) is an unsaturated, essential fatty acid found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs. It is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
S6208 Diethyl malonate Diethyl malonate, naturally occuring in grapes and strawberries, is used in the synthesis of chemicals.
S9476 Dendrobine Dendrobine, a plant alkaloid isolated from Dendrobium nobile, has been used for the quality control and discrimination of Dendrobium.
S9551 Uvaol Uvaol is a pentacyclic triterpene, found in the non-glyceride fraction of olive pomace oil, exhibiting both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties.
S4792 N-Acetylneuraminic acid N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac, NeuAc, Acido aceneuramico, Acide aceneuramique, Acidium aceneuramicum, Sialic acid, NANA) is the predominant sialic acid found in mammalian cells. Sialic acids are negatively charged monosaccharides attached to the end of sugar chains, giving rise to a wide variety of glycoproteins and glycolipids in biological fluids and cell membranes.
S5526 β-Alanine β-Alanine (beta-Alanine, 3-Aminopropanoic acid) is a naturally occurring beta amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. It acts as a neurotransmitter by activating glycine and GABA receptors.
S4676 Gluconolactone Gluconolactone is a naturally occurring polyhydroxy acid with metal chelating, moisturizing and antioxidant activity.
S5851 4'-Methoxychalcone 4'-Methoxychalcone, found in citrus, is chalcone derivative that has shown diverse pharmacological properties, including anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activities. 4'-Methoxychalcone significantly enhanced adipocyte differentiation, in part, by its potent effects on PPARγ activation and by its reverse effect on TNF-α.
S9481 Blinin Blinin, isolated from the whole plant of Conyza blinii, is used in folk medicine in the south-west of China.
S9557 Isobergapten Isobergapten is a furanocoumarin with plant growth regulating activity.
S9560 Anisodamine Hydrobromide Anisodamine (6-Hydroxyhyoscyamine) is a naturally occurring atropine derivative and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. It also inhibits α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs).
S5865 Hyaluronic acid Hyaluronic acid (HA, Hyaluronan, Hyaluronate) is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. It is widely used in skin care.
S9193 Aristolochic acid A Aristolochic acid A (Aristolochic Acid I, Aristolochin, Aristolochine, TR 1736) is a carcinogenic, mutagenic, and nephrotoxic agent extracted from the flowering plant family Aristolochiaceae.Aristolochic acid A significantly reduces both activator protein 1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activities.
S9563 Evodine Evodine, a natural product extracted from Evodiae fructus (EF), is a biomarker for quality assessment of EF in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Evodine is a potent P-gp inhibitor.
S9554 Bakkenolide A Bakkenolide A (Fukinanolid), extracted from Petasites tricholobus, has been suggested to against cancer and display protective effects on inflammatory cytokines formation.
S9552 Farrerol Farrerol, an important bioactive constituent of rhododendron, exhibits broad activities such as anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.
S9487 Praeruptorin C Praeruptorin C is a natural compound derived from the dried roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum and has beneficial effects in suppressing osteoclast formation and resorption function. It is frequently utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for treating upper respiratory infections and as an antipyretic, antitussive, and mucolytic agent.
S9484 Darutoside Darutoside, derived from botanical extracts, has a powerful regenerating action via decreasing inflammation and restoring collagen.
S9480 Raspberry Ketone Raspberry ketone (p-Hydroxybenzyl acetone, Frambinone, Oxyphenylon, Rheosmin, Rasketone) is a natural phenolic compound that is the primary aroma compound of red raspberries. Raspberry ketone shows cardioprotective action against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats, and the effects may be due to its PPAR-α agonistic activity.
S9473 Nuzhenide Nuzhenide (Specnuezhenide), a major component of olive seeds, is a member of the class of compounds known as saccharolipids. It has strong antioxidant activity.
S9474 Acetylharpagide Acetylharpagide is a monomeric compound extracted from Ajuga decumbens, widely used for remedying infectious and inflammatory diseases.
S5846 Apocarotenal Apocarotenal is a carotenoid found in spinach and citrus fruits and plays a role as a precursor of vitamin A.
S9475 Hupehenine Hupehenine is a steriodal alkaloid extracted from the bulbs of Fritillaria Hupehensis, with the potential for inhibiting acetylcholine, antagonism for muscarinic receptors and cholinesterase inhibition.
S9479 Complanatoside A Complanatoside A is a flavonol glycoside isolated from Astragalus complanatus and is used as a quality control index for A. complanatus in the 2010 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.
S9488 Praeruptorin D Praeruptorin D, a major pyranocoumarin isolated from Radix Peucedani, exhibits antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9491 (+)-Guaiacin (+)-Guaiacin, found in herbs and spices, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aryltetralin lignans.
S9555 Vincristine Vincristine (Leurocristine, NSC-67574, 22-Oxovincaleukoblastine) is a natural alkaloid isolated from the plant Vinca rosea Linn. with anti-tumor activity. Vincristine inhibits microtubule formation in mitotic spindle and binds to microtubule with Ki of 85 nM.
S9562 Pomolic acid Pomolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from Euscaphis japonica, and is highly effective in inhibiting cell growth and induces apoptosis.
S9192 Vitexin Vitexin (Apigenin-8-C-glucoside), an naturally occuring apigenin flavone glycoside, acts as a platelet aggregation and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor and shows antineoplastic activity.
S3964 Mucic Acid Mucic Acid (Schleimsaure, Saccharolactic acid, Tetrahydroxyadipic acid, D-Glucaric acid, Galactaric acid) is the dicarboxylic sugar acid resulting from oxidation glactose with dilute nitric acid. It is a substrate of galactarate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase.
S5928 Zerumbone Zerumbone, derived from several plant species of the Zingiberaceae family, is a naturally occurring dietary compound and may have multiple biomedical properties, such as antiproliferative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities.
S5794 Glycochenodeoxycholic acid Glycochenodeoxycholic acid (Glycochenodeoxycholate, Chenodeoxycholylglycine, Glycine chenodeoxycholate) is a bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid
S5820 L-Hydroxyproline L-Hydroxyproline (trans-4-Hydroxy-L-proline) is a collagen-specific amino acid. It is used as a diagnostic marker of bone turnover and liver fibrosis.
S5824 Cinnamyl alcohol Cinnamyl alcohol is a naturally occurring compound that is found within cinnamon. Cinnamyl alcohol can be significantly attenuated the enhanced expression of obesity-related proteins PPARγ in MDI medium-cultivated 3T3-L1 cells.
S5821 Linoleic acid Linoleic acid (9,12-octadecadienoic acid) is an essential fatty acid used in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid and found in the lipids of cell membranes.
S5823 L-Pyroglutamic acid L-pyroglutamic acid (L-pyroglutamate, 5-Oxoproline, pidolic acid) is a natural nutrient and amino acid derived from glutamic acid. It is a metabolite in the glutathione cycle that is converted to glutamate by 5-oxoprolinase.
S5828 L-Abrine L-Abrine (N-Methyl-L-tryptophan), an extremely toxic toxalbumin found in the seeds of the rosary pea, is a ribosome inhibiting protein.
S9367 Adenosine disodium triphosphate Adenosine disodium triphosphate (ATP disodium) is the sodium salt form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a complex organic chemical that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells.
S5805 Allopregnanolone Allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid synthesized from progesterone in brain, acts as a highly potent positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor.
S5771 Sulforaphane Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from the consumption of cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, and kale. It is an inducer of Nrf2. Sulforaphane is also an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and NF-κB. Sulforaphane increases heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and reduces the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sulforaphane induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
S9334 2-Pentylfuran 2-Pentylfuran (2-Amylfuran) is a naturally occuring flavouring ingredient.
S9383 Methyl palmitate Methyl palmitate (Methyl hexadecanoate, Palmitic acid methyl ester), a kind of fatty acid methyl ester, could be found in many plants and possesses acaricidal activity.
S9453 2-Undecanol 2-Undecanol (Methyl nonyl carbinol, 2-Hydroxyundecane, 2-Hendecanol) is a fatty alcohol lipid molecule.
S9454 Undecanoic acid Undecanoic acid (Undecylic acid) is a medium chain length monocarboxylic acid that appears to be involved in the control of triacylglycerol synthesis.
S9385 Ligustilide Ligustilide is the most abundant bioactive ingredient in Rhizoma Chuanxiong, a Chinese medicinal herb commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular ailments. Solutions are best fresh-prepared.
S9033 Incensole acetate Incensole acetate, isolated from Boswellia Resin, is a novel anti-inflammatory compound that inhibits NF-κB activation.
S9043 6-Shogaol 6-Shogaol, a naturally occuring product found in ginger, has anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties.
S9071 Nootkatone Nootkatone, a natural ingredient that occurs in grapefruit and certain other plants, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
S9094 Pogostone Pogostone is one of the secondary metabolites from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Lamiaceae), serving as the effective component of the antimicrobial activity.
S9118 Beta-Asarone Beta-Asarone, found in certain plants such as Acorus and Asarum, could pass the blood-brain barrier and exerts neuroprotection effects.
S9140 Pulegone Pulegone, a naturally occurring organic compound, is a fragrance and flavour ingredient.pulegone stimulates both TRPM8 and TRPA1 channel in chicken sensory neurons and suppresses the former but not the latter at high concentrations.
S9142 Sparteine Sparteine, which could be extracted from scotch broom, is a sodium channel blocker and a class 1a antiarrhythmic agent.
S9236 α-Cyperone α-Cyperone (alpha-cyperone), a major active compound of Cyperus rotundus, exhibits biological activities, such as antivirulence, antigenotoxic, and antibacterial activities. α-Cyperone (alpha-cyperone) is associated with the down-regulation of COX-2, IL-6, Nck-2, Cdc42 and Rac1.
S9263 3-n-Butylphathlide 3-n-Butylphathlide, initially isolated from the seeds of Apium graveolens Linn., has shown significant neuroprotective effects.
S5370 10-Hydroxydecanoic acid 10-Hydroxydecanoic acid, a minor constituent of royal jelly, is a saturated fatty acid that has cytotoxic effects.
S9450 1-Undecanol 1-Undecanol (Undecyl alcohol, 1-Hendecanol), found naturally in many foods such as fruits (including apples and bananas), butter, eggs and cooked pork, is used as a flavoring ingredient.
S5761 Citric acid Citric acid is a weak organic acid that occurs naturally in citrus fruits. It is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle.
S5763 D-Mannose D-mannose is a naturally occurring simple sugar that may help your body cleanse the urinary tract and maintain a healthy bladder lining.
S5391 α-Boswellic acid α-Boswellic acid is a naturally occuring triterpenoic acid.
S5757 Isoeugenol Isoeugenol (4-Propenylguaiacol), an essential oil constituent of nutmeg, clove, and cinnamon, shows antimicrobial activity.
S5759 Methyl linoleate Methyl linoleate (Linoleic acid methyl ester), found in cloves, is a fatty acid methyl ester of linoleic acid which is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes.
S5756 Methyl Stearate Methyl Stearate (Methyl Octadecanoate, Stearic Acid methyl ester), found in cloves, is an antifoaming agent and fermentation nutrient.
S5577 6-Biopterin 6-Biopterin ( L-Biopterin, L-Erythro-Biopterin) is a natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.
S5743 γ-Linolenic acid γ-Linolenic Acid (18:3, n-6), the Δ6-desaturase product of linolenic acid, is an unsaturated fatty acid found primarily in vegetable oils.
S5600 Flavokawain A Flavokawain A, extracted from kava, is an apoptotic inducers and anticarcinogenic agent. Flavokawain A can down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins, such as XIAP, survivin, and Bcl-xL, thereby changing the balance between apoptotic and antiapoptotic molecules and then induce cell death in tumor cells.
S5732 Sebacic acid Sebacic acid (1,8-Octanedicarboxylic acid) is a saturated, straight-chain naturally occurring dicarboxylic acid
S5733 Stearic acid Stearic acid (Octadecanoic acid, Isostearic acid, Cetylacetic acid) is a natural saturated fatty acid found in animal and vegetable fats. It could be used as a food additive and used in soaps, cosmetics and detergents.
S9375 2'-Hydroxyacetophenone 2'-Hydroxyacetophenone is a flavouring ingredient.
S9379 Dihydrocoumarin Dihydrocoumarin, a compound found in Melilotus officinalis (sweet clover) and Dipteryx odorata Willd (tonka beans), is added as a flavoring agent to a wide variety of foods, including soft drinks, yogurt, and muffins, and is used as a common fragrance in cosmetics, lotions, and soaps.
S9382 Thymine Thymine (5-methyluracil) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA.
S9333 Gibberellins A4/A7 Gibberellins A4/A7 (Gibberellin A4 and A7) is the Gibberellin A4 Mixture With Gibberellin A7. Gibberellins A4/A7 promotes internode elongation & breaks certain dormancies in seeds. Gibberellins A4/A7 is an endogenous plant growth regulator, promotes the growth and elongation of cells.
S5691 Terpinyl Acetate Terpinyl Acetate (alpha-Terpinyl), a naturally occuring compound found in several essential oils, is a flavouring agent.
S5616 4-Methylcatechol 4-Methylcatechol (P-Methylcatechol, 3,4-Dihydroxytoluene, Homocatechol) is an inducer of nerve growth factor. It is used to synthesize antimicrobial and antioxidant.
S9352 Homogentisic Acid Homogentisic Acid (Melanic acid, 2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) is found in Arbutus unedo (strawberry-tree) honey or present in the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli as well as in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.
S5684 Lapachol Lapachol (Tecomin, CI75490, Bethabarra wood, Greenhartin), a natural compound isolated from the bark of the lapacho tree, shows both antimicrobial and antiviral activity.
S5640 Ethyl caffeate Ethyl caffeate, a naturally occurring compound found in Bidens pilosa, suppresses NF-kappaB activation and its downstream inflammatory mediators, iNOS, COX-2 and PGE2 in vitro.
S5680 (-)-Verbenone (-)-Verbenone (2-Pinen-4-one), an important component of the essential oil from rosemary, is an insect pheromone with a spicy odor and camphoraceous fragrance.
S5617 Myristic Acid Myristic acid (Tetradecanoic acid) is a fatty acid that occurs naturally in some foods. Myristic acid inhibits the phosphorylation of poly E4Y by Src with an Ki of 35 μM.
S9046 Berberine Berberine (Umbellatine), an alkaloid isolated from Rhizoma coptidis, has broad applications, particularly as an antibacterial agent in the clinic.
S9047 Leonurine Hydrochloride Leonurine (SCM-198), a natural alkaloid extracted from Herba leonuri, is a promising anti-glycation agent with vasodilator, antioxidative, cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects.
S9037 Tenacissoside H Tenacissoside H, a natural compound found in M. tenacissima, exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects.
S9027 Corynoxine Corynoxine, a natural oxindole alkaloid, is a new autophagy enhancer.
S9041 Corosolic acid Corosolic acid (Glucosol, Colosic acid, 2α-Hydroxyursolic acid) is one of the pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from Lagerstroemia speciose and has been reported to exhibit anti-cancer and anti-proliferative activities in various cancer cells.
S9035 Isovitexin Isovitexin (saponaretin, Apigenin-6-C-glucoside), an active component of many traditional Chinese medicines, has various activities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-alzheimer disease (AD) effects and so on.
S9032 Sanguinarine Sanguinarine (Pseudochelerythrine, Sanguinarin, Sanguinarium), a benzophenanthridine alkaloid known as an anti-inflammatory agent, is a potent inhibitor of NF-κB activation.
S9036 (20R)Ginsenoside Rh2 (20R)Ginsenoside Rh2, a natural compound found in Panax ginseng, shows antiviral and anticancer activities. It is a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor.
S9024 3-O-Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) 3-O-Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), the major active ingredient of the gum resin from Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carteri Birdw., exerts anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects and noncompetitively inhibits 5-lipoxygenase, topoisomerase, and leukocyte elastase.
S9044 Ginsenoside F2 Ginsenoside F2, a ginsenoside found in Panax species, is an autophagic initiater with anti-cancer, and anti-obesity activities.
S9042 Wedelolactone Wedelolactone, a medicinal plant-derived natural compound, is an inhibitor of IKK that is critical for activation of NF-κB by mediating phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Wedelolactone is also an inhibitor of caspase-11.
S9030 Tenacissoside I Tenacissoside I is a natural compound found in M. tenacissima at relatively high level.
S5677 Xanthopterin Hydrate Xanthopterin, isolated from butterfly wings and found in many other sources, replace folic acid in the nutrition of many animal species.
S9353 L-serine L-serine, one of the so-called non-essential amino acids, plays a central role in cellular proliferation.
S9349 D-(+)-Raffinose pentahydrate Raffinose is a trisaccharide composed of galactose, glucose, and fructose.
S9341 3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid 3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid (Caffeic acid dimethyl ether) is a bioavailable coffee component as a perspective anti-prion compound and bind potently to prion protein with a Kd of 405 nM.
S9344 DL-Methionine DL-Methionine is an amino acid that has a role in the defence of oxidative stress.
S9004 Chondroitin 4-sulfate Chondroitin 4-sulfate is an important structural component of cartilage and has been used as a dietary supplement to treat symptoms of joint discomfort.
S9373 Neryl acetate Neryl acetate (Nerol, Acetic acid neryl ester, cis-Geranyl), a chemical compound found in citrus oils, is a flavouring agent.
S9339 S-(-)-Cotinine S-(-)-Cotinine, a constituent of tobacco products and the major metabolite of nicotine, stimulates nicotinic receptors to evoke the release of DA in a calcium-dependent manner from superfused rat striatal slices.
S9372 Ethyl palmitate Ethyl palmitate (Ethyl hexadecanoate, Palmitic acid ethyl ester) is a long-chain fatty acid ethyl ester that is used as a hair- and skin-conditioning agent.
S4937 4'-Hydroxychalcone 4'-Hydroxychalcone (P-Cinnamoylphenol), found in herbs and spices and tea, is a member of the class of compounds known as retrochalcones. It has diverse biological activities, inhibiting TNFα-induced NF-κB pathway activation in a dose-dependent manner and activating BMP signaling.
S3622 Diammonium Glycyrrhizinate Diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is extracted and purified from liquorices (Radix glycyrrhizae). It is known for its anti-inflammatory effects, resistance to biologic oxidation and membranous protection. DG is able to reduce inflammatory injury via suppression of NF‑κB, TNF‑α and intercellular adhesion molecule 1.
S3769 Palmatine Palmatine (Berbericinine, Burasaine), an isoquinoline alkaloid, has sedative, antidepressant, antioxidative, anti-ulcerative, antacid, anticancer, and anti-metastatic activities.
S3788 Carvacrol Carvacrol (Cymophenol), monoterpenic phenol isomeric with thymol, has diverse activities such as antimicrobial, antitumor, an-timutagenic, antigenotoxic, analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, antiparasitic, antiplatelet, AChE inhibitory, antielastase, insecticidal, antihepatotoxic and hepatoprotective activities.
S5176 Fructose Fructose (D-(-)-Fructose, Fruit sugar, levulose, fructosteril, D-fructofuranose, D-arabino-hexulose) is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants.
S5178 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)furanone 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)furanone (furaneol, HDMF) is a naturally occurring substance found in a variety of fruits and has been shown to have antimicrobial activity.
S5592 Vitamin A Vitamin A (Retinol) is a naturally occuring fat-soluble vitamin that is important for normal vision, the immune system, and reproduction. It also plays roles in normal functioning of heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs.
S5591 Ectoine Ectoine ( THP(B)) is a natural amino acid derivate with membrane stabilizing and inflammation reducing capacities. It is produced by bacteria living under extreme harsh environmental conditions where it serves as osmoregulatory compatible solute.
S4888 Guanine Guanine is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA.
S5505 2’-deoxyuridine 2'-deoxyuridine (dU, 2'-dU) is frequently halogenated to create thymidine analogues useful for studies of DNA synthesis and degradation mechanisms.
S5503 O-Acetyl-L-carnitine hydrochloride O-Acetyl-L-carnitine (Acetyl-L-carnitine, O-acetyl-L-carnitine, O-Acetylcarnitine) can be synthesis or is naturally found in healthy humans. It could help transport fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix where fatty acid metabolism occurs.
S9368 ADP ADP (Adenosine diphosphate, adenosine pyrophosphate, Adenosine 5'-diphosphate) is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.
S5550 Ethyl gallate Ethyl gallat (Phyllemblin, gallic acid ethyl ester), which could be found naturally in a variety of plant sources, is a food additive with antimicrobial activity. Ethyl gallat activates the death receptor-dependent pathway of apoptosis by enhancing the expression of caspases-8, -9, and -3 and the Bcl-2 interacting domain (Bid).
S9390 Astragaloside II Astragaloside II, extracted from Astragalus membranaceus, has been reported to promote tissue wound repair and could be a potential adjunctive agent in cancer chemotherapy, enhancement of osteogenesis, and modulation of T cell activation.
S9166 Griffonilide Griffonilide is a natural product that has been reported to induce bone remodeling activity resulting in structural changes.
S9169 Polygalasaponin F Polygalasaponin F, a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Polygala japonica, possesses anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities, and has cognition improving and cerebral protective effects.
S9198 Obtusifolin Obtusifolin is anthraquinone found in the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia, has inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation and aldose reductase.
S9220 Stylopine hydrochloride Stylopine (Tetrahydrocoptisine, Coptisine), a major component of the leaf of Chelidonium majus L., is a protoberberine-type alkaloid that has potential biological activities, including anti-inflammatory activity.
S9241 Polygalaxanthone III Polygalaxanthone III is a natural product with the efficacy of tranquilization, glaangal, eliminating sputum and detumescence. Polygalaxanthone III inhibits chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation catalyzed by CYP2E1 with an IC50 of 50.56 μM.
S9259 Lithospermic acid Lithospermic acid, an active component isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza radix, is known to have multiple pharmacological actions such as antihypertensive and antioxidant effects.
S9262 Raddeanin A Raddeanin A (Raddeanin R3, NSC382873), a triterpenoid saponin from Anemone raddeana Regel, displays moderate inhibitory activity against histone deacetylases (HDACs) and has high antiangiogenic potency, antitumor activity.
S9264 Decursin Decursin (D), purified from Angelica gigas Nakai, shows potential anti-inflammatory activity and neuroprotective property.
S9306 Corynoxeine Corynoxeine, which could be isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla, is a useful and prospective compound in the prevention and treatment for vascular diseases. It is a potent ERK1/2 inhibitor of key PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation.
S9310 Isorhychophylline Isorhynchophylline (IsoRhy, 7-Isorhyncophylline) is a major tetracyclic oxindole alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.)Jacks (Gouteng in Chinese). It acts as a neuronal autophagy inducer with therapeutic potential for cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases.
S9414 Cyasterone Cyasterone is the main phytoecdysteroid component found in Cyathula capitata. It is a natural EGFR inhibitor and maybe a promising anti-cancer agent.
S9448 D-(+)-Turanose D(+)-Turanose is a naturally occuring compound. It is a reducing disaccharide.
S5745 Glyceryl 1,3-dipalmitate Glyceryl 1,3-dipalmitate acts as a metabolite of saccharomyces cerevisiae, plant and human.
S9507 (−)-Norepinephrine (−)-Norepinephrine (Arterenol, Levarterenol, L-Noradrenaline) is a natural neurotransmitter and hormone. It is an agonist of adrenergic receptors with Ki values of 330, 56, and 740 nM for α1, α2, and β1 adrenoceptors, respectively.
S9505 Oleanonic Acid Oleanonic Acid (3-Ketooleanolic Acid, 3-Oxooleanolic acid), extracted from Pistacia terebinthus galls, is a cell cycle inhibitor and used as antitumor agents.
S5686 Tryptanthrin Tryptanthrin is a natural alkaloidal compound having basic indoloquinazoline moiety. It has broad spectrum of biological activities including anticancer activity, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoal, antiallergic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial.
S5690 Triacanthine Triacanthine, which could be isolated from the leaves of G. triacanthos, shows hypertensive activity, also cardiotonic, antispasmodic and a respiratory analeptic.
S5554 Lanatoside C Lanatoside C is a cardiac glycoside with antiviral and anti-tumor activity. Lanatoside C induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and induces autophagy and apoptosis via attenuating MAPK, Wnt, JAK-STAT, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways.
S5312 Urolithin A Urolithin A (3,8-Dihydroxy Urolithin, 2',7-Dihydroxy-3,4-benzocoumarin), a metabolite of ellagitannin, is a first-in-class natural compound that induces mitophagy both in vitro and in vivo following oral consumption.
S3817 Harmine hydrochloride Harmine (Telepathine), a fluorescent harmala alkaloid belonging to the beta-carboline family of compounds, is a highly cell-permeant and competitive inhibitor of ATP binding to the kinase pocket of DYRK1A, with about 60-fold higher IC50 value for DYRK2. Harmine also inhibits monoamine oxidases (MAOs) and cdc-like kinases (CLKs). Harmine inhibits 5-HT2A serotonin receptor with Ki of 397 nM.
S5318 Acacetin Acacetin (Linarigenin, 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone, 4'-Methoxyapigenin) is a flavonoid compound that has been shown to have anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-peroxidative effects.
S9345 Disodium 5'-Inosinate Disodium 5'-Inosinate, widely distributed in all animal and plant tissues, is used as a flavor enhancer.
S9059 4'-O-Glucosylvitexin 4'-O-Glucosylvitexin is a kind of flavonoid fraction from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida.
S9364 6-Hydroxycoumarin 6-Hydroxycoumarin demonstrates cytotoxic effect against the cancer cell lines.
S9365 Disodium uridine-5'-monophosphate Disodium uridine-5'-monophosphate is a nucleotide that is a major component of ribonucleic acid.
S9366 5'-Adenylic acid AMP, also known as 5'-Adenylic acid and Adenosine monophosphate, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is used as a dietary supplement to boost immune activity, and is also used as a substitute sweetener to aid in the maintenance of a low-calorie diet.
S9369 Xanthosine Xanthosine (Xanthine riboside) is an intermediate in purine metabolism, formed from IMP, and forming GMP.
S9370 Adenosine Cyclophosphate Adenosine Cyclophosphate (Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cAMP, cyclic AMP, 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is useful for improving myocardial hypoxia, dilating coronary artery and strengthening myocardiac contraction.
S9384 Sophocarpine Monohydrate Sophocarpine, a naturally occurring tetracyclic quinolizidine alkaloid derived from Sophora alopecuroides L, has shown promising therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and antivirus activities.
S9386 Polygalacic acid Polygalacic acid is the triterpenoid tetrahydroxyacid isolated from Polygala paenea L.. Polygalacic acid (0-100 μM; 24 hours) significantly decreases the mRNAexpressions of MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13 and COX-2, which are significantly increased by IL-1β, in a dose-dependent manner.
S9387 Maackiain Maackiain (Demethylpterocarpin) is a pterocarpan that is widely distributed in leguminous plants. It has anticancer and antimicrobial effects.
S9388 (+)-Praeruptorin A Praeruptorin A is a coumarin compound naturally occurring in the roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn., a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of certain respiratory diseases and hypertension. Praeruptorin A exerts anti-inflammatory effects in vitro through inhibition of NF-κB activation. (+)-Praeruptorin A is one of enantiomers.
S9389 Phorbol Phorbol is a natural, plant-derived organic compound that exerts a broad range of biological activities.
S9401 3,6'-Disinapoyl sucrose 3,6'-Disinapoyl sucrose (Disinapoyl sucrose), an oligosaccharide ester natural product originating from the root of wild Polygala tenuifolia, has neuroprotective effects and antidepressive activity in rats.
S9400 Rhynchophylline Rhynchophylline (Mitrinermine), an active component isolated from species of the genus Uncaria, acts as a calcium channel blocker and is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine mainly for treating ailments of central nervous and cardiovascular systems, such as lightheadedness, convulsions, numbness, and hypertension.
S9398 Crassicauline A Crassicauline A, a diterpenoid alkaloid in Aconitum herbs, is an analgesic drug clinically used in China.
S9397 Alliin Alliin (S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, ACSO, 3-(Allylsulphinyl)-L-alanine) is a sulfoxide that is a natural constituent of fresh garlic.
S9396 Geraniin Geraniin, a hydrolysable polyphenol derived from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit rind, has been shown to possess significant antioxidant activity in vitro.The IC50 values of TNF-α release inhibition were 43 μM for geraniin.
S9392 Praeruptorin B Praeruptorin B is an important compound isolated from Bai-hua Qian-hu and has been reported to exert multiple biochemical and pharmacological activities.praeruptorin B exerts lipid-lowering effects through inhibits SREBPs and could serve as a possible therapeutic option to improve hyperlipidemia and hyperlipidemia-induced comorbidities.
S9402 (20R)-Protopanaxadiol (20R)-Protopanaxadiol, isolated from the roots of Panax ginseng, has protective effect on myocardial ischemia.
S9404 Pristimerin Pristimerin is a naturally occurring triterpenoid that has been shown to suppress the proliferation of various cancer cell lines at the concentration (IC50) range of 0.2-4 μM, including those of breast, glioma, prostate, pancreatic, ovarian, colon. Pristimerin can inhibits monoacylglycerol lipase(MGL) with an IC50 of 93 nM through a reversible mechanism.
S9405 Sesamoside Sesamoside, a main chemical ingredient iridoid glycoside from Lamiophlomic rotata, has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in animal studies.
S9406 Sauchinone Sauchinone, one of the active lignan isolated from the roots of Saururus chinensis, possesses diverse pharmacological properties, such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects.
S9407 Angoroside C Angoroside C, an important phenylpropanoid glycoside of the traditional Chinese medicine Scrophulariae Radix, possesses the effects of preventing ventricular remodeling, reducing pulmonary oedema, and reducing blood pressure, as well as having the properties of anti-platelet aggregation, hepatoprotection and anti-nephritis, etc.
S9408 Beta-Elemonic acid Beta-Elemonic acid (3-Oxotirucallenoic Acid), a known triterpene isolated from Boswellia (Burseraceae), exhibits anti‑inflammatory effects.
S9409 Kavain Kavain ((+)-Kavain), the main kavalactone found mostly in the roots of the kava plant, has anticonvulsive properties, attenuating vascular smooth muscle contraction through interactions with voltage-dependent Na+ and Ca2+ channels. Kavain positively modulated γ-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor.
S9410 Euphorbia factor L1 Euphorbia factor L1, a diterpenoid isolated from Euphorbia lathyris, inhibits osteoclastogenesis and induces osteoclast apoptosis.
S9411 Liensinine Liensinine, an important functional compound in lotus seeds, has anti-cancer, anti-fibrosis, anti-proliferative, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9412 Flavokawain B Flavokawain B is a natural chalcone first isolated from extracts of kava roots that induces apoptosis in cancer cells.
S9413 Yangonin Yangonin (Y100550) is a dienolide kavalactone originally found in Piper methysticum (kava plant) and exhibits neuroprotective, neuromodulatory, and antifungal activities. It activates cannabinoid (CB1) receptors and potentiates the effects of GABA-A receptors.
S9416 Triptonide Triptonide, isolated from the roots of Tripterygium wilfordii, can effectively inhibit canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by targeting the downstream C-terminal transcription domain of β-catenin or a nuclear component associated with β-catenin. It is also an antineoplastic agent, an anti-inflammatory agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
S9417 Homoplantaginin Homoplantaginin (Hispidulin-7-glucoside), a main flavonoid from a traditional Chinese medicine Salvia plebeia, has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Homoplantaginin inhibits TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression, IKKβ and NF-κB phosphorylation.
S9420 Sinoacutine Sinoacutine (Salutaridine), isolated from the Chinese drug Ching-fengteng, elicits mild antitussive properties.
S9421 Demethylnobiletin Demethylnobiletin (5-Demethylnobiletin) is a unique flavonoid found in citrus fruits with potential chemopreventive effects against human cancers.5-Demethylnobiletin is a direct inhibitor of 5-LOX with IC50 of 0.1 μM, without affecting the expression of COX-2. 5-Demethylnobiletin has anti-inflammatory activity, inhibits leukotriene B 4(LTB4) formation in rat neutrophils and elastase release in human neutrophils with IC50 of 0.35 μM.
S9422 Diosbulbin B Diosbulbin B is the main hepatotoxic compound in Airpotato yam, which is traditionally used for treating thyroid disease and cancer.
S9423 Narcissoside Narcissoside has antioxidant and antiproliferative activity in cancer.
S9425 Trifolirhizin Trifolirhizin, a natural pterocarcan flavonoid extracted from Sophora flavescens, has many pharmacological activities, such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferation, and skin-whitening.
S9427 Tabersonine Tabersonine is a terpene indole alkaloid found in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus and shows hypotensive activity, anti-tumor activity, hypoglycemic, diuretic activity.
S9428 Brazilin Brazilin (Natural Red 24) is a red pigment obtained from the wood of the brazilwood family. It is used to dye fabric and has diverse biological activities, including neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties.
S9429 6α-Hydroxygeniposide 6α-Hydroxygeniposide, an iridoid glycoside, is a chemical constituents of Pittosporum glabratum Lindl.
S9430 Tomatidine Hydrochloride Tomatidine Hydrochloride, a natural steroidal alkaloid, possesses potent antibacterial activity and has anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages.
S9431 Dehydrocorydalin Dehydrocorydalin is an alkaloidal component isolated from Rhizoma corydalis. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects and can protect the cardiovascular system.
S9433 Tubeimoside II Tubeimoside II (Tubeimoside B), a natural triterpenoid saponin isolated from herb, show anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antitumor-promoting effects.
S9434 8-Gingerol 8-Gingerol is a bioactive ingredient of ginger root (Zingiber officinale), a medicinal plant having anti-nausea, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties and a carminative effect.
S9435 Secoxyloganin Secoxyloganin is a secoiridoids that is extensively used in synthetic and biosynthetic studies of monoterpene indole alkaloids and related natural products.
S9436 Pinoresinol dimethyl ether Pinoresinol dimethyl ether, which could be isolated from the wood of the basal tree Humbertieae, show a variety of activities as the inhibitor of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
S9437 Echinatin Echinatin is a licorice extract that displays antioxidant properties and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9438 Isosakuranetin Isosakuranetin (4'-Methylnaringenin), an O-methylated flavonoid, is the 4'-methoxy derivative of naringenin, a flavanone found in Citrus species.
S9120 Scutellarein Scutellarein (6-Hydroxyapigenin), extracted from the perennial herb Scutellaria lateriflora, has antioxidant, antitumor, anti-adipogenic, antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities
S9439 Kaurenoic acid Kaurenoic acid (kaurenoate, kaur-16-en-18-oic acid) is a natural diterpenoid found in the herbs of Croton antisyphiliticus. Kaurenoic acid has anti-inflammatory activity, the mechanisms may through inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression.
S9441 Sibiricose A5 Sibiricose A5, which could be isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Polygalae Radix, shows potent antioxidant activity.
S9442 Bergaptol Bergaptol (5-Hydroxypsoralen, 5-Hydroxyfuranocoumarin) is a natural furanocoumarin found in the essential oils of citrus including lemon and bergamot.Bergaptol is a potent inhibitors of debenzylation activity of CYP3A4 enzyme with an IC50 value of 24.92 μM.
S9443 Schisantherin B Schisantherin B (Gomisin-B, Wuweizi ester-B) is one bioactive of lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill which has been commonly used as a traditional herbal medicine.
S9444 Tomatine Tomatine (Lycopersicin) is a natural glycoalkaloid with fungicidal, antimicrobial, and insecticidal properties.
S9446 Dihydrokavain Dihydrokavain (Marindinin) is a kavalactone source from kava beverages used in herbal medicine to treat sleep disturbances, as well as stress and anxiety.
S9447 1F-Fructofuranosylnystose 1F-Fructofuranosylnystose is a kind of Fructooligosaccharides which are naturally occurring sugars with potentially beneficial nutritional effects.
S9503 Fraxetin Fraxetin (7,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin), found in Fraxinus rhynchophylla, shows potent antioxidant activity.fraxetin alleviates lipid peroxidation, enhances hepatic antioxidant capabilities, inhibits CYP2E1 activity, and reduced the inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α and IL-1β via up-regulation of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein.
S9502 Madecassic acid Madecassic acid (Brahmic acid), a natural triterpene first isolated from C. asiatica, has diverse anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects, blocking NF-κB activation in macrophages and causing by iNOS, COX-2, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 inhibition.
S9001 Malic acid Malic acid (Hydroxybutanedioic acid, 2-Hydroxysuccinic acid) is a common, naturally occurring ingredient in many foods. It is the main acid found in apples and other fruits.
S9002 L-Fucose Fucose (6-Deoxy-L-Galactose, L-fucopyranose) is found on N-linked glycans on the mammalian, insect and plant cell surface. L-Fucose is claimed to have application in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and dietary supplements.
S9006 Perillartine Perillartine (Perilla sugar, Peryllartine) is a sweetener. Perillartine can activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse in a species-dependent manner.
S9014 AstragalosideⅠ AstragalosideⅠ, is a bioactive saponin first isolated from the dried plant roots of the genus Astragalus, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine.
S5083 Lentinan Lentinan (A823605, Bromoduline), isolated and purified from a hot water extract of Lentinula edodes fruit bodies, is a fungal polysaccharide immunomodulator with anti-tumor effects.
S9272 Koumine Koumine, a Gelsemium alkaloid, possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and neurosteroid modulating activities.
S9273 Timosaponin BII Timosaponin BII (BII, Prototimosaponin AIII) is a steroidal saponin showing potential anti-dementia and antioxidant activity.
S9274 Isochlorogenic acid B Isochlorogenic acid B, naturally isolated from Laggera alata, has antioxidative and hepatoprotective properties.
S9275 Isoguanosine Isoguanosine (Crotonoside) inhibits FLT3 and HDAC3/6 for the treatment of AML.Isoguanosine is a naturally occurring active isomer of guanosine that is found in the seeds of Croton tiglium.
S9276 Alisol B Alisol B, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizoma, induces Bax up-regulation and nuclear translocation, the activation of initiator caspase-8 and caspase-9, and executor caspase-3, suggesting the involvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways.
S9277 Alisol A Alisol A is one of the major active triterpenes isolated from Rhizoma Alismatis (RA), a famous Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for diuretic, hypolipidemic, anti-nephrolithic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic purposes.
S9278 Saikosaponin C Saikosaponin C is a triterpene saponin found in Bupleurum that exhibits antiviral and pro-angiogenic activities.
S9279 Euphorbia factor L3 Euphorbia factor L3 (5,15-Diacetyl-3-benzoyllathyrol), belonging to the lathyrane diterpenoids isolated from Caper Euphorbia Seed, shows potent cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in A549 cells.
S9280 Demethoxycurcumin Demethoxycurcumin, a natural demethoxy derivative of curcumin, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-angiogenesis properties.
S9281 Peimine Peimine (Verticine, Wanpeinine A) is a major biologically active component of Fritillaria ussuriensis, exhibits anti-inflammatory and pain suppression properties at the cellular level.
S9267 Epimedin A Epimedin A is a major component of Herba Epimedii with bioactivities.
S9268 Epmedin B Epmedin B (Epimedin B) is a component extracted from Epimedii Folium and may have antiosteoporotic activity.
S9269 Epmedin C Epimedin C (Baohuoside VI), a flavonoid isolated from the herbs of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, exhibits immunostimulatory and anticancer activities.
S9270 Dracohodin perochlorate Dracohodin perochlorate, extracted from Dragon's blood, is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, especially in wound healing.
S9271 Pulchinenoside A Pulchinenoside A (Anemoside A3), a natural triterpenoid saponin, is a AMPARs and NMDAR modulator.
S9282 Isochlorogenic acid A Isochlorogenic acid A (3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid), isolated from Brazilian propolis and Suaeda glauca, exhibits hepatoprotective and cytotoxic activities.
S9283 Aristolone Aristolone, which could be extracted from essential oil of Elyonurus hensii, is likely to induce an antalgic activity.
S9284 Aloesin Aloesin (Aloe resin B) is a kind of herbal extraction form the aloe vera. It is a strong inhibitor of tyrosinase activity and up-regulates cyclin E-dependent kinase activity in vitro.
S9285 Fargesin Fargesin is a neolignan isolated from Magnolia plants. It is a potential β1AR antagonist through cAMP/PKA pathway.
S9286 Neobavaisoflavone Neobavaisoflavone, isolated from seeds of Psoralea corylifolia, exhibits inhibitory activity against DNA polymerase and platelet aggregation.
S9287 Genkwanin Genkwanin (Apigenin 7-methyl ether) is one of the major non-glycosylated flavonoids in herbs. It has a variety of pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antiplasmodial, radical scavenging, chemopreventive and inhibiting 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activities.
S9288 Casticin Casticin (Vitexicarpin), as the major active substance in Lithospermum erythrorhyzon, had been reported to mediate multiple pharmacological activities such as antioxidation, antiviral, cardiovascular protection, antineoplastic and anti-inflammation.
S9289 Astragalin Astragalin (kaempferol-3-glucoside, Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, Kaempferol 3-D-glucoside), a flavonoid from leaves of persimmon and green tea seeds, has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities.
S9290 Linarin Linarin (Acaciin, Buddleoside, Acacetin-7-O-rutinoside), a natural flavonoid cpompound, has pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, neuro-protective, cardioprotective and antioxidative effects.
S9291 Isopimpinellin Isopimpinellin (5,8-Dimethoxypsoralen) is a natural product synthesized by numerous plant species. It may acts as an anticarcinogen.
S9292 Dictamnine Dictamnine, a natural plant product, has been reported to have antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi.
S9293 Isoliquiritin Isoliquiritin (Neoisoliquritin) is a flavonoid glycoside compound from licorice possessing a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-depression activities.
S9294 Gelsemine Gelsemine, a principal alkaloid from Gelsemium sempervirens Ait., is a highly toxic compound and may be a glycine receptor agonist with significantly higher binding affinity for some of these receptors than its native agonist, glycine.
S9295 Dauricine Dauricine, a plant metabolite isolated from the Asian vine Menispermum dauricum, plays a variety of biological roles in the human body, from inhibiting cancer cell growth to blocking cardiac transmembrane Na+, K+, and Ca2+ ion currents.Dauricine induces apoptosis, inhibits proliferation and invasion through inhibiting NF‐κB signaling pathway in colon cancer cells.
S9296 Fraxin Fraxin (Fraxetin-8-O-glucoside), a main active component isolated from Cortex Fraxini, possesses a variety of bioactivities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-hyperuricemia and diuresis.
S9297 Kirenol Kirenol is a biologically active substance isolated from Herba Siegesbeckiae. It has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-adipogenic, and anti-arthritic activities.
S9298 Corylin Corylin, a main compound isolated from Psoralea corylifolia L. (Fabaceae), has a variety of pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anti-proliferation, and anti-inflammatory properties.
S9300 Methylprotodioscin Methyl protodioscin, a bioactive natural compound isolated from Dioscorea collettii Makino (Dioscoreaceae), has numerous pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation, lipid-lowering, and anticancer activities.
S9301 Verbenalin Verbenalin (Verbenalol β-D-glucopyranoside, Verbenalol glucoside, Cornin), an iridoid glycoside found in Verbena officinalis, has been reported to exhibit uterine stimulant activity and demonstrated cardioprotection against experimental myocardial ischemic injury.
S9302 Polyphyllin VI Polyphyllin VI derived from Paris polyphylla possess anti-cancer activities.
S9303 Saikosaponin B2 Saikosaponin B2 is a naturally occurring terpenoid that efficiently inhibits hepatitis C virus entry.
S9304 Platycodin D Platycodin D, the main saponin isolated from Chinese herb Platycodonis Radix, exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, cholesterol-lowering and neuroprotective properties.
S9305 Toosendanin Toosendanin, a triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan Sieb et Zucc, possesses broad biological actions from blocking neurotransmission and antibotulism to inducing cell differentiation and apoptosis.
S9307 Shanzhiside methyl ester Shanzhiside methylester is a principle effective iridoid glycoside of L. rotata and serves as a small molecule glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist.
S9308 Pulsatilla saponin D Pulsatilla saponin D (SB365), isolated from the root of Pulsatilla koreana, targets c-Met and exerts antiangiogenic and antitumor activities.
S9309 Micheliolide Micheliolide, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Michelia compressa and Michelia champaca, inhibits various inflammatory response and may serve as a neuroprotective agent in neuroinflammation-related neurodegenerative disorders.
S9311 Germacrone Germacrone, a major activity component found in Curcuma zedoaria oil product, shows anti-inflammatory, antiandrogenic, and antimicrobial activities.
S9312 Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride (Kuromanin, Chrysontemin, Glucocyanidin) is a natural product with anti-oxidant and neuroprotective effects.
S9313 Atractylenolide III Atractylenolide III, a major component of Atractylodes rhizome, has anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenesis activities.
S9314 Atractylenolide II Atractylenolide II (AT-II, Asterolide, 2-Atractylenolide), a major sesquiterpenoids isolated from the dried Rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala, shows a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities, for example, against insomnia and anxiety, neuroprotective, platelet activation and anti-cancer effect.
S9315 Praeruptorin A Praeruptorin A, a naturally existing pyranocumarin, is isolated from the dried root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn. Praeruptorin A inhibits p38/Akt-c-Fos-NFATc1 signaling and PLCγ-independent Ca2+ oscillation. Praeruptorin A can significantly upregulates multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 expression via the constitutive androstane receptor-mediated pathway in vitro, and this should be taken as an herb-drug interaction.
S9316 Polyphyllin II Polyphyllin II, a natural compound extracted from Rhizoma of Paris polyphyllin, shows hemolytic activity.
S9317 Forsythoside A Forsythoside A, one of the main active ingredients in Forsythiae fructus, has been shown to possess anti-bacterial and immunomodulatory properties.
S9318 (20R)-Ginsenoside Rh1 (20R)-Ginsenoside Rh1, isolated from the root of Panax Ginseng, exhibits various pharmacological activities including vasorelaxation, antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and anticancer.
S9319 Cryptochlorogenic acid Cryptochlorogenic acid (4-Caffeoylquinic acid, 4-O-Caffeoylquinic acid), a phenolic acid found in various plant species, including Artemisia, honeysuckle, and H. sabdariffa, possesses antioxidant properties.
S9322 Neodiosmin Neodiosmin (Diosmetin-7-neohesperidoside, Diosmetin-7-O-neohesperidoside), a flavone glycoside isolated from C. aurantium, is a strong antioxidant with potential applications in foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical preparations.
S9324 Alnustone Alnustone, a naturally occuring compound found in the rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorrhiza, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic and antiemetic activities.
S9329 Orcinol Orcinol (5-Methylresorcinol; 3,5-ToluenediolOrcin; 5-Methyl-1,3-benzenediol; 3,5-Dihydroxytoluene), occurs in many species of lichens including Roccella tinctoria and Lecanora, exhibits antimutagenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, radical-scavenging effects.
S9343 Sequoyitol Sequoia alcohol (Sequoyitol) is isolated from Taxus natural organic compounds, it can be used to treat diabetes and other indications.
S9347 Allitol Allitol (Allodulcitol) is a rare polyol found in nature that is useful not only as a sweetener, but also as the raw material for production of chemical compounds.
S9348 D-(+)-Trehalose Anhydrous Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar. It is thought to provide plants and animals with the ability to withstanding periods of dehydration.
S9350 Ethyl 4-Methoxycinnamate Ethyl 4-Methoxycinnamate (Ethyl p-methoxycinnamate, 4-Methoxycinnamic Acid Ethyl Ester), a natural product found in K. galanga and C. zedoaria extracts, has anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, antifungal, larvicidal, and analgesic activities.
S9354 Oxalic acid Oxalic acid (Ethanedioic acid, Wood bleach) is a strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables.
S5636 Methyl furan-2-carboxylate Methyl furan-2-carboxylate (Methyl pyromucate, Methyl 2-furoate) is found in cocoa and cocoa products. It is used in food flavouring and preparation of sesquiterpene lactone.
S3814 Tubeimoside I Tubeimoside I (Lobatoside H, TBMS1), a triterpenoid saponin, isolated from the tubers of Bolbostemma paniculatum, shows potent antitumor and antitumor-promoting effects.
S8068 Chaetocin Chaetocin, a natural product from Chaetomium species, is a histone methyltransferase inhibitor with IC50 of 0.8 μM, 2.5 μM and 3 μM for dSU(VAR)3-9, mouse G9a and Neurospora crassa DIM5, respectively. Chaetocin is an anticancer agent and inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR).
S3790 Methyl gallate Methyl Gallate (Methylgallate, Gallic acid methyl ester, Gallicin) is a plant polyphenol with antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities.
S4800 Daminozide Daminozide (Aminozide, DMASA, DIMG, B 995, Alar, Kylar, B-NINE, SADH), a plant growth regulator, selectively inhibits the KDM2/7 JmjC subfamily with IC50 of 1.5±0.7 μM for KDM2A. It is at least 100-fold selective as an inhibitor of the KDM2/7 subfamily over the other demethylase subfamily members tested, with IC50s of 2 μM or less against KDM2A, PHF8, and KIAA1718 and IC50s of 127 μM for KDM3A or greater (mM range) against other demethylases.
S9188 Magnoflorine chloride Magnoflorine (Escholine, Thalictrine, Corytuberine methochloride), isolated from the rhizome of Sinomenium acutum and from Pachygone ovata, is usually used as an anxiolytic chemical with anti-oxidant, α-tyrosinase inhibitory and anti-inflammationary activities.
S9189 Oroxin A Oroxin A (Baicalein 7-O-glucoside), an active component isolated from the herb Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz, activates PPARγ and inhibits α-glucosidase, exerting antioxidant activity.
S9190 Oroxin B Oroxin B (Hypocretin-2), one of flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese herbal medicine Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent, selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells and has antioxidant activity. Oroxin B significantly inhibits proliferation and induce apoptosis, which may be strongly associated with the inhibiting COX-2/VEGF and PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in SMMC-7721 cells, Oroxin B potentially be used as a novel therapeutic agent for liver cancer.COX-2, VEGF, PI3K, and p-AKT expression levels are downregulated, while PTEN is upregulated after Oroxin B treatment.
S9191 Loganic acid Loganic acid (Loganate) is a naturally occurring iridoid monoterpeneglusoside involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids in Vinca rosea.
S9194 Toddalolactone Toddalolactone, a natural coumarin, inhibits the activity of recombinant human Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in a dose-dependent manner, yielding an IC50 value of 37.31 ± 3.23 μM.
S9195 Maltotetraose Maltotetraose, found in many foods, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as oligosaccharides.
S9196 Calceolarioside B Calceolarioside B (Nuomioside A), found in the herbs of Ajuga becumbens Thunb., has anti-proliferation property.Calceolarioside B exhibits significant inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) with an IC50 of 23.99 μM. Calceolarioside B displays inhibitory effect on DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 of 94.60 μM.
S9199 Pseudoginsenoside F11 Pseudoginsenoside F11, a natural product found in American ginseng but not in Asian ginseng, is a novel partial PPARγ agonist.
S9200 Pneumocandin B0 Pneumocandin B0 (L-688786) is a natural product and a key intermediate in the synthesis of the antifungal agent.
S9203 Notopterol Notopterol is a kind of furanocoumarin that possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anticancer activities.
S9204 Oroxylin A Oroxylin A (6-Methoxybaicalein) is a flavonoid isolated from Scutellaria root that exhibits multiple pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties.
S9205 Hydroxygenkwanin Hydroxygenkwanin (7-O-Methylluteolin), a natural flavonoid compound, has anti-oxidant ability and can act as tissue factor (TF) inhibitor to prevent thrombosis.
S9206 Hydroprotopine Hydroprotopine (W1171) is a kind of natural herbal extract.
S9514 Rotundic acid Rotundic acid (Rutundic acid), a natural compound, exhibit cytotoxic activities toward human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), malignant melanoma (A375), SCLC (NCI-H446), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (HT-29) cell lines.RA induces cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and apoptosis by modulating the AKT/mTOR and MAPK pathways.
S9207 Gypenoside XVII Gypenoside XVII (GP-17, Gynosaponin S), a ginsenoside found in Panax species, has neuroprotective effects and is widely used to prevent cardiovascular disease.GP-17 treatment predominantly up-regulating the expression of ERα but not ERβ.
S9208 Ginsenoside Rb3 Ginsenoside Rb3, extracted from the plant Panax ginseng, plays important roles in cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ginsenoside Rb3 (0.1-10 μM) is tested for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)-induced nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) luciferase reporter activity using a human kidney 293T cell-based assay. Ginsenoside Rb3 shows the significant activity with an IC50 of 8.2 μM. Ginsenoside Rb3 also inhibits the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger Ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in a dose-dependent manner after HepG2 cells have been treated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL).
S9209 Tritetradecanoin Tritetradecanoin, found in Myristica fragrans Houtt., is used as an antiadhesion agent and lubricating agent.
S9210 Ginsenoside Rk1 Ginsenoside Rk1, one of the main elements of Sung Ginseng, has been confirmed as a new endothelial barrier enhancer recently and has anti-cancer activity.
S9211 Eriocitrin Eriocitrin (eriodictyol 7-rutinoside, Eriodictyol glycoside, Eriodictioside) is a flavone glycoside mainly found in lemon with antioxidant activity.
S9213 Jujuboside A Jujuboside A, isolated from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, exerts anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory activities, and reduces the cell apoptosis.
S9214 Jujuboside B Jujuboside B, one of the saponins isolated from the seeds of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa, is used in traditional chinese medicine for treating cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases.
S9215 Pinoresinol diglucoside Pinoresinol diglucoside, one of the major lignans isolated from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver bark, has various pharmacological functions, including antihypertension and prevention of osteoporosis.
S9216 Esculentoside A Esculentoside A, isolated from the Chinese herb phytolacca esculenta, possesses a broad inhibitory effect on a panel of pro-inflammation molecules with less toxicity.
S9217 Complanatuside Complanatuside, a flavonoid compound isolated from Astragalus complanatus and Lysimachia christinae, has anti-inflammation, lipid-lowering and hepatoprotective effects.
S9219 Huperzine B Huperzine B, a natural alkaloid existed in Lycopodium plants, is a novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and has neuroprotective effects.
S9221 Ferulaldehyde Ferulaldehyde (Coniferaldehyde, Ferulyl aldehyde) is a natural intermediate of polyphenol metabolism of intestinal microflora.
S9222 Dipotassium glycyrrhizinate Glycyrrhizinate dipotassium (Neubormitin) is a widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root.
S9223 Talatisamine Talatisamine, a delphinine type alkaloid extracted from Aconitum talassicum, is a newly identified K+ channel blocker with hypotensive and antiarrhythmic activities.
S9224 Dehydroandrographolide Succinate Dehydroandrographolide succinate (DAS), extracted from herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata (Burm f) Nees, has antibacterial and antiviral effects.
S9226 Steviolbioside Steviolbioside (CCRIS-6025), a natural sweetener, exhibits moderate antituberculosis activity against M. tuberculosis strain H37RV in vitro.
S9228 Schisandrin C Schisandrin C, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill, has many characteristics including anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidation.
S9229 Linderane Linderane, isolated from Lindera strychnifolia vill., is an indirect PDE3 activator and possesses multiple biological effects, including superoxide anion radical-scavenging and antioxidative activity and protective activity against gastritis, gastric ulcers and backache.
S9230 Vaccarin Vaccarin, a major flavonoid glycoside found in Semen vaccariae, exhibits extensive biological activities including vascular endothelial cell protective effects.
S9231 Schisanhenol Schisanhenol (Gomisin K3) is a compound derived from the fruit of a traditional Chinese herb Schisandra rubriflora, exhibiting strong inhibition toward UGT2B7.
S9232 Crocin II Crocin II (Crocin B, Crocetin gentiobiosylglucosyl ester, Tricrocin), a carotenoid chemical compound that is found in the flowers crocus and gardenia, is an antioxidant and neural protective agent.
S9233 Imperialine Imperialine (Sipeimine, Kashmirine) is an alkaloid found in the bulbs of species of the genus Fritillaria.
S9234 Schaftoside Schaftoside, a bioactive compound found in the Herba Desmodii Styracifolii, exhibits pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity. Schaftoside inhibits the expression of TLR4 and Myd88. Schaftoside also decreases Drp1 expression and phosphorylation, and reduces mitochondrial fission.
S9235 Didymin Didymin (Neoponcirin, Isosakuranetin-7-O-rutinoside) is a citrus-derived natural compound that kills p53 wild-type as well as drug-resistant p53-mutant neuroblastoma cells in culture. It possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammation and anti-cancer properties.
S9237 Berberrubine Berberrubine (Beroline, 9-Berberoline), an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from many medicinal plants, possesses diverse pharmacological activities, including glucose-lowering, lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects.
S9238 Polygalic acid Polygalic acid (Senegenic acid), a triterpenoid saponin, shows expectorant, emetic and stimulant effects.
S9239 Isocorynoxeine Isocorynoxeine (7-Isocorynoxeine), a major alkaloid found in Uncaria rhynchophylla, exhibits wide beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and cardiocerebral vascular systems. Isocorynoxeine suppress 5-HT2A receptor-mediated current response with IC50 of 72.4 μM.
S9240 Isofraxidin Isofraxidin (6,8-Dimethoxyumbelliferone), a bioactive coumarin compound isolated from the functional foods Siberian ginseng and Apium graveolens, is an anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory agent.
S9242 Narirutin Narirutin (Naringenin-7-O-rutinoside, Isonaringin), a flavanone abundant in citrus fruits, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.
S9243 Protosappanin B Protosappanin B (FT-0689654, Q-100961), extracted from Lignum Sappan, possesses anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation properties.
S9244 8-O-acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester 8-O-acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester (Barlerin, ND01), isolated from the leaves of Lamiophlomis rotata Kudo, promotes angiogenesis, which leads to the improvement of functional outcome after stroke.8-O-Acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester can inhibts NF-κB.
S9245 Phellodendrine chloride Phellodendrine chloride, isolated from the Phellodrndron amurensis, exhibits immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9246 Tiliroside Tiliroside, a glycosidic flavonoid, possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and hepatoprotective activities.
S9247 Isoliensinine Isoliensinine is an alkaloid produced by the edible plant Nelumbo nucifera. It possesses anti-cancer, anti-fibrosis, anti-proliferative, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9248 Homoorientin Homoorientin (Isoorientin, Luteolin-6-C-glucoside) is a flavone that acts as a radical scavenger and an antineoplastic agent.
S9249 Securinine Securinine, a major natural alkaloid product from the root of the plant Securinega suffruticosa, acts as a γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptor antagonist.
S9250 Isosilybin Isosilybin (Silymarin, Silybin B, Isosilybinin, Q-100795) is a flavanolignan found in the extract of S. marianum fruits with antioxidant and anticancer activities. Isosilybin inhibits CYP3A4 induction with an IC50 of 74 μM.
S9251 Oxypeucedanin Oxypeucedanin is a major coumarin aglycone that can be extracted from Ostericum koreanum. It is a kind of open-channel blocker of the hKv1.5 channel.
S9252 Corydaline Corydaline is a bioactive alkaloid with various anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-allergic, and anti-nociceptive activities found in the medicinal herb Corydalis Tubers.
S9253 Coixol Coixol (6-methoxybenzoxazolone, MBOA) acts as a central muscle relaxant with an anti-convulsant effect.
S9254 Skimmin Skimmin is one of the major pharmacologically active molecules present in Hydrangea paniculata, a medical herb used in the traditional Chinese medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent.
S9255 Isoscopoletin Isoscopoletin (7-Methoxyesculetin) is a member of the class of compounds known as hydroxycoumarins. Isoscopoletin can be found in coriander and eggplant, which makes isoscopoletin a potential biomarker for the consumption of these food products.
S9256 Isobavachin Isobavachin is a flavonoid compound obtained from Psoralea Corylifolia Linn.
S9257 Acetylshikonin Acetylshikonin is a biologically active compound with anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity, which is isolated from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizoma. It is a novel general P450 inhibitor with IC50 values of 1.4-4.0 μM for all tested P450s.
S9258 (+)-Isocorynoline Isocorynoxeine, a major bioactive tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids found in Uncaria rhynchophylla, exhibits a dose-dependent inhibition of 5-HT2A receptor-mediated current response with an IC50 of 72.4 μM and shows various beneficial effects, including lowering blood pressure, vasodilatation, and protection against ischemia-induced neuronal damage.
S9260 Nodakenin Nodakenin ((+)-Marmesinin), a coumarin compound, acts as an AChE inhibitor that inhibits AChE activity in a dosedependent manner with an IC50 value of 84.7 μM.
S9265 7-Epitaxol 7-Epitaxol (7-Epipaclitaxel) is the major derivative of taxol found in cells. Taxol (paclitaxel) is a well-known natural-source cancer drug.
S9266 Ginsenoside Rc Ginsenoside Rc, isolated from Panax ginseng, may exert various activities including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and anti-diabetic effects.
S9186 Liensinine perchlorate Liensinine is the active constituent of plumula nelambinis with anti-hypertension.
S9187 Phillygenin Phillygenin (Sylvatesmin), a bioactive intergradient in Osmanthus fragrans, has anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity and antipyretic activities. It could reduce blood lipid levels and low density lipoprotein.
S9517 Liriope muscari baily saponins C Liriope muscari baily saponins C, extracted from the roots of Liriope muscari (Decne.) Baily, induces autophagy and has an anti-thrombotic activity.
S9201 Levistilide A Levistilide A (Diligustilide), a natural compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, is a potential P-gp modulator and used for treating cancer.
S9512 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid (Cynarin; Cinarine; 1,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid) is a phenolic compound found in artichoke. It shows antioxidant and choleretic properties and is a potential immunosuppressive agent.
S9114 Polyphyllin I Polyphyllin I, a small molecular monomer extracted from Rhizoma of Paris polyphyllin, is used in the treatment of infectious disease and cancer. Polyphyllin I inhibits proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death in U251 cells. Polyphyllin I is an activator of the JNK signaling pathway with a potential anti-glioma effect.
S9115 Wogonoside Wogonoside (Oroxindin, Wogonin 7-O-glucuronide, Glychionide B), the main flavonoid component derived from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, displays anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anticancer chemotherapeutic activities.
S9116 Chikusetsusaponin IVa Chikusetsusaponin IVa (Calenduloside F), a major active ingredient of triterpenoid saponins, has numerous pharmacological activities, including cytotoxic activity against various cancer cells, anti-inflammatory activity, prevention of dental caries and induction of genta-micin nephrotoxicity. Chikusetsusaponin IVa is a novel AMPK activator.
S9117 (20S)Ginsenoside Rg2 (20S)Ginsenoside Rg2, a constituent existing in red ginseng, has been reported to exert strong inhibitory action on various cancer cells.
S9119 Leonuride Leonuride (Ajugol), an active alkaloid that is extracted from Traditional Chinese Medicine Herba leonuri, is a terpene glycoside that can be used for some gynecological disease.
S9121 Irigenin Irigenin, an O-methylated isoflavone, can be isolated from the rhizomes of the leopard lily (Belamcanda chinensis), and Iris kemaonensis.
S9122 Tectorigenin Tectorigenin (TEC) is an isoflavone isolated from various medicinal plants, such as Pueraria thunbergiana Benth, Belamcanda chinensis, and Iris unguicularis. It has been reported to exert pharmacological actions, including antitumor and antibacterial effects, free radical neutralization, and selective estrogen receptor modulation.
S9123 Eriodictyol Eriodictyol, a flavonoid extracted from yerba santa, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and taste-modifying properties.
S9125 Apigetrin Apigetrin (Cosmetin, Cosmosioside, Thalictiin, Cosmosin, Apigenin 7-glucoside), a flavonoid found in many plant leaves and seeds, has been known to possess antimutagenic, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
S9126 Schizandrol B Schizandrol B (Gomisin A, Besigomsin, Wuweizi alcohol B, Gamma-Schisandrin), extracted from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill., exhibits potent antitumor activities.
S9127 Carnosol Carnosol is a naturally occurring phenolic diterpene found in rosemary. It has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities.
S9128 Isoacteoside Isoacteoside, a phenylethanoid isolated from Monochasma savatieri Franch. ex Maxim., is an anti‐inflammatory herb widely used in traditional Chinese medicine.
S9129 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh1 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh1 (Prosapogenin A2, Sanchinoside B2, Sanchinoside Rh1) is one of major bioactive compounds extracted from red ginseng, which has been increasingly used for enhancing cognition and physical health worldwide. It exhibits potent characteristics of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory effects, and positive effects on the nervous system. Ginsenoside Rh1 inhibits the expression of PPAR-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β.
S9130 Rubusoside Rubusoside is a natural sweetener and a solubilizing agent with antiangiogenic and antiallergic properties.
S9131 Punicalagin Punicalagin, a major ellagitannin found in pomegranate extracts, has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects.
S9132 Harpagide Harpagide, isolated from the secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens (Hp), has valuable medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic and potential antirheumatic effects.
S9133 Chicoric acid Chicoric acid (Dicaffeoyltartaric acid), identified in many plants, exerts various properties include anti-cancer, anti-obesity, antiviral, and anti-diabetic effects.
S9134 Spinosin Spinosin (Flavoayamenin), a flavone-C-glycoside, is a bioactive ingredient isolated from a traditional Chinese herb Zizyphi Spinosi Semen. It acts as a plant metabolite and an anxiolytic drug.
S9135 Artemisic acid Artemisic acid (Artemisinic acid), an amorphane sesquiterpene isolated from Artemisia annua L., has a variety of pharmacological activity, such as antimalarial activity, anti-tumor activity, antipyretic effect, antibacterial activity, allelopathy effect and anti-adipogenesis effect.
S9136 Neochlorogenic acid Neochlorogenic acid (Neochlorogenate, 5-O-Caffeoylquinic acid) is a natural polyphenolic compound found in some types of dried fruits and a variety of other plant sources such as peaches. It shows antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and antipyretic activities and exerts neuroprotective effects through the inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways in activated microglia.
S9137 Erianin Erianin, a natural product derived from Dendrobium chrysotoxum, has been used as an analgesic in traditional Chinese medicine and is a potential anti-tumor agent. Erianin can inhibit IDO-induced tumor angiogenesis.
S9138 Picfeltarraenin IA Picfeltarraenin IA is an AChE inhibitior, and an potential PI3K and EGFR inhibitor. It also acts as an inhibitor on both the classical and alternative pathways of the complement system.
S9141 Berbamine Berbamine (BA), a traditional Chinese medicines extracted from Berberis amurensis (xiaoboan), is a novel inhibitor of bcr/abl fusion gene with potent anti-leukemia activity and also an inhibitor of NF-κB. Berbamine (BA) induces apoptosis in human myeloma cells and inhibits the growth of cancer cells by targeting Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII).
S9143 Ammonium Glycyrrhizate Ammonium glycyrrhizate (Glycamil, Glycyrram) is an ammonium salt extract isolated from licorice root and is commonly used as a flavoring agent and is also used in fragrances, and skin and hair care products.
S9144 Solasonine Solasonine, a natural glycoalkaloid compound, has anti-inflammation and anti-tumor properties.
S9145 Solamargine Solamargine, a bioactive steroidal alkaloid isolated from Solanum aculeastrum, induces potent, non-selective cytotoxicity and P-gp inhibition.
S9146 Anwuligan Anwuligan (Macelignan), a natural compound isolated from Myristica fragrans Houtt, has antimicrobial and anticariogenic activity against Streptococcus mutans and other streptococcus species. It also shows antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and neuroprotective activities.
S9148 Peiminine Peiminine (Verticinone, Zhebeinone, Raddeanine), a biologically active component extracted from Fritillaria walujewii Regel, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory, antitussive, and expectorant effects. It induces autophagic cell death thus represses colorectal carcinoma tumor growth.
S9149 Benzoylpaeoniflorin Benzoylpaeoniflorin, a natural product isolated from Chinese paeony root, could inhibit COX-1 and COX-2 in vitro.
S9150 Daurisoline Daurisoline, a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the rhizomes of Menispermum dauricum, is a potent autophagy blockers with antiarrhythmic effects.
S9151 Praeruptorin E Praeruptorin E, isolated from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn., is a cardiotonic agent with selective cardiac calcium channel agonistic effect.
S9152 Epiberberine Epiberberine, a natural protoberberine alkaloid, is a potent inhibitor against both ureases with IC50 values of 3.0±0.01μM for HPU (ureases from Helicobacter pylori) and 2.3±0.01μM for JBU (ureases from jack bean).
S9153 Betulinicaldehyde Betulinicaldehyde (Betulinal, Betunal), isolated from the bark of tectona grandis., is an anti-tumor agent.
S9154 Chelidonine Chelidonine (Stylophorin, Helidonine), a major bioactive, isoquinoline alkaloid ingredient in Chelidonium majus, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.
S9155 Aurantio-obtusin Aurantio-obtusin is a natural effective compound isolated from Semen Cassiae, which possesses hypotensive and hypolipidemic effects.
S9156 Chonglou Saponin VII Chonglou Saponin VII (Dioscinin, Polyphyllin-VII, Paris saponin-VII), a kind of steroidal saponins from Chonglou (Rhizoma Paridis Chonglou), inhibits EMT and reduces the invasion of ovarian cancer cells via the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.
S9157 Neoandrographolide Neoandrographolide, a principle diterpenoids isolated from A. paniculata, exerts a wide range of therapeutic actions, including immunosuppressant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative stress, antipyretic, anti-edematogenic, and anti-nociceptive activities.
S9159 momordin-Ic Momordin Ic, a natural triterpenoid saponin, is a novel SENP1 (SUMO-specific protease 1) inhibitor that inhibited proliferation of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
S5742 Deferoxamine mesylate (Ba 33112) Deferoxamine mesylate (Ba 33112, Desferrioxamine B, DFOM, NSC 644468) is the mesylate salt of Deferoxamine, which forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent. Deferoxamine is a ferroptosis inhibitor that stabilizes HIF-1α expression and improves HIF-1α transactivity in hypoxic and hyperglycemic states in vitro. Deferoxamine decreases beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and induces autophagy.
S9160 Ziyu-glycoside I Ziyuglycoside I is one of the major active ingredients in Sanguisorba officinalis and could be used as an active ingredient for cosmetics.
S9161 Ziyuglycoside II Ziyuglycoside II is an active compound of Sanguisorba officinalis L. that has anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antibiosis, and homeostasis properties.
S9162 Rubimaillin Rubimaillin (Mollugin), found in the Chinese medical plant Rubia cordifola, is a dual inhibitor of acetyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) and acetyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), but is more selective for the ACAT2 isozyme.
S9163 Rhapontigenin Rhapontigenin (Protigenin), produced from rhapontin isolated from a methanol extract of Rheum undulatum roots by enzymatic transformation, is a selective inactivator of cytochrome P450 1A1 (IC50 = 400 nM).
S9164 Curdione Curdione, one of the major components of Curcuma zedoaria, shows an excellent antithrombotic activity in vivo.
S9165 Poncirin Poncirin (Isosakuranetin-7-neohesperidoside), extracted from trifoliate orange, has anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9167 Columbin Columbin, a diterpenoid furanolactone, is a potential anti-inflammatory drug.
S9168 Periplogenin Periplogenin (Desoxostrophanthidin, 5-beta-Hydroxydigitoxigenin), isolated from Lagenaria siceraria, has potent anti-psoriatic effects in vitro and in vivo.
S9171 Harpagoside Harpagoside, a natural product found in the plant Harpagophytum procumbens, has potent anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
S9172 Phellodendrine Phellodendrine, a quaternary ammonium alkaloid extracted from the dried bark of Phellodendrom chinensis Schneid and Phellodendrom amurense Rupr, has the effect of suppressing cellular immune response, reducing blood pressure and antinephritis.
S9173 Sec-O-Glucosylhamaudol Sec-O-Glucosylhamaudol (Hamaudol 3-glucoside) is one of the major bioactive compounds of the Saposhnikoviae Radix.
S9174 Xanthotoxol Xanthotoxol (8-Hydroxypsoralen, 8-Hydroxypsoralene, 8-Hydroxyfuranocoumarin, Psoralen), a biologically active linear furocoumarin found in a large number of plants, shows strong pharmacological activities as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, 5-HT antagonistic, and neuroprotective effects.
S9175 Macranthoidin A Macranthoidin A, found in the herbs of Lonicera japonica Thunb., has anti-inflammation activity.
S9176 Pimpinellin Pimpinellin is a furocoumarin that acts as antagonist of proteins with GABA receptor activity.
S9177 Gypenoside XLIX Gypenoside XLIX, a naturally occurring gynosaponin, is a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activator.
S9178 Sinapine thiocyanate Sinapine thiocyanate is the thiocyanate salt form of Sinapine, which shows favorable biological activities such as antioxidant and radio-protective activities.
S9179 Catharanthine hemitartrate Catharanthine hemitartrate is the starting material for the synthesis of the antitumor drugs vinblastine and vincristine.
S9180 Tussilagone Tussilagone, isolated from the flower of buds of Tussilago farfara (Compositae), is a sesquiterpenoid that is used as a traditional oriental medicine for asthma and bronchitis. It shows anti-inflammatory activity in in vitro studies.
S9181 Periplocin Periplocin (Periplocoside), extracted from the traditional herbal medicine cortex periplocae, has cardiac and anticancer activity. Periplocin could significantly boost proliferation, migration and stimulate collagen production in fibroblast L929 cells, which is dependent on activation of Src/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways mediated by Na/K-ATPase, and thus promoting wound healing.
S9182 Crebanine Crebanine, an aporphine alkaloid isolated from the crude hexane extract of the dried tuber of Stephania venosa, exhibits anti-cancer effects.
S9183 Ruscogenin Ruscogenin, a major steroidal sapogenin of traditional Chinese herb Radix Ophiopogon japonicus, has been reported to exert significant anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic activities.
S9184 Forsythoside B Forsythoside B is a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the leaves of Lamiophlomis rotata Kudo, a Chinese folk medicinal plant. Forsythoside B has potent neuroprotective effects and has anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and antisepsis properties. Forsythoside B could inhibit TNF-alpha, IL-6, IκB and modulate NF-κB.
S9185 Nitidine Chloride Nitidine Chloride, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid found in species of the genus Zanthoxylum, has an anti-malarial activity.
S9455 Isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperoside Isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperoside is the major active substance of Puhuang, a traditional herb medicine widely used in clinical practice to tackle many chronic diseases. It has significant biological and pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, antiatherogenic and antimicrobial effects.
S9511 Crocin I Crocin-I, a major member of the crocin family, has antidepressant activity and ameliorates the disruption of lipid metabolism and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota induced by chronic corticosterone in mice.
S9515 Polyphyllin VII Polyphyllin VII (Y-0166), the the main member of polyphyllin family, shows strong anticancer activity against several carcinomas, including lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cervical cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and osteosarcoma.
S5129 D-Aspartic acid D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp, Aminosuccinic acid, asparagic acid, asparaginic acid) is an endogenous amino acid occurring in several tissues and cells of both invertebrates and vertebrates. It can regulate testosterone synthesis and may act on a stimulatory receptor (NMDA).
S9055 Salvianolic acid A Salvianolic acid A (Dan Phenolic Acid A), a water-soluble compound extracted from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), is an antioxidant and free radical scavenging compound that also acts as an inhibitor of the protein-protein interaction mediated by SH2 domains of Src-family kinases Src and Lck.
S9052 Auraptene Auraptene (7-geranyloxycoumarin) is a natural coumarin derived from citrus plants and possesses valuable pharmacological properties, including anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antihelicobacter, antigenotoxic, and neuroprotective effects. Auraptene inhibits matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) as well as key inflammatory mediators, including IL-6, IL-8 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-5(CCL5).
S9045 Triptophenolide Triptophenolide (Hypolide), derived from Tripterygium wilfordii, is a pan-antagonist for wild-type and mutant androgen receptors with the IC50 values of 260 nM for AR-WT, 480 nM for AR-F876L, 388 nM for AR-T877A, and 437 nM for W741C+T877A.
S9061 Hydroxy safflor yellow A Hydroxy safflor yellow A, a monomer extracted from Carthamus tinctorius L., possesses various kinds of bio-activities, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory actions, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-tumor and anti-myocardial injury effects.
S9062 4-Hydroxyisoleucine 4-Hydroxyisoleucine, an atypical branched-chain amino acid derived from fenugreek, has effects on the glucose and lipid metabolism, stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion and reduces insulin resistance in muscle and/or liver.
S9063 Harringtonine Harringtonine is a natural cephalotaxine alkaloid that inhibits protein biosynthesis. It also exhibits antiviral and anticancer activities.
S9064 Trilobatin Trilobatin (P-Phlorizin), a natural flavonoid lipid molecule, is an HIV-1 entry inhibitor targeting the HIV-1 Gp41 envelope and exihibits anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect.
S9065 Songorine Songorine, a ubiquitous alkaloid in the genus Aconitum, is a novel antagonist of the GABAA receptor in rat brain and has antiarrhythmic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, regenerative and CNS-modulating properties.
S9066 Specnuezhenide Specnuezhenide (Nuezhenide), one of the main ingredients of Chinese medicine, has anti-angiogenic and vision improvement effects.
S9067 Pseudoprotodioscin Pseudoprotodioscin is a steroidal saponin from plants and exhibits anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Pseudoprotodioscin inhibits SREBP1/2 and microRNA 33a/b levels and reduces the gene expression regarding the synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides.
S9068 Trillin Trillin (Disogluside, Diosgenin glucoside) is an active ingredient isolated from Trillium tschonoshii Maxim and acts as a potential anti-inflammatory drug for chronic hepatic inflammation.
S9069 Jatrorrhizine chloride Jatrorrhizine chloride (Neprotine, Yatrorhizine) is the hydrochloride salt form of jatrorrhizine, which is an inhibitor of AChE with IC50 of 872 nM and demonstrates >115-fold selectivity for AChE over BuChE.
S9070 Isoxanthohumol Isoxanthohumol is one of the most important prenylflavonoids found in hops. It exhibits an antiproliferative activity against human breast cancer cell lines, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer cells. Isoxanthohumol shows an antiviral activity towards herpes viruses (HSV1 and HSV2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).
S9072 Sweroside Sweroside, a bioactive herbal ingredient isolated from Fructus Corni, exhibits diverse biological activities, such as anti-fungal, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects.
S9073 Lithospermoside Lithospermoside (Griffonin), extracted from the roots of Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum and L.officinale (Borginaceae), and Thalictrum rugosum and T. dasycarpum (Ranunculaceae), has anti-oxidant, anti-tumor promoting activities.
S9074 Buddlejasaponin IVb Buddlejasaponin IVb (Saikosaponin 1b), a major component of Pleurospermum kamtschaticum, exerts anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects against cancer cells.
S9075 Mulberroside A Mulberroside A, isolated from the ethanol extract of Morus alba roots, is widely employed as an active ingredient in cosmetic products due to its anti-tyrosinase and anti-oxidant activities. Mulberroside A decreases the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 and inhibits the activation of NALP3, caspase-1 and NF-κB and the phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38.
S9076 Typhaneoside Typhaneoside is a flavonoid glycoside plant extract that has an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human umbilical arterial smooth muscle cell(HUASMC).
S9077 Plantamajoside Plantamajoside (Y0160, C10485), a hydroxycinnamic acid, is used as a biomarker in chemotaxonomical studies, and is a compound with numerous biological applications and considerable pharmacological potential.
S9078 Epigoitrin Epigoitrin (Goitrin, BA-51-090278), the main bioactive constituent of Radix isatidis, exerts antiviral, anticancer, and antithyroid activities.
S9079 Ginsenoside Rb2 Ginsenoside Rb2 (Ginsenoside C) is a ginsenoside found in Panax ginseng that has a role as a plant metabolite, an antiviral agent and a hypoglycemic agent.
S9080 Anhydroicaritin Anhydroicaritin (Cycloicaritin), a prenylated flavonoid natural product, is commonly recognized as one of the effective compounds of Epimedii Herba and exhibits a variety of biological activities, such as activation of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of growth, protection against beta amyloid-induced neurotoxicity, and promotion of neuronal and cardiac cellular differentiation. It is a potent inhibitor of transcription factor SREBPs.
S9081 Anemoside B4 Anemoside B4 (Pulchinenoside B4, Chinensioside A, Pulchinenoside C, Pulsatilla saponin B4), extracted from the herb of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bge.) Regel, is a potential antiviral constituent and inhibits the secretion of IL-10.
S9082 Manninotriose Manninotriose, found in many foods, is a novel and important player in the RFO metabolism of red dead deadnettle.
S9083 Rhapontin Rhapontin (Ponticin, Rhaponticin, Rhapontigenin glucoside), a stibene-type glycoside distributed widely in medicinal plants of Rheum genus (Polygonaceae), has anti-inflammatory effect and anti-proliferative activity.
S9084 Rhoifolin Rhoifolin (Rhoifoloside, Apigenin 7-O-neohesperidoside, Apigenin-7-O-rhamnoglucoside), a natural glycoside of apigenin, has been obtained from the green leaves of Rhus succedanea and possesses a variety of significant biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects.
S9085 Corynoline Corynoline is one of the major active components of many ethnopharmacological plants and exhibits anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, etc.
S9111 Isorhamnetin Isorhamnetin (3-methylquercetin, 3'-Methoxyquercetin, Isorhamnetol), a natural flavonol aglycon, is a tyrosinase inhibitor and has antioxidant activity.
S9112 Kaempferitrin Kaempferitrin (Lespenefril, Lespedin, Lespenephryl, Kaempferol 3,7-dirhamnoside), isolated from the leaves of Hedyotis verticillata and from Onychium japonicum, has antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9113 Ononin Ononin (Formononetin glucoside, Formononetin 7-O-glucoside) is an isoflavone glycoside with anti-inflammtory effects.
S9101 Ingenol Ingenol, a plant-derived diterpenoid, is a weak PKC activator and possesses important anticancer activity.
S9019 Quillaic acid Quillaic acid is the major aglycone of the widely studied saponins of the Chilean indigenous tree Quillaja saponaria Mol and shows strong anti-inflammatory activity.
S9020 Dihydrotanshinone I Dihydrotanshinone I (15,16-dihydrotanshinone I) is a naturally occurring compound extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, also known as Chinese sage, red sage root, and the Chinese herbal Dan Shen. It is a potent inhibitor of the HuR:RNA interaction, active in the low nanomolar range, mainly by limiting the association rate of HuR with RNA.
S9021 (20R)Ginsenoside Rg3 (20R)Ginsenoside Rg3 is extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, red ginseng. It has a role as an antioxidant and a plant metabolite.
S9022 20S-Ginsenoside Rg3 20S-Ginsenoside Rg3 is extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, red ginseng. It exihits neuromodulatory, cognition enhancing, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti-angiogenic, and anticancer activities.
S9023 20S-Ginsenoside Rh2 20S-Ginsenoside Rh2 is a ginsenoside found in Panax species and inhibits cancer development, progression, and metastasis.
S9026 Hastatoside Hastatoside is a characteristic constituent of V. officinalis and exhibit various biological activities including sleep-promoting, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity.
S9029 Prim-o-glucosylcimifugin Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin (Cimifugin beta-D-glucopyranoside, Cimifugin 7-glucoside) is a major constituent in Radix Saposhnikovia that has been long used for the treatment of pyrexia, rheumatism, and cancer in traditional Chinese medicine. It shows potential anticancer activity. Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin downregulates the mRNA and protein expression inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner.
S9031 Gambogenic acid Gambogenic Acid, identified from Gamboge, is an inhibitor of the FGFR signaling pathway in erlotinib-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and exhibits anti-tumor effects. Gambogenic acid acts is also an effective inhibitor of EZH2 that specifically and covalently binds to Cys668 within the EZH2-SET domain, and triggers EZH2 ubiquitination.
S9034 Isochlorogenic acid C Isochlorogenic acid C (3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acid; 4,5-Dicaffeoylquinic acid), which is a di-O-caffeoyl derivative of chlorogenic acid, is a well-known antioxidant from herbal plants and shows anti-viral effects against EV71.
S9039 Albiflorin Albiflorin, a natural product isolated from Paeoniae Radix, is a novel 5-HT and NE reuptake inhibitor with high selectivity.
S9040 Maslinic acid Maslinic Acid (Crategolic Acid, 2α-Hydroxyoleanoic Acid), a Natural Triterpene, exerts a wide range of biological activities, i.e. antitumor, antidiabetic, antioxidant, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, antiparasitic and growth-stimulating. MA significantly suppresses the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB p65 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.
S9054 Pectolinarin Pectolinarin is a major compound in Cirsium setidens with anti-inflammatory activity. Pectolinarin inhibits secretion of IL-6 and IL-8, as well as the production of PGE2 and NO. Pectolinarin induces apoptosis via inactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway.
S9050 Boldine Boldine, isolated from Peumus boldus, has alpha-adrenergic antagonist activities in vascular tissue with anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, cytoprotective, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects.
S9049 Parishin A Parishin A, isolated from the rhizomes of Gastrodia elata, has good neuroprotective effects against brain disorders.
S9060 Nystose Nystose (1,1-Kestotetraose, Fungitetraose), a constituent of seeds of onions and roots of Asparagus, is a low-calorie sweetening agent for food and chewing gum.
S9092 Norisoboldine Norisoboldine (Laurelliptine), a natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, attenuates ulcerative colitis (UC) and induces the generation of Treg cells.
S9093 Nardosinone Nardosinone, isolated from Nardostachys root, an important Chinese herbal medicine, is an enhancer of nerve growth factor and possesses a wide range of pharmacological effects, including sedative, adaptogen-like, anti-depressive, anti-leukemic, anti-tumorous, and anti-trypanosomal activities.
S9097 Alisol B Acetate Alisol B acetate, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizoma, induces Bax up-regulation and nuclear translocation, the activation of initiator caspase-8 and caspase-9, and executor caspase-3, suggesting the involvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways.
S9098 Dehydrodiisoeugenol Dehydrodiisoeugenol, a naturally occurring lignan from Aristolochia taliscana (Aristolochiaceae), acts as a potent anti-inflammatory agent and shows various pharmacological activities, including anti-lipid peroxidation, anti-bacteial function, and hepatic drug metabolism enzyme inhibition.
S9099 Orientin Orientin (Lutexin, Luteolin-8-glucoside), isolated from medicinal plants, has various activities including anti-oxidant, anti-aging, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammation, vasodilatation and cardioprotective, antiadipogenesis, antinociceptive, radiation protective, neuroprotective, and antidepressant-like effects.
S9100 Fraxinellone Fraxinellone is a natural product isolated from the D. dasycarpus plant, which has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9102 Magnolin Magnolin is a natural compound abundantly found in Magnolia flos targeting ERK1 (IC50=87 nM) and ERK2 (IC50=16.5 nM) and inhibits cell transformation induced by tumor promoters such as epidermal growth factor (EGF).
S9103 Ginsenoside Ro Ginsenoside Ro (Chikusetsusaponin V), one of the high-abundance saponins in ginseng, is widely used as a dietary supplement and has many health-promoting effects.
S9104 Maltopentaose Maltopentaose is a substrate for energy metabolism and carbon for E. coli.
S9105 Ginsenoside CK Ginsenoside CK is a ginsenoside found in Panax species and has a role as a plant metabolite, an antineoplastic agent, a hepatoprotective agent, an anti-allergic agent and an anti-inflammatory agent.
S9108 Timosaponin A3 Timosaponin A3 (Filiferin B, AneMarsaponin A3), one of the major steroidal saponin components isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides, displays promising pharmacological activity in improving learning, memory, and antineoplastic activity.
S9056 Tuberostemonine Tuberostemonine, a natural product found in Stemona phyllantha and Stemona tuberosa, is an alkaloid and a metabolite.
S9053 Irisflorentin Irisflorentin derived from the roots of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. is an herb which has been used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders in traditional Chinese medicine.
S9051 Asperuloside Asperuloside, an iridoid glycoside found in Herba Paederiae, is a component from traditional Chinese herbal medicine and exerts anti-inflammatory effect.
S9048 (+)-Gallocatechin (+)-Gallocatechin, found notably in green tea, has moderate affinity to the human cannabinoid receptor and acts as an antioxidant.
S9057 Sinigrin Sinigrin (Allylglucosinolate, 2-Propenylglucosinolate) is a glucosinolate found in some plants of the Brassicaceae family and exerts various activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and wound healing effects.
S9058 Gallocatechin gallate Gallocatechin galleate (GCG) is a polyphenol originally derived from a variety of sources, including green tea, coffee, safflower, and almonds.
S9086 Dihydrocapsaicin Dihydrocapsaicin (6,7-Dihydrocapsaicin, 8-Methyl-N-vanillylnonanamide, CCRIS1589), found in pepper (C. annuum), is a potential nutriceutical.DHC is a selective TRPV1 agonist.
S9088 Calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside Calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside, an isoflavone glycoside isolated from A. mongholicus and A. membranaceus, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective biological activities.
S9089 Magnoflorine Magnoflorine (Escholin, Thalictrin), an important compound in Aristolochia, was usually used as an anxiolytic chemical. It shows significant antioxidant activity as a DPPH free radical scavenger and inhibits α-tyrosinase.
S9090 Corilagin Corilagin, discovered in many medicinal plants such as Phyllanthus speices etc., has multiple activities including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, hepatoprotective and others. It is an inhibitor of TNF-α.
S9091 10-Gingerol 10-Gingerol is a bioactive compound found in ginger with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.
S9095 Senegenin Senegenin (Tenuigenin) is a natural product from Polygala tenuifolia used in Chinese medicine with antioxidative and antiinflammatory activity.
S9096 ligustroflavone Ligustroflavone (Nuezhenoside), isolated from the leaves of Turpinia montana, shows high antioxidant capacity and is reported to be an AMPK activator.
S9106 Eleutheroside E Eleutheroside E, a principal component of Eleutherococcus senticosus (ES), has anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB and protecting against myocardial infarction.
S9107 Glycitein Glycitein is an aglycone isoflavone found in soy and red clover and exhibits a wide variety of beneficial properties, including neuroprotective, antioxidative, anticancer, anti-osteoporotic, and anti-atherosclerotic activities.
S9109 1-Kestose 1-Kestose (1F-beta-D-Fructosylsucrose), a fructooligosaccharide, could efficiently stimulates Faecalibacterium prausnitzii as well as Bifidobacteria in humans.
S9110 Morin Morin (Al-Morin, Aurantica, Calico Yellow, Toxylon pomiferum), a constituent of various woods, has a role as an antioxidant, a metabolite, an antihypertensive agent, a hepatoprotective agent, a neuroprotective agent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an antineoplastic agent, an antibacterial agent, a DNA topoisomerase inhibitor and an angiogenesis modulating agent.
S4700 4-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) 4-Aminobutyric acid (4-Aminobutanoic acid, GABA, Gamma-aminobutyric acid, Piperidic acid) is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter with central nervous system (CNS) inhibitory activity.
S5580 Arabic gum Arabic gum, derived from exudates of Acacia senegal or Acacia seyal trees, is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals and considered as a safe dietary fiber.
S3774 Dehydroandrographolide Succinate Potasium Salt Dehydroandrographolide Succinate (DAS), extracted from herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata (Burm f) Nees, is widely used for the treatment of viral pneumonia and viral upper respiratory tract infections because of its immunostimulatory, anti-infective and anti-inflammatory effect.
S9008 20-Deoxyingenol 20-Deoxyingenol is a natural compound isolated from the seeds of Euphorbia lathyris L.
S5145 Protoporphyrin IX Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is a heterocyclic organic compound, which consists of four pyrrole rings, and is the final intermediate in the heme biosynthetic pathway.
S5288 Estropipate Estropipate (Piperazine estrone sulfate, Estrone sulfate piperazine salt, Pipestrone) is a natural estrogenic substance composed of estrone sulfate and piperazine and is used mainly in menopausal hormone therapy in the treatment of menopausal symptoms.
S3917 Tetrahydrocurcumin Tetrahydrocurcumin (Tetrahydrodiferuloylmethane, Tetrahydro Curcumin), a major metabolite of curcumin, possesses strong antioxidant and cardioprotective properties. Tetrahydrocurcumin is a Curcuminoid found in turmeric (Curcuma longa) that is produced by the reduction of Curcumin. Tetrahydrocurcumin inhibit CYP2C9 and CYP3A4.
S5675 Yamogenin Yamogenin, a sapogenin found in fenugreek, inhibits lipid accumulation through the suppression of gene expression in fatty acid synthesis in hepatocytes.
S5373 Pseudolaric Acid B Pseudolaric Acid B, a natural diterpenoid compound isolated from the root and trunk bark of Pseudolaric kaempferi Gordon, has anti-fungal and anti-fertility properties.
S5676 Zearalenone Zearalenone (F2 toxin, RAL) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin that acts by binding the estrogen receptor (ER).
S5678 trans-Zeatin-riboside Zeatin Riboside is the most active and ubiquitous form of the naturally occurring cytokinins that promote cell division, stimulate shoot proliferation, inhibit root formation, slow the aging process, and activate gene expression and metabolic activity. Zeatin riboside has an immunomodulatory effect by agonizing the mammalian adenosine A2A receptor.
S5705 Raceanisodamine Raceanisodamine (7β-Hydroxyhyoscyamine) is the active ingredient of Chinese herbal extracts that has vasoactive activity used to treat acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients in bacteremic shock.
S3843 Madecassoside Madecassoside (Asiaticoside A) is the main active triterpene constituent of Centella asiatica herbs, a traditional Chinese medicine for wound healing and scar management.
S5560 Midecamycin Midecamycin (Espinomycin A, Medecamycin A1, Platenomycin B1, Rubimycin, Turimycin P3) is a naturally occuring macrolide antibiotic that acts by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis.
S5559 Tetrahydropalmatine Tetrahydropalmatine, a plant alkaloid used as an ingredient in dietary supplement products, is a potent and selective D1 receptor antagonist.
S5466 Saikosaponin A Saikosaponin A is a triterpene saponin derived from the medicinal plant, Bupleurum chinensis DC. (Umbelliferae). It has a variety of pharmacological benefits, including anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-bacterial activities.
S5622 Prohydrojasmon Prohydrojasmon is a newly launched plant growth regulator, which has jasmonic acid activity.
S5493 Atropine sulfate Atropine Sulfate (Sulfatropinol, Atropette, Tropintran) is the sulfate salt of atropine, which is a natural alkaloid anticholinergic agent and has potent antimuscarinic effects.
S5102 Stachyose Stachyose is a natural sugar found in many foods like beans and vegetables.
S4545 Warfarin Warfarin (Athrombine K, Coumadin, Coumafene, WARF 42, Zoocoumarin) is one of the most widely used anticoagulant drugs worldwide, used in the prevention of thrombosis and thromboembolism, the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels and their migration elsewhere in the body.
S3991 Ketoisophorone Ketoisophorone (4-Oxoisophorone), also known as 4-Oxoisophorone, is the major component of saffron spice.
S3992 D-(+)-Trehalose dihydrate Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar. It is thought to provide plants and animals with the ability to withstanding periods of dehydration.
S3993 Ethyl Vanillate Ethyl vanillin (Bourbonal, Ethylprotal), a vanillin analog, is a flavouring agent and a fungicidal agent that exhibits strong antioxidant activity. Ethyl Vanillate inhibits 17β-HSD2 with an IC50 1.3 µM.
S3994 Methyl Cholate Methyl Cholate (Cholic acid methyl ester) is methyl ester form of Cholic acid that is a primary bile acid mainly produced by the liver.
S3995 Guaiazulene Guaiazulene (Azulon, Vetivazulen) is a bicyclic sesquiterpene that is a constituent of some essential oils, mainly oil of guaiac and chamomile oil, which also serve as its commercial sources.
S3996 Thioctic acid Thioctic acid (DL-α-Lipoic acid) is a cyclic disulfide antioxidant that interconverts with its reduced dithiol form.
S3998 (+)-α-Lipoic acid (+)-α-Lipoic acid ((R)-(+)-α-Lipoic acid, α-Lipoic acid, Alpha-Lipoic acid), a physiological form of thioctic acid, is a strong antioxidant that relieves diabetic neuropathic symptoms. It shows superior antioxidative effects to its racemate. R(+)-α-lipoic acid is an essential cofactor of mitochondrial enzyme complexes. R(+)-α-lipoic acid inhibits NF-κB-dependent HIV-1 LTR activation.
S5157 Thymol Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol, IPMP), a naturally occurring monocyclic phenolic compound derived from Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory property in vivo and vitro.
S5161 1-Octacosanol 1-Octacosanol (n-Octacosanol, Octacosyl alcohol, Octanosol, Montanyl alcohol, Cluytyl alcohol) is a straight-chain aliphatic 28-carbon primary fatty alcohol that is used as a nutritional supplement. It is reported to possess cholesterol-lowering effects, antiaggregatory properties, cytoprotective use, and ergogenic properties.
S5172 1-Triacontanol 1-Triacontanol (n-Triacontanol, Melissyl alcohol, Myricyl alcohol) is a fatty alcohol found in plant cuticle waxes and in beeswax. It is a growth stimulant for many plants, most notably roses.
S5143 Citropten Citropten (5,7-Dimethoxycoumarin, Citroptene, Limettin, Limetin) is a natural organic compound which belongs to coumarins and derivatives class.
S5142 D-(+)-Melezitose Melezitose (D-Melezitose, (+)-Melezitose, D-melicitose, (+)-melicitose, melicitose) is a nonreducing trisaccharide sugar that is produced by many plant sap eating insects.
S5141 Pyrithioxin Pyrithioxin (Bonifen, Encefabol, Pyritinol, Vitamin B6 disulfide) is a neurotropic agent which reduces permeability of blood-brain barrier to phosphate. It has no vitamin B6 activity.
S5132 Casanthranol Casanthranol is a purified mixture of te antranol glycosides derived from Cascara sagrada.
S5128 Orsellinic acid ethyl ester Orsellinic acid (Ethyl Orsellinate), a phenolic acid, is of importance in the biochemistry of lichens, from which it can be extracted.
S4954 Djenkolic Acid Djenkolic Acid (Jengkolic acid, Djenkolate, S,S'-Methylenebiscysteine) is a naturally occurring sulfur-containing amino acid extracted from djenkol beans. It is toxic to humans, often causing kidney failure.
S4827 Manganese chloride Manganese chloride occurs in nature as the mineral. It is used as a precursor for other manganese compounds.
S4969 Tropine Tropine (Pseudotropine, 3alpha-Tropanol) is a naturally occurring tropane alkaloid that serves as an intermediate in the synthesis of a variety of bioactive alkaloids, many of which have potent neurological actions.
S4940 Maltol Maltol (Larixinic acid, Palatone, Veltol) is a naturally occurring organic compound that is flavour enhancer and flavouring agent.
S4859 TriacetonaMine TriacetonaMine (Tempidon, Tmpone, Odoratine, Vincubine), a member of the class of compounds known as piperidinones, is an extremely weak acidic compound found in green vegetables and tea.
S4863 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid (p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid, parahydroxy phenylacetate), a chemical compound found in olive oil and beer, is an intermediate used to synthesize atenolol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid is an inducer of Nrf2 expression.
S4864 2-Furoic acid 2-Furoic acid (2-Furancarboxylic acid, Pyromucic acid, 2-Carboxyfuran, α-furancarboxylic acid, α-furoic acid) is an organic compound most widely found in food products as a preservative and a flavoring agent.
S4949 Nonanoic acid Nonanoic acid (Pelargonic acid, Nonoic acid) is a naturally occurring fatty acid found in both vegetable and animal fats.
S4862 Squalene Squalene (Spinacene, Supraene, trans-Squalene), a naturally occurring substance found in plants, animals and humans, is a component of some adjuvants that is added to vaccines to enhance the immune response.
S4943 Isovanillin Isovanillin (5-Formylguaiacol, 3-Hydroxy-p-anisaldehyde, 3-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde) is a reversible inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase. It is largely used as pharmaceutical intermediates and also applied in food and beverage industry, synthetic fragrances, chemical.
S4951 L-Threonine L-Threonine is an essential amino acid which is in its active form. It is important for the formation of collagen, elastin, and tooth enamel, and aids liver and lipotropic function when combined with aspartic acid and methionine.
S4952 Fumaric acid Fumaric acid (Fumarate, 2-Butenedioic acid, Trans-Butenedioic acid) is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle used by cells to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from food; also a product of the urea cycle.
S4953 Usnic acid Usnic acid (Usniacin) is a furandione found uniquely in lichen that is used widely in cosmetics, deodorants, toothpaste and medicinal creams as well as some herbal products. It exhibits antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Usnic acid inhibits breast tumor angiogenesis and growth by suppressing VEGFR2-mediated AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.
S4960 Jasmone Jasmone is a natural organic compound extracted from the volatile portion of the oil from jasmine flowers.
S4957 Linalool Linalool (Phantol), a monoterpene compound commonly found as major component of essential oils of several aromatic species, is a competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors.
S4941 Farnesol Farnesol is a natural sesquiterpene alcohol that is potent in treating antimetabolic disorders, anti-inflammation, showing antioxidant, anticancer, and antibiotic effects.
S5122 Abietic Acid Abietic acid (Sylvic acid, Abietate, Rosin Acid), an abietane diterpenoid, inhibited soybean 5-lipoxygenase with an IC50 of 29.5 ± 1.29 μM.
S5126 Aleuritic Acid Aleuritic Acid (Aleuritolic acid, 9,10,16-trihydroxy-palmitic acid), a major constituent acid of lac resin (shellac), is isolated from the resin and mainly used in the perfumery industry as a starting material for the preparation of "musk" aroma compounds as well as medicinal and bioactive compounds.
S5134 D(-)-Arabinose D-Arabinose is a reducing sugar useful as a substrate in analysis of arabinose isomerases and synthesis of D-erythroascorbic acid in yeast.
S5135 Hydroferulic acid Hydroferulic acid (Dihydroferulic acid, Dihydroconiferylic acid) is classified as a member of the phenylpropanoic acids. It is slightly soluble in water and acidic.
S4828 Sodium carbonate Sodium Carbonate (Disodium carbonate, Soda Ash, Carbonic acid disodium salt) is the disodium salt of carbonic acid with alkalinizing property.
S4939 cis-Aconitic acid Cis-Aconitic acid (cis-aconitate, Achilleic acid, Citridinic acid, Equisetic acid, Pyrocitric acid) is an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle produced by the dehydration of citric acid.
S4946 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid (Pyrocatechuic acid, 3-Hydroxysalicylic acid, Hypogallic acid) is a natural phenol found in Phyllanthus acidus and in the aquatic fern Salvinia molesta, also a product of human aspirin metabolism. It is a potentially useful iron-chelating drug and has antimicrobial properties.
S4962 Agmatine sulfate Agmatine sulfate is a bioactive metabolite of the arginine amino acid. It has been shown to increase nitric oxide, reduce blood sugar levels and even increase growth hormone levels.
S4893 Cytosine Cytosine (4-Amino-2-hydroxypyrimidine, Cytosinimine) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell.
S4958 Glycocholic acid Glycocholic acid (Cholylglycine, Glycocholate) is a natural secondary bile acid involved in the emulsification of fats.
S4820 Diastase Diastase, a natural enzyme, catalyses the breakdown of starch into maltose.
S4959 Skatole Skatole (3-methylindole, Scatole) is a mildly toxic white crystalline organic compound that occurs naturally in feces. It has a fairly broad bacteriostatic effect.
S4963 Purpurin Purpurin (1,2,4-Trihydroxyanthraquinone, Hydroxylizaric acid, Verantin) is one of the natural colorants extracted from madder roots and other Rubiaceae family plants. It exhibits anti-angiogenic, antifungal, antibiotic, and antioxidative activities. Purpurin strongly inhibits the activities of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1.
S4966 4-Methylesculetin 4-methylesculetin is one of the coumarin derivatives with great anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. 4-Methylesculetin inhibits myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and reduces IL-6 level.
S4968 Cholesteryl Acetate Cholesteryl Acetate (Acebrochol, Cholesterol, Cholesterin), present in diverse fluids, organs, and foods, is a natural and normal human cholesteryl ester.
S4830 Maltose Maltose (Maltobiose, Malt Sugar, Beta-Maltose, D-Maltose), an non-essential nutrient that provides energy, is an intermediate in the intestinal digestion of glycogen and starch, and is found in germinating grains (and other plants and vegetables).
S5160 4-Methoxysalicylic acid 4-Methoxysalicylic acid (2-Hydroxy-p-anisic Acid), an arabinose derivative, is used in the synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives.
S5162 Isovanillic acid Isovanillic acid (Acide isovanillique, 3-Hydroxyanisic acid, 3-Hydroxy-p-anisic acid), a metabolite of isovanillin, is a selective inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase.
S5163 7-Methoxycoumarin 7-Methoxycoumarin (Herniarine), also known as Herniarin, is a methoxy derivative of coumarin and substrate for dealkylase. It has been used in the synthesis of anti-first-pass effect compounds and detergents.
S3950 Maltitol Maltitol (Maltisorb, 4-O-α-glucopyranosyl-D-sorbitol) is a sugar alcohol (polyol) used as a sugar substitute. It is especially useful in the production of sweets, including sugarless hard candies, chewing gum, chocolates.
S3951 Tannic acid Tannic acid (Gallotannic acid), a polyphenolic compound, is a CXCL12/CXCR4 inhibitor with antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity.
S5113 Propyl gallate Propyl gallate (Gallic acid propyl esterZ, n-Propyl gallate) is an antioxidant used in foods especially animal fats and vegetable oils, also in a wide variety of cosmetics and beauty care products.
S4799 Indole-3-acetic acid Indole-3-acetic acid (indolylacetic acid, 1H-Indole-3-acetic acid, indoleacetic acid, heteroauxin, IAA) is the most common plant hormone of the auxin class and it regulates various aspects of plant growth and development.
S5167 Benzyl cinnamate Benzyl cinnamate (Cinnamein, Benzylcinnamoate, Benzyl 3-phenylpropenoate, Cinnamic acid benzyl ester), a flavouring agent isolated from various plant species, is used in heavy oriental perfumes and as a fixative.
S5168 Anthraquinone Anthraquinones (Anthradione, anthracenedione, dioxoanthracene) are the main active constituents in herbs often used to relieve constipation.
S5174 Kojic acid Kojic acid is a fungal metabolite that inhibits tyrosinase with an IC50 value of 30.6 µM for mushroom tyrosinase. It is a synthetic intermediate used for production of food additives.
S5175 (-)-Ambroxide Ambroxide, a naturally occurring terpenoid, is one of the key constituents responsible for the odor of ambergris and an autoxidation product of ambrein.
S4762 2,4-Dihydroxyacetophenone 2,4-Dihydroxyacetophenone (Resacetophenone, 4-Acetylresorcinol) is a plant metabolite that can act as a qualitative reagent for ferric iron.
S4765 Syringaldehyde Syringaldehyde (Syringic aldehyde) is an organic compound that occurs naturally in trace amounts. It possesses worthy bioactive properties and is, therefore, used in pharmaceuticals, food, cosmetics, textiles, pulp and paper industries, and even in biological control applications. Syringaldehyde is a polyphenolic compound belonging to the group of flavonoids and is found in different plant species like Manihot esculenta and Magnolia officinalis. Syringaldehyde moderately inhibits COX-2 activity with an IC50 of 3.5 μg/mL[2]. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities.
S4768 Melibiose Melibiose (Galalpha1-6Glcbeta) is a nondigestible disaccharide that consists of one galactose and one glucose moiety in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
S5110 Safflower Yellow Safflower Yellow (Safflor Yellow, SY), the main active constituent of the traditional Chinese medicine Safflower, is known as a neuroprotective agent that indirectly attenuates neuroinflammation.
S5116 Bilibubin Bilibubin (Bilirubin) is a tetrapyrrole and a breakdown product of heme catabolism that acts as a physiological, chain-breaking antioxidant.
S4769 L-5-Hydroxytryptophan 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, L-oxitriptan), also known as oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
S4770 Creatine phosphate disodium salt Phosphocreatine, also known as creatine phosphate (CP) or PCr (Pcr), is a phosphorylated creatine molecule that serves as a rapidly mobilizable reserve of high-energy phosphates in skeletal muscle and the brain to recycle adenosine triphosphate, the energy currency of the cell.
S4771 β-thujaplicin β-Thujaplicin (β-TH, Hinokitiol, 4-Isopropyltropolone) is a toxic tropolone derivative present in the heartwood of western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and is used as a preservative and antimicrobial additive in a number of commercial goods. Hinokitiol is a component of essential oils isolated from Chymacyparis obtusa, reduces Nrf2 expression, and decreases DNMT1 and UHRF1 mRNA and protein expression, with anti-infective, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor activities.
S4772 alpha-Asarone Alpha (α)-asarone (trans-Asarone) is one of the main pharmacologically active compounds present in Acorus calamus Linn (Acoraceae), Acorus tatarinowii Schott (Acoraceae), and Acorus gramineus Solander. It has anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, anxiolytic and nootropic effects.
S4773 Adrenosterone Adrenosterone (Reichstein's substance G, 11-ketoandrostenedione, 11-oxoandrostenedione) is endogenous steroid hormone that has been promoted as a dietary supplement capable of reducing body fat and increasing muscle mass.
S4774 Xanthurenic Acid Xanthurenic acid (xanthurenate, 8-Hydroxykynurenic acid, 4,8-Dihydroxyquinaldic acid), a molecule arising from tryptophan metabolism by transamination of 3-hydroxykynurenine, activates mGlu2/3 Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu2 and mGlu3).
S4776 Harmaline Harmaline, a natural occurrence β-carboline alkaloid, is a central nervous system stimulant and an acetylcholinesterase (AChR) inhibitor; also inhibits histamine N-methyltransferase.
S4777 Plumbagin Plumbagin (Plumbagine, Plumbaein, Plumbagone), a quinoid constituent isolated from the root of the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica L, exerts anticancer and antiproliferative activities in animal models and in cell culture.
S3896 (1R,2R)-trans-N-Boc-1,2-cyclohexanediamine (1R,2R)-trans-N-Boc-1,2-cyclohexanediamine is an intermediate in organic synthesis.
S3897 (-)-Arctigenin (-)-Arctigenin, a lignan found in certain plants of the Asteraceae, exerts biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anticancer.
S4781 Xanthoxyline Xanthoxylin (Brevifolin), isolated from Zanthoxylum piperitum (Japanese pepper tree) and Sapium sebiferum (Chinese tallowtree), is a cytotoxic and fungicidal compound with the characteristics of a typical phytoalexin.
S3899 Hederagenin Hederagenin (Caulosapogenin, Hederagenol, Hederagenic acid, Astrantiagenin E) is a highly water insoluble triterpenoid compound that can be found in various plants including Hedera helix and Chenopodium quinoa. It exhibits a variety of biological activities, including potent antitumor properties both in vitro and in vivo. Hederagenin inhibits LPS-stimulated expression of iNOS, COX-2, and NF-κB.
S3900 Betulonic acid Betulonic acid (Liquidambaric acid), derived from betulinol, a pentacyclic styrene, has shown a highly specific anti-prostate cancer activity in in vitro cell cultures.
S4783 Benzyl isothiocyanate Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC, Benzoylthiocarbimide, Isothiocyanic Acid Benzoyl Ester) is an isothiocyanate originally found in cruciferous vegetables that exhibits immunomodulatory, anti-parasitic, antibiotic, antioxidative, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-angiogenic, anti-metastatic, anticancer chemotherapeutic, and chemopreventive activities.
S3902 Ursonic acid Ursonic acid (Prunol, Malol, beta-Ursolic acid, NSC4060, CCRIS 7123, TOS-BB-0966), present in many plants, is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that can be used as a cosmetics additive and serve as a starting material for synthesis of more potent bioactive derivatives, such as experimental antitumor agents. Ursonic acid induces the apoptosis of human cancer cells through multiple signaling pathways.
S4784 Phloracetophenone Phloracetophenone, or 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THA), the aglycone component of phloracetophenone glucoside, is a naturally occurring compound obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma comosa (Family Zingiberaceae). Phloracetophenone can stimulate CYP7A1 activity. Phloracetophenone induces cholestasis in rats mediated through Mrp2.
S3903 Lycorine Lycorine (Galanthidine, Amarylline, Narcissine, Licorine, Belamarine) is a toxic crystalline alkaloid found in various Amaryllidaceae species that weakly inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ascorbic acid biosynthesis.
S3904 Isoimperatorin Isoimperatorin, a natural furanocoumarin that can be isolated from a variety of plant parts, has analgesic, antimicrobial, vascular relaxing and anticancer activities. Isoimperatorin is a methanolic extract of the roots of Angelica dahurica shows significant inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with the IC50 of 74.6 μM.
S3905 Iso-Steviol Isosteviol (ISV) is mainly obtained by acid hydrolysis of stevioside, the sweet food additive extracted from the plant Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni (Bertoni). It possesses various biological activities including anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects.
S4788 L-α-Phosphatidylcholine L-α-phosphatidylcholine, a surfactant and a constituent of the liposomal carrier system, has shown hepatoprotection in the various hepatotoxicity model.
S4791 S-allyl-L-cysteine S-Allyl cysteine (SAC, S-Allylcysteine), a natural constituent of fresh garlic, has antioxidant and anticancer properties in animals. S-Allyl cysteine has an anticancer effect through the induction of apoptosis and a cell cycle arrest.
S4793 Cedryl acetate Cedryl Acetate (Cedrol acetate, Cedranyl acetate), an acetylated from cedarwood oil, has been applied to chemistry for its properties as a chiral and cell signaling reagent with antifungal and immunotoxicity functions. Cedryl acetate exhibits α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
S4809 3-Indolepropionic acid 3-Indolepropionic acid (IPA, indole-3-propionic acid), a gut microbial metabolite, is a potent neuroprotective antioxidant and plant auxin.
S5124 DL-Citrulline L-Citrulline (Citrulline, Cit) is a naturally occurring nonessential amino acid which is the key intermediate in the urea cycle.
S5136 Calcium folinate Calcium folinate (Leucovorin calcium, Folinic acid calcium salt, Wellcovorin) is a metabolically active, reduced form of folic acid that is rapidly absorbed and extensively metabolized in the liver to other folic acid derivatives.
S3980 Pyridoxine Pyridoxine (Pyridoxol, Vitamin B6, Gravidox), also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement. It is a cofactor for both glutamic acid decarboxylase and GABA transaminase.
S3967 Flavone Flavone (2-Phenylchromone, 2-Phenyl-4-chromone, 2-Phenyl-4-benzopyron), a class of flavonoids, mainly found in spices and red or purple plant foods with antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-tumor, anti-microbial, estrogenic, acetyl cholinesterase, anti-inflammatory activities and are also used in cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders etc.
S3975 Protocatechuic acid Protocatechuic acid (PCA, 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, Protocatechuate), a dihydroxybenzoic acid, is a type of widely distributed naturally occurring phenolic acid.
S3976 Acetylvanillin Acetylvanillin (Acetovanillin, Vanillin acetate, 4-Acetoxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, 4-Formyl-2-methoxyphenyl acetate), is found in pulses and is a flavouring material.
S3977 (-)-Borneol (-)-Borneol (L-Borneol), one of enantiomers of borneol, has a camphoraceous and evident woody odor. (-)-Borneol has a highly efficacious positive modulating action at GABA receptor with an EC50 of 237 μM.
S4821 Glycine Glycine (2-Aminoacetic acid, Aminoacetic acid, Glycocoll) is a non-essential, non-polar, non-optical, glucogenic amino acid that is primarily found in gelatin and silk fibroin. It is involved in the body's production of DNA, phospholipids and collagen, and in release of energy.
S4826 Aluminium hydroxide Aluminium hydroxide (Aluminic), found in nature as the mineral gibbsite, is amphoteric (i.e., it has both basic and acidic properties). It is used to treat symptoms of increased stomach acid, such as heartburn, upset stomach, sour stomach, or acid indigestion; also reduce phosphate levels in people with certain kidney conditions.
S3986 L-Arabinose L-Arabinose (L-Ara) is a plant saccharide that is not found in animals. It is a component of cell wall and may be useful as a natural pharmaceutical.
S3987 L-Tryptophan L-tryprophan is an essential amino acid that acts like a natural mood regulator that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for nitrogen balance in adults.
S3989 L-​Histidine L-​Histidine (Glyoxaline-5-alanine) is an α-amino acid needed in humans for growth and tissue repair. It is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
S3990 Trans-Anethole Trans-anethole (4-Propenylanisole) is a phenylpropene derivative found in many essential oils, including anise oil. It has neuromodulatory, anxiolytic, antioxidative, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities.
S4972 Choline Glycerophosphate Choline Glycerophosphate (Glycerophosphorylcholine) is a choline derivative and one of the two major forms of choline storage (along with phosphocholine) in the cytosol.
S4981 Cyclogalegenol Cyclogalegenol (Astramembrangenin, Cyclosieversigenin), the aglycone derivative of astragaloside A, is found in various species of Astragalus and may activate telomerase.
S4982 2,2':5',2''-Terthiophene 2,2':5',2''-Terthiophene is a natural product occurring in marigold which shows UV-enhanced antibiotic activity.
S4983 Sorbic acid Sorbic acid (2,4-Hexadienoic acid) is a naturally occurring compound that originated from the unripe berries of the Rowan Tree. It inhibits various bacteria, including sporeformers, at various stages of their life cycle (germination, outgrowth and cell division).
S2323 Methyl-Hesperidin Methyl Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside (flavonoid) (C28H34O15) found abundantly in citrus fruits. Its aglycone form is called hesperetin.
S5090 4-Isopropylbenzyl Alcohol 4-Isopropylbenzyl Alcohol (Cumic alcohol, Cuminyl alcohol, Cuminic alcohol), isolated from Eucalyptus camaldulensis, is a compound with insect repellent properties.
S5091 Geranyl acetate Geranyl acetate (Geraniol acetate, Geranyl ethanoate) is a natural organic compound that is used primarily as a component of perfumes for creams and soaps and as a flavoring ingredient. Geranyl acetate exhibits anti-cancer effects by inducing cell apoptosis.
S5089 4-Isopropylbenzaldehyde 4-Isopropylbenzaldehyde (Cuminaldehyde, Cuminic aldehyde, Cuminal), a natural organic compound, is a kind of pharmaceutical intermediate with a pleasant smell and contributes to the aroma of essential oils.
S5086 p-Anisaldehyde p-Anisaldehyde (4-Methoxybenzaldehyde, Anisaldehyde, Anisic aldehyde, P-Methoxybenzaldehyde, 4-Anisaldehyde), an extract from Pimpinella anisum seeds, exhibits antifungal activity against a number of yeast and mold strains in laboratory media, fruit purees and fruit juices.
S5220 D-Pantethine Pantethine (Bis-pantethine, Pantetina, Pantomin, Pantosin) is a naturally occurring compound synthesized in the body from pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) via addition of cysteamine and used as a dietary supplement for lowering blood cholesterol and triglycerides.
S3982 Batyl alcohol Batyl alcohol (Batilol, Stearyl monoglyceride, 1-O-Octadecylglycerol, Batilolum), isolated from shark liver oil, is also present in yellow bone marrow of animals and has been described as an inflammatory agent.
S5156 4-Methoxysalicylaldehyde 4-Methoxysalicylaldehyde (2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde), a naturally occurring product, has a range of industrial applications in the preparation of organic compounds, drugs and therapeutic agents.
S5154 Tetrahydropiperine Tetrahydropiperine (Cosmoperine), derived from piperine, can be used to treat convulsion, epilepsy, relieve pain, and control insects.
S5155 Raffinose Raffinose (Melitose, Melitriose) is a complex carbohydrate, a trisaccharide composed of galactose, fructose, and glucose. It can be broken apart into galactose and sucrose via the enzyme alpha-galactosidase.
S5226 L-carnosine L-carnosine (Karnozin) is an antioxidant naturally found in skeletal muscle, brain tissue, and the heart that protects cells against oxidative stress.
S3970 Vindoline Vindoline is a chemical precursor to vinblastine and exhibits antimitotic activity by inhibiting microtubule assembly.
S5570 Arachidic acid Arachidic acid (eicosanoic acid, Icosanoic Acid) is a natural saturated fatty acid used for the production of detergents, photographic materials and lubricants.
S3971 Fusidine Fusidine (Fusidic Acid), isolated from Fusidium coccineum, is a steroidal antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis.
S3972 Lobeline hydrochloride Lobeline hydrochloride is an alkaloid that acts on nicotinic cholinergic receptors but is less potent than nicotine. It is also a VMAT2 ligand and an antagonist of μ-opioid receptors.
S5562 2-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol 2-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol (Salicyl alcohol, Salicain, Diathesin, Saligenin, Saligenol, o-Methylolphenol, α,2-Toluenediol), which can be found in a number of food items such as red huckleberry, rye, jerusalem artichoke, and ceylon cinnamon, is precursor of salicylic acid and is formed from salicin by enzymatic hydrolysis by Salicyl-alcohol beta-D-glucosyltransferase or by acid hydrolysis.
S5335 Corey Lactone Diol Corey Lactone Diol is a pharmaceutical intermediate.
S5336 Hecogenin Hecogenin (Hocogenin), a steroid saponin isolated from Agave sisalana, is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of UGT1A4 with an IC50 value of 1.5 μM.
S5338 L(-)-Sorbose L(-)-Sorbose (L(-)-Sorbopyranose) is a ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ascorbic acid.
S5343 Vanillic acid Vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid) is a flavoring agent which is also an intermediate in the production of vanillin from ferulic acid. Vanillic acid inhibits NF-κB activation. Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and chemopreventive effects.
S5337 Rauwolscine hydrochloride Rauwolscine hydrochloride (Isoyohimbine, α-Yohimbine, corynanthidine) is the hydrochloride salt form of Rauwolscine, a specific and potent α2 antagonist with Ki of 12 nM.
S5342 Dihydrojasmone Dihydrojasmone, belonging to the family of ketones, is an aroma compound for perfumery uses.
S5339 4-Allylanisole 4-Allylanisole (Estragole, p-Allylanisole, Methyl chavicol) is a natural organic compound that is a component of various trees and plants. It is used in the preparation of fragrances.
S3785 Notoginsenoside R1 Notoginsenoside R1 (Sanchinoside R1) is the main ingredient with cardiovascular activity in Panax notoginseng. It inhibits TNF-α-induced PAI-1 overexpression via extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK1/2) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) signaling pathways.
S5345 Nerolidol Nerolidol (Peruviol) is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene found in the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers. It has diverse range of pharmacological and biological activities including antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-biofilm, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, anti-ulcer, skin penetration enhancer, anti-tumor, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties.
S5347 2-Phenylethylamine 2-Phenylethylamine (β-Phenylethylamine, benzeneethanamine, β-aminoethylbenzene) is a natural monoamine alkaloid that functions as a monoaminergic neuromodulator or a neurotransmitter in the human central nervous system.
S5348 Pherocon (4-(4-Acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone) Pherocon (4-(4-Acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone, 4-(p-Acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone, 4--(3-Oxobutyl)phenyl acetate) is a standard melon fly attractant for detection programs.
S5440 Berberine Sulfate Berberine sulfate (Umbellatine), an alkaloid extracted from several plants, possesses antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and protozoa.
S3772 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is an important bio-sourced intermediate, formed from carbohydrates such as glucose or fructose and used for production of fuels and chemical intermediates.
S3792 Guggulsterone E&Z Guggulsterone is one of the active constituent of Commiphora mukul. It occurs in two isomeric forms, namely Z-GS and E-GS. Guggulsterone act as antagonist ligands for the bile acid receptor, farnesoid X receptor, and as active ingredients responsible for the hypolipidemic activity.
S5407 Squalane Squalane (Perhydrosqualene, Dodecahydrosqualene) is a naturally occuring lipid in both plants and animals. It is usually used as an emollient and moisturizer in cosmetics manufacturing.
S3805 Stevioside Stevioside is a natural sweetener extracted from leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni.
S5583 Cinnamyl acetate Cinnamyl acetate (3-Phenylallyl acetate) is a naturally occuring compound used as a flavouring agent.
S5584 Citronellol Citronellol (Dihydrogeraniol, (±)-β-Citronellol), a constituent of rose and geranium oils, is used in perfumes and insect repellents. Citronellol can cause necrotic apoptosis of NCI-H1299 cells by up-regulating TNF-α, RIP1 / RIP3 activities, and down-regulating caspase-3 / caspase-8 activities. Citronellol also results in a biphasic increase in ROS production at 1 h and at 12 h in NCI-H1299 cells.
S5419 1,4-Cineole 1,4-Cineole (Isocineole) is a widely distributed, natural, oxygenated monoterpene. 1,4-Cineole, present in eucalyptus oil, activates both human TRPM8 and human TRPA1.
S3894 Cycloastragenol Cycloastragenol (CAG, TA-65, Cyclogalegigenin, Astramembrangenin) is a saponin comprising a group of oil glucosides naturally present in a number of plants. It is a potent telomerase activator in neuronal cells.
S5380 7-Hydroxyflavone 7-Hydroxyflavone is a potent inhibitor of CYP1A1 with a Ki value of 0.015 μM and exhibits 6-fold greater selectivity for CYP1A1 over CYP1A2. It also has excellent antioxidant properties and great potential to be applied as medicines.
S3895 Sophoridine Sophoridine (5-Epidihydrosophocarpine, Dihydro-5-episophocarpine), a natural product obtained from medicinal plants, has a variety of pharmacological effects, including anti-cancer and anti-arrhythmia, and affects the immune and central nervous systems.
S5381 Behenic Acid Behenic Acid (docosanoic acid) is a long-chain saturated fatty acid that exists naturally as a triglyceride in canola. It act as a lubricant that helps restore the skin's natural oils and improve overall levels of hydration.
S3849 D-Galactose D-Galactose (D-Galactopyranose, D-(+)-Galactose) is an aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins and is converted enzymatically into D-glucose for metabolism or polysaccharides for storage. It accelerates senescence in invertebrates and mammals and has been used as a model for aging.
S3850 Glucosamine sulfate Glucosamine sulfate (D-Glucosaminesulfate, D-Glucosamine sulphate) is a dietary supplement commonly used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. It is a type of glycosaminoglycan, which is a naturally occurring major component of joint cartilage and joint fluid.
S3851 Camphor Camphor (2-Bornanone, Bornan-2-one, 2-Camphanone, Formosa) is a bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially cinnamomum camphora and used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.
S3852 L-Theanine L-Theanine is a relaxing and nondietary amino acid found pretty much exclusively in teas from Camellia sinensis and is known to promote relaxation without sedation.
S3854 Tetrahydropalmatine hydrochloride Tetrahydropalmatine (THP, Gindarine, 1-Tetrahydropalmitine) is an isoquinoline alkaloid found in several different plant species, mainly in the Corydalis genus (Yan Hu Suo), but also in other plants such as Stephania rotunda. It is a potent muscle relaxant. Tetrahydropalmatine hydrochloride acts through inhibition of amygdaloid release of dopamine to inhibit an epileptic attack in rats.
S3855 Ethyl ferulate Ethyl ferulate (Ferulic acid ethyl ester) is the alkyl ester derivative of ferulic acid which is a naturally occurring plant product with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antiproliferative activities.
S3856 Allantoin Allantoin (Glyoxyldiureide, 5-Ureidohydantoin), produced from uric acid, is a major metabolic intermediate in most organisms including animals, plants and bacteria.
S3857 4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (P-Methylolphenol, 4-Methylolphenol), an important phenolic constituent of Gastrodia elata Blume (GEB), has been shown to have many beneficial effects in different animal models of neurological disorders, such as, headaches, convulsive behavior, dizziness, and vertigo.
S3858 Lawsone Lawsone (Hennotannic acid, 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) is a red-orange dye present in the leaves of the henna plant (Lawsonia inermis) as well as in the flower of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).
S3859 Vanillyl Alcohol Vanillyl alcohol (4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol, Vanillin alcohol, Vanillic alcohol, 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol), derived from vanillin, is used to flavor food.
S5618 Hippuric acid Hippuric Acid (2-Benzamidoacetic acid, Benzoylglycine) is an acyl glycine produced by the conjugation of benzoic acid and glycine, found as a normal component in urine as a metabolite of aromatic compounds from food.
S3862 Gallic acid trimethyl ether Gallic acid trimethyl ether (Eudesmic acid, Tri-O-methylgallic acid, Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzoic acid) is an O-methylated trihydroxybenzoic acid that is found in olive.
S3864 Dulcitol Dulcitol (Galactitol, D-Galactitol, Dulcose) is a naturally occurring product of plants obtained following reduction of galactose.
S3865 Taurochenodeoxycholic acid Taurochenodeoxycholic acid (Taurochenodeoxycholate, TCDCA, Chenodeoxycholyltaurine), a bile acid formed in the liver of most species, is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
S3866 Galanthamine Galanthamine (Galantamine, Nivalin, Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl, Lycoremine) is a phenanthrene alkaloid and a reversible, competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with IC50 of 0.35 μM, exhibits 50-fold selectivity against butyryl-cholinesterase. It is studied as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.
S3868 Harmine Harmine (Telepathine) is an alkaloid of the β-carboline family that regulates PPARγ expression through inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway. It also selectively binds to MAO-A and reversibly inhibits monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) but not the variant MAO-B.
S3870 D-Pinitol D-pinitol (Methylinositol, Pinitol, 3-O-Methyl-D-chiro-inositol, D-(+)-Pinitol, Inzitol) is a naturally occurring compound derived from soy and has significant pharmacological activitites such as inhibition of the T-helpercell-1 response, antiviral, larvicidal, antiinflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, cardioprotective, inhibition of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and antioxidant.
S3872 Guaiacol Guaiacol (O-methoxyphenol, 2-hydroxyanisole, O-methylcatechol) is a phenolic natural product first isolated from Guaiac resin and the oxidation of lignin. It is a precursor to various flavorants, such as eugenoland vanillin. Guaiacol, a phenolic compound isolated from Guaiac resin, inhibits LPS-stimulated COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation. Anti-inflammatory activity.
S5461 Cimicifugoside Cimicifugoside is a triterpenoid originating from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga simplex, and acts to inhibit the subcellular transport of nucleosides.
S5454 Saikosaponin D Saikosaponin D, a calcium mobilizing agent (SERCA inhibitor), is a type of Saponin derivative, which is a component extracted from Bupleurum falactum. Saikosaponin D has anti-cancer activities.
S3981 Sinapinic Acid Sinapinic acid (Sinapic acid) is a small naturally occurring hydroxycinnamic acid which belongs to phenylpropanoid family and commonly used as matrix in MALDI mass spectrometry. Sinapinic acid (Sinapic acid) acts as an inhibitor of HDAC, with IC50 of 2.27 mM, and also inhibits ACE-I activity.
S3983 Caryophyllene oxide Caryophyllene oxide, an oxygenated terpenoid existed in many plant essential oil, is well known as preservative in food, drugs and cosmetics with anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and skin penetration enhancing properties.
S3984 Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a phenolic antioxidant found in the leaves and twigs of the evergreen desert shrub, Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC) Coville (creosote bush). It is a recognized inhibitor of lipoxygenase (LOX) and has antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a cytotoxic insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-1R)/HER2 inhibitor and induces apoptosis. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibits p300 and activates autophagy. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) protects cells from ferroptosis.
S5105 Proanthocyanidins Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also known as condensed tannins, are a class of polyphenols found in a variety of plants. They are very powerful antioxidants that remove harmful free oxygen radicals from cells.
S5148 2-Methylenebutyrolactone 2-Methylenebutyrolactone (Tulipalin A, MBL, α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone), also known as α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL) (Tulipalin A), belongs to the class of sesquiterpene lactone family and is considered as cyclic analog of most common vinyl monomer methyl methacrylate (MMA).
S5119 Olivetol Olivetol (5-Pentylresorcinol, 5-n-Amylresorcinol) is a naturally occurring organic compound being a precursor in various syntheses of tetrahydrocannabinol. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2.
S5150 Phytosterols Phytosterols, also called plant sterols or stanol esters, are specialized compounds found in plants that are structurally similar to cholesterol found in humans.
S5151 Gypenoside Gypenoside (GP) is the predominant effective component of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and possesses capacities against inflammation and oxidation.
S3956 Tetramethylpyrazine Tetramethylpyrazine (ligustrazine, TMP) is a natural compound isolated from Chinese herbal medicine Ligusticum wallichii (Chuan Xiong) with anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antiplatelet, and antiapoptosis activities.
S3957 Gamma-Oryzanol Gamma-oryzanol (GO), a nutriactive phytochemical naturally occurring in crude rice bran oil, is an antioxidant compound used to treat hyperlipidemia, disorders of menopause and to increase the muscle mass. γ-Oryzanol is a potent DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) inhibitor in the striatum of mice. γ-Oryzanol significantly inhibits the activities of DNMT1 (IC50=3.2 μM), DNMT3a (IC50=22.3 μM).
S3959 (+)-Borneol (+)-Borneol is one of enantiomers of borneol which is a valuable medical material, senior aromatic spice, and chemical material and has been used in food and also folk medicine.
S3962 Dihydroactinidiolide Dihydroactinidiolide is known to be a bioactive molecule in animals. It is a component of pheromones in insects, such as red fire ants and in mammals such as the Cat and the Red Fox.
S3963 DL-Glutamine DL-Glutamine (Glutamin, 2-amino-4-carbamoylbutanoic acid) is a non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes.
S3968 Histamine Histamine, an organic nitrogenous compound, is involved in local immune responses regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus. It is a potent H1 and H2 receptor agonist.
S5120 Elemicin Elemicin (3,4,5-trimethoxyallylbenzene) is a constituent of the oleoresin and the essential oil of Canarium luzonicum. Elemicin is a constituent of natural aromatic phenylpropanoids present in many herbs and spices. Elemicin inhibits Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1(SCD1) activity in the liver by metabolic activation.
S5121 Phytol Phytol (Trans-Phytol), a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll widely used as a food additive and in medicinal fields, shows antinociceptive and antioxidant activities as well as anti-inflammatory and antiallergic effects. It is a specific activator of PPARα.
S5139 Methyl Dihydrojasmonate Methyl dihydrojasmonate (Hedione, Kharismal) is a flavouring ingredien with the smell vaguely similar to jasmin.
S5138 Citral Citral (Geranialdehyde) is an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde present in the oils of several plants. It is an aroma compound used in perfumery for its citrus effect and is also used as a flavor and for fortifying lemon oil.
S4754 Betulin Betulin (BE, betulinol, betuline, betulinic alcohol), also known as betulinol, betuline, or betulinic alcohol, is a pentacyclic lupane-type triterpenoid naturally distributed in many plants and displays a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological properties such as anticancer and chemopreventive activity. Betulin (Trochol), is a sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) inhibitor with an IC50 of 14.5 μM in K562 cell line.
S3955 Uric Acid Uric Acid (2,6,8-Trioxypurine, 2,6,8-Trihydroxypurine, 2,6,8-Trioxopurine), a normal component of urine, is a product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides.
S4766 Gibberellic acid Gibberellic acid (Gibberellin, Gibberellin A3, GA3, GA), a plant hormone stimulating plant growth and development, is a tetracyclic di-terpenoid compound.
S3948 Spermine Spermine (4,9-Diaza-1,12-dodecanediamine) is a polyamine involved in cellular metabolism found in all eukaryotic cells. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria.
S2283 Cinchonine(LA40221) Cinchonine (LA40221) is an alkaloid and a stereoisomer and pseudo-enantiomer of cinchonidine.
S3654 Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid (TUDCA) Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is the taurine conjugate of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and acts as a mitochondrial stabilizer and anti-apoptotic agent in several models of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, Parkinson's diseases (PD), and Huntington's diseases (HD).
S3752 isoleucine Isoleucine (Ile) is a non-polar, uncharged (at physiological pH), aliphatic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
S3753 L-Leucine Leucine ((S)-Leucine, Leu) is one of nine essential amino acids in humans which is important for protein synthesis and many metabolic functions. It contributes to regulation of blood-sugar levels; growth and repair of muscle and bone tissue; growth hormone production; and wound healing. L-Leucine is an essential branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), which activates the mTOR signaling pathway.
S3653 Spermidine trihydrochloride Spermidine (4-Azaoctamethylenediamine), a natural polyamine produced from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM) by spermidine synthase, is a novel autophagy inducer and negatively modulates N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA).
S3754 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, PHBA, para-Hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoate), also known as p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), is a phenolic derivative of benzoic acid and widely used in organic synthesis. It is the most widely distributed aromatic organic acid in the vegetable kingdom.
S3893 Bornyl acetate Bornyl acetate (Isobornyl, Bornyl acetic ether, 2-Camphanol), the main volatile constituent in numerous conifer oils and some Chinese traditional herbs, exhibits anti-inflammatory property and it is used as an analgesic.
S3758 Sinomenine hydrochloride Sinomenine (SN, Cucoline, Kukoline, Sabianine A), extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant, sinomenium acutum, is a potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent.
S3755 Betaine Betaine (trimethylglycine, glycine betaine, lycine, oxyneurine), a methyl derivative of glycine first isolated from sugar beets, has been shown to have potential benefits for fighting heart disease, improving body composition, and helping promote muscle gain and fat loss because of its abilities to promote protein synthesis in the body.
S3757 2'-Deoxyinosine 2’-Deoxyinosine (Guanine deoxyriboside, Deoxyinosine) is the nucleoside form of hypoxanthine. It is a product of DNA damage that is formed from 2’-deoxyadenosine by adenosine deaminase or reactive nitrogen species. 2’-deoxyinosine enhances apoptosis induced by 5-fluorouracil in HT-29 and SW620 cancer cells.
S3770 Sodium Aescinate Sodium Aescinate (SA, Escin Sodium Salt) is a widely-applied triterpene saponin product derived from horse chestnut seeds, possessing vasoactive and organ-protective activities with oral or injection administration in the clinic. Sodium aescinate is a triterpene saponin derived from Aesculus hippocastanum seeds, with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Sodium aescinate inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth by targeting CARMA3/NF-κB pathway.
S3681 Vitamin E Acetate Vitamin E Acetate (Tocopherol) is the stable form of Vitamin E most often used in cosmetic formulations for its skin care benefits. It protects the cells against free radicals and prevents the peroxidation of body fats as an in-vivo antioxidant.
S3853 Perillyl alcohol Perillyl alcohol (Perilla alcohol, Isocarveol) is a monoterpene isolated from the essential oils of lavendin, peppermint, spearmint, cherries, celery seeds, and several other plants.
S3871 Muscone Muscone (3-Methylcyclopentadecanone, Methylexaltone), a flavouring ingredient, is an organic compound that is the primary contributor to the odor of musk and also a potent anti-inflammatory agent. Muscone significantly downregulats the levels of LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines and inhibits NF-κB and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in BMDMs. Muscone remarkably decreases the levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6).
S3762 Methylnonylketone Methylnonylketone (2-Undecanone, IBI-246), also known as 2-Undecanone and IBI-246, is a natural non-toxic insect repellant compound.
S3789 Tiglic acid Tiglic acid (Cevadic acid, Sabadillic acid, Tiglinic acid) is a monocarboxylic unsaturated organic acid found in croton oil and in several other natural products. It is used in making perfumes and flavoring agents.
S3791 Succinic acid Succinic acid (1,4-Butandioic Acid, 1,2-Ethanedicarboxylic acid, Amber acid, Asuccin, Butanedioic acid) is a crystalline organic acid which occurs in living tissue as an intermediate in glucose metabolism.
S3793 Phytic acid Phytic acid (Inositol polyphosphate, Inositol hexakisphosphate) is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds. It can act as a cofactor in DNA repair by nonhomologous end-joining. Phytic acid inhibits the enzymatic superoxide source xanthine oxidase (XO), and has antioxidative, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory effects.
S3794 Palmitic acid Palmitic acid (Hexadecanoic acid, Cetylic acid) is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and microorganisms with anti-tumor activity.
S3795 Phloretic acid Phloretic acid (Desaminotyrosine, Hydro-p-coumaric acid, Phloretate, 3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid) is a naturally occurring phenolic compound which can be produced by the hydrogenation of p-coumaric acid or synthesized from phloretin, a by-product of apple tree leaves.
S3796 Rebaudioside A Rebaudioside A (Stevia Extract, Reb A, Glycoside A3, Stevioside A3), an natural sweetening ingredient extracted from the stevia leaf, is used in powder or liquid form to heighten sweetening intensity and improve taste. Rebaudioside A is a steviol glycoside, α-glucosidase inhibitor with IC50 of 35.01 μg/ml.can inhibit ATP-sensitive K+-channels.
S3797 Helicide Helicide (4-formylphenyl-O-β-d-allopyranoside), a main active constituent from seeds of the Chinese herb Helicia nilagirica, has been reported to exert a sedative, analgesic and hypnotic effect, and is used clinically to treat neurasthenic syndrome, vascular headaches and trigeminal neuralgia.
S3799 Gentisic acid Gentisic acid (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 5-Hydroxysalicylic acid, Hydroquinonecarboxylic acid, DHB), an active metabolite of salicylic acid degradation, has a broad spectrum of biological activity, such as anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic and antioxidant properties.
S3717 Testosterone Enanthate Testosterone Enanthate (Testosterone heptanoate, NSC-17591) is an androgen and anabolic steroid used in androgen replacement therapy.
S3802 Trigonelline Hydrochloride Trigonelline (Nicotinic acid N-methylbetaine, Coffearine, Gynesine), a major alkaloid component of fenugreek, has hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, antimigraine, sedative, memory-improving, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-tumor activities, and also has been shown to reduce diabetic auditory neuropathy and platelet aggregation.
S3803 Angelic acid Angelic acid ((Z)-2-Methylbut-2-enoic acid) is a monocarboxylic unsaturated organic acid that is mostly found in the plants of the family Apiaceae.
S3812 Monocrotaline Monocrotaline (MCT, Crotaline) is an 11-membered macrocyclic pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) that causes a pulmonary vascular syndrome in rats characterized by proliferative pulmonary vasculitis, pulmonary hypertension, and cor pulmonale.
S3886 Quinic acid Quinic acid (Chinic acid, Kinic acid) is a crystalline acid obtained from cinchona bark, coffee beans, and other plant products and made synthetically by hydrolysis of chlorogenic acid.
S3887 α-L-Rhamnose monohydrate α-L-Rhamnose monohydrate (6-deoxy-L-mannose monohydrate, α-L-Rhamnopyranose monohydrate) is used as a starting material for the production of furanones. It is an important material involved in the reaction of flavors developed during the preparation of various foods like bread, grilled meats, etc.
S3742 Cholic acid Cholic acid is a naturally occurring bile acid that is insoluble in water and is used to treat patients with genetic deficiencies in the synthesis of bile acids.
S3679 Flavanone Flavanones (2,3-Dihydroflavone, 4-Flavanone, 2-Phenyl-4-chromanone, 2-Phenylchroman-4-one) show strong antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, and appear to be associated with a reduced risk of certain chronic diseases, the prevention of some cardiovascular disorders, and certain kinds of cancer. Flavanones also exhibit antiviral, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities, beneficial effects on capillary fragility, and an ability to inhibit human platelet aggregation, anti-ulcer, and anti-allergenic properties.
S4808 L-Cystine L-Cystine is the oxidized dimer form of the amino acid L-cysteine which is a non-essential amino acid of the human body. It is required for wound healing and formation of epithelial tissue.
S4811 VitaMin U Vitamin U (Methylmethioninesulfonium Chloride, Cabagin-U, Smethylmethionine) is a vitamin found in green vegetables. It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, colitis, and gastritis and has an effect on secretory, acid-forming, and enzymatic functions of the intestinal tract.
S5107 Riboflavin phosphate sodium Flavin mononucleotide (riboflavin-5'-phosphate, FMN) is a biomolecule produced from riboflavin (vitamin B2) by the enzyme riboflavin kinase and functions as prosthetic group of various oxidoreductases including NADH dehydrogenase as well as cofactor in biological blue-light photo receptors.
S5108 Tylosin Tylosin (Fradizine, Tylocine, Tylosine, Tylosin A) is a macrolide-class broad spectrum antibiotic that's used in veterinary medicine to treat felines, canines and livestock.
S3626 Sesamol Sesamol (1,3-Benzodioxol-5-ol, 3,4-Methylenedioxyphenol), a natural organic compound, is regarded as a major antioxidant component in the oil with chemoprevention, antimutagenic, and antihepatotoxic activities. It induces apoptosis of cancer and cardiovascular cells.
S3625 Tyramine Tyramine (4-hydroxyphenethylamine, para-tyramine, mydrial, uteramin) is a naturally occurring trace amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine and acts as a catecholamine releasing agent.
S3624 Quinolinic acid Quinolinic Acid (pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, QUIN), a neuroactive metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, is an agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.
S3629 Syringic acid Syringic acid (NSC 2129, SYRA) is a potential antioxidant used in traditional Chinese medicine and is an emerging nutraceutical. It has potential anti-angiogenic, anti-glycating, anti-hyperglycaemic, neuroprotective, and memory-enhancing properties.
S3630 Methyl Vanillate Methyl Vanillate, one of the ingredients in Hovenia dulcis Thunb, activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induces osteoblast differentiation in vitro.
S5362 Citicoline Citicoline (CDP-choline, cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine) is a naturally occurring compound that acts as nutrient with a broad spectrum of benefits for conditions associated with symptoms of neurological dysfunction. As an endogenous compound, it is also an essential intermediate in the synthesis of cell membrane phospholipids and its formation is the rate-limiting step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis.
S5368 Lactitol Lactitol is a versatile, reduced calorie sweetener derived from natural milk sugar, used in a wide variety of sweetening applications.
S4955 Acetosyringone Acetosyringone (Acetosyringenin) is a phenolic natural product with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions.
S5571 L-Asparagine L-Asparagine (2-Aminosuccinamic acid, alpha-aminosuccinamic acid) is a non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue.
S5594 α-Terpineol α-Terpineol, a natural monoterpene, is the major component of essential oils of several species of aromatic plants such as Origanium vulgare L. and Ocimum canum Sims which are widely used for medicinal purposes. It is widely used in the manufacturing of cosmetics, soaps, perfumes, antiseptic agents and is considered one of the most frequently used fragrance compounds. α-TPN has anticholinergic action and can block the interaction between PGE2 and GM1 receptors and cholera toxin.
S5576 Benzyl acetate Benzyl acetate (Acetic acid benzyl ester, Benzyl ethanoate, Phenylmethyl), usually found in alcoholic beverages, is a flavouring agent.
S5585 Citronellal Citronellal (Rhodinal, 2,3-Dihydrocitral), a monoterpenoid found in oil of citronella, lemon, and lemon grass, has insect repellent properties and is used in perfumes.
S5598 p-Cymene p-Cymene (4-Isopropyltoluene, 4-Methylcumene, Paracymene) is a naturally occurring aromatic organic compound produced by high purity separate technique which is applied in distilling of gum turpentine oil.
S3675 Umbelliferone Umbelliferone (7-hydroxycoumarin, hydrangine, skimmetine, beta-umbelliferone) is a 7-hydroxycoumarin that is a pharmacologically active agent. It is a fluorescing compound used as a sunscreen agent and shows good inhibitions of DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and ABTS radicals with anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycaemic, molluscicidal and anti-tumor activities.
S3677 Cinnamic acid Cinnamic acid (Benzenepropenoic acid, Isocinnamic acid, trans-Cinnamic acid, Phenylacrylic acid), a naturally occurring aromatic fatty acid of low toxicity, induces cytostasis and a reversal of malignant properties of human tumor cells in vitro.
S3661 2-Methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone 2-Methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, isolated from the leaves of Impatiens glandulifera, specifically suppressed the expression of PKC βI, δ, and ζ in a concentration-dependent manner in Raji cells.
S3652 3-Nitropropionic acid 3-Nitropropionic acid (β-Nitropropionic Acid, 3-NP) is an irreversible inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory Complex II succinate dehydrogenase, resulting in energy depletion through disruption of the electron transport chain.
S5513 Calcium D-saccharate tetrahydrate Calcium D-saccharate tetrahydrate (Calcium Saccharate, D-Saccharic acid calcium salt, D-Glucaric acid calcium salt) is the calcium salt form of glucaric acid, a natural substance found in many fruits and vegetables, with potential anti-cancer property.
S5518 D-Glucose 6-phosphate disodium salt D-Glucose 6-phosphate disodium salt is the disodium salt form of D-Glucose 6-phosphate, a common form of glucose within the cell, participating in two major metabolic pathways: glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. It can be coverted to glycogen or starch for storage.
S2416 Chondroitin sulfate Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of many connective tissues, including cartilage, bone, skin, ligaments and tendons. It reduces the IL-1β-induced nuclear factor-kB (NF-κB) translocation in chondrocytes in vitro.
S5327 Meisoindigo Meisoindigo (N-Methylisoindigotin, Methylisoindigotin, Dian III), a derivative of Indigo naturalis, is an active compound of a Chinese anti-leukemia medicine that has been effectively used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). In vitro cell line studies have shown that this agent might induce apoptosis and myeloid differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
S5599 Sodium cholate Sodium cholate (NaCh) is the sodium salt of the naturally occurring cholic acid, a bile salt produced by the liver, with strong solubilization capacity of water-insoluble substances.
S5575 2-Benzoxazolinone 2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA, 2-Hydroxybenzoxazole), a well-known allelochemical with strong phytotoxicity, is a potential herbicidal candidate and probably functions via interfering with auxins or disrupting membrane integrity.
S5579 Chelidonic acid Chelidonic acid (Jerva acid, Jervaic acid, γ-Pyrone-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) is a secondary metabolite found in several plants with therapeutic potential in allergic disorders in experimental animals. Chelidonic acid inhibits IL-6 production by blocking NF-κB and caspase-1 in HMC-1 cells. Chelidonic acid is also an inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase with Ki of 1.2 μM.
S5588 Creatine Creatine (Methylguanidoacetic acid) is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates. It facilitates the recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) primarily in muscle and brain tissue.Creatine can inhibits the JAK-STAT1 signal transmission by inhibiting the interaction of IFN-γ receptors with JAK2 in an ATP-independent manner, thereby inhibiting downstream pro-inflammatory gene expression.
S5614 (+)-Longifolene (+)-Longifolene is a naturally occurring, oily liquid hydrocarbon found primarily in the high-boiling fraction of certain pine resins
S3619 Citicoline sodium Citicoline (CDP-choline) is an essential intermediate in the synthesis of the major phospholipid of the cell membranes, phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). It increases plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels and potentiates serum thyrotrophin (TSH) levels by activating the central cholinergic system.
S5595 3-Carene 3-Carene (Carene, Delta-3-Carene) is a bicyclic monoterpene in essential oils extracted from pine trees. 3-Carene have potent pharmacological effects on COX-2 overexpression and LPS-induced migration of Raw264.7 macrophages. 3‐carene is shown to significantly stimulate the activity and expression of alkaline phosphatase, an early phase marker of osteoblastic differentiation.
S5376 Decyl aldehyde Decyl aldehyde (Decanal, Capraldehyde, Decanaldehyde) is a naturally occuring organic compound that is used in fragrances and flavoring.
S5551 6-Paradol 6-Paradol is a minor constituent of ginger, mainly formed from 6-gingerol via 6-shogaol, and exhibits a variety of biological activities including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative activities. Paradol is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2.
S5379 Fenchyl Alcohol Fenchyl Alcohol is used as a flavoring agent to provide a pine, herbal, lemon, or floral taste to food and drink.
S5530 Geraniol Geraniol is a terpene alcohol occurring in the essential oils of several aromatic plants used in the flavour and fragrance industries. It also exhibits insecticidal and repellent properties and used as a natural pest control agent exhibiting low toxicity.
S5237 Dihydroartemisinic acid Dihydroartemisinic acid is a natural product from Artemisia annua and the main direct precursor of artemisinin, which is a medicinal herb that is widely used to treat Malaria.
S5516 Ellagic Acid hydrate Ellagic acid is a potent inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 with IC50s of 0.04, 2.9 and 3.5 μM for CK2, Lyn and PKA respectively. It shows potent antioxidant, anti-mutagenic and antidepressant properties.
S3612 Rosmarinic acid Rosmarinic acid (RA, Rosemary acid) is a naturally occurring hydroxylated compound. It has the ability to block complement fixation, inhibit lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activity and inhibit the expression of CCL11 and CCR3 by suppressing the IKK-β activity in NF-κB activation signaling.
S3609 Berbamine dihydrochloride Berbamine (BA, BBM) dihydrochloride, a traditional Chinese medicines extracted from Berberis amurensis (xiaoboan), is a novel inhibitor of bcr/abl fusion gene with potent anti-leukemia activity and also an inhibitor of NF-κB. Berbamine (BA, BBM) dihydrochloride induces apoptosis in human myeloma cells and inhibits the growth of cancer cells by targeting Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII).
S5459 Aucubin Aucubin (Rhinanthin), an iridoid glycoside existing in medicinal plants, has been reported to show an anti-inflammatory activity by suppression of TNF-α production in murine macrophages.
S5471 Monotropein Monotropein, an iridoids glycoside isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis How, has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.
S5452 Sanguinarine chloride Sanguinarine, a plant alkaloid, is a potent and specific protein phosphatase (PP) 2C inhibitor. Sanguinarine chloride can stimulate apoptosis via activating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sanguinarine-induced apoptosis is associated with the activation of JNK and NF-κB.
S5458 Verbascoside Verbascoside (Acteoside, Kusaginin), a phenylpropanoid glycoside from lemon verbena, has several biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antitumor, and antioxidant.
S5467 Asarinin Asarinin (Sesamin, Fagarol, Pseudocubebin, Episesamin, Eleutheroside B4), isolated as a racemate from the shrub Zanthoxylum alatum, is usually used as a dietary fat-reduction supplement.
S5455 Akebia saponin D Akebia saponin D (Asperosaponin VI), the most abundant constituent of the rhizome of Dipsacus asper, has been used for the treatment of lower back pain, traumatic hematoma and bone fractures.
S5553 Kasugamycin hydrochloride Kasugamycin is an aminoglycosidic antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces kasugaensis, showing broad-spectrum anti-fungal activity against yeast and various fungus species.
S5529 Galangin Galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone; Norizalpinin), a naturally occuring flavonoid found in herbs, is a well-known antioxidant and also an inhibitor of CYP1A1 activity and an agonist/antagonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.
S5453 Hyperoside Hyperoside (Hyperin, Quercetin 3-galactoside), a naturally occuring flavonoid compound, exerts multiple bioactivities, including myocardial protection, anti-redox, and anti-inflammatory activities.Hyperoside can inhibit activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.
S5460 Vitexin-2-O-rhaMnoside Vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside (2''-O-Rhamnosylvitexin, Apigenin-8-C-glucoside) is one of the main components of flavonoid of the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var major N. E. Br. It has many biological and pharmacological activities, such as antioxidation and treating heart disease.
S5468 Kaempferol-3-O-glucorhamnoside Kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside (Kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside), isolated from the herbs of Delphinium grandiflorum L., has insulin-like properties in terms of glucose lowering.
S5465 Morroniside Morroniside, an iridoid glycoside, is the main active ingredient from Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. and Sambucus williamsii Hance. It has therapeutic effects on diabetic angiopathies, renal damage, lipid metabolism and inflammation and bone resorption. Morroniside has neuroprotective effect by inhibiting neuron apoptosis and MMP2/9 expression.
S5463 Curcurbitacin IIA Curcurbitacin IIA (Cucurbitacin Iia, CuIIa, Hemslecin A, Dihydrocucurbitacin Q1) is the major active component of the Helmseya amabilis root and is known to have antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects.
S5469 Bavachin Bavachin (Corylifolin) is a phytoestrogen purified from natural herbal plants such as Psoralea corylifolia. It acts as a weak phytoestrogen by binding and activating the ER.
S5462 5-O-Methylvisammioside 5-O-Methylvisammioside is a naturally occuring product isolated from Saposhnikovia Divaricata and has analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet aggregation effects.
S5451 Ferulic acid methyl ester Ferulic acid methyl ester (Methyl Ferulate, Methyl 4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxycinnamate) is a lipophilic derivative of ferulic acid, which is a hydroxycinnamic acid that is abundant in plants. It shows the strongest antioxidant activity and can protect against inflammation and cancer.
S5456 Isobavachalcone Isobavachalcone (Corylifolinin), a naturally occurring chalcone compound derived from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L., has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine as anthelmintic, antibacterial, aphrodisiac, astringent and antiplatelet agent.
S5512 Juglone Juglone (Regianin, 5-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), a natural naphthoquinone found in the black walnut and other plants, has moderate antifungal activity and growth-stimulating effects to many types of plants. It sometimes can be used as an herbicide, as a dye for cloth and inks, and as a coloring agent for foods and cosmetics.
S3880 Schisantherin A Schisantherin A (Gomisin C, Schisanwilsonin H, Arisanschinin K) is a dibenzocyclooctadiene that exhibits anti-tussive, sedative, anti-inflammatory, anti-osteoporotic, neuroprotective, cognition enhancing, and cardioprotective activities. Schisantherin A inhibits p65-NF-κB translocation into the nucleus by IκBα degradation.
S3882 Brassinolide Brassinolide, a plant steroid isolated from Brassica napus pollen, promotes cell elongation and cell devision and thus regulates plant growth and development.
S2376 Ammonium Glycyrrhizinate Ammonium Glycyrrhizinate (AMGZ, Glycyram, Glycyrrhizin ammonium salt, Glycyrrhizic acid ammonium salt) is a unique product from Licorice root with a very high sweetness. Ammonium glycyrrhizinate is a direct inhibitor of HMGB1 with anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic activities. Ammonium Glycyrrhizinate inhibits growth and cytopathology of several unrelated DNA and RNA viruses. Ammonium Glycyrrhizinate also inhibits both hepatic delta 4-5-reductase and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.
S2291 Diosgenin Diosgenin is a steroid sapogenin and the precursor for the semisynthesis of progesterone which in turn was used in early combined oral contraceptive pills; A weak PDE inhibitor.
S3776 Sophoricoside Sophoricoside (SOPH) is an isoflavone isolated from Sophora japonica (Leguminosae) with numerous pharmacological effects, including anti- inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunosuppressive effects.
S5249 Coptisine chloride Coptisine (Q-100696, NSC-119754) is an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Coptidis Rhizoma with anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-hepatoma, and anti-leukemia effects. Coptisine chloride is an efficient uncompetitive IDO inhibitor with IC50 value of 6.3 μM and Ki value of 5.8 μM.
S3879 Kaempferide Kaempferide (4'-Methylkaempferol, 4'-O-Methylkaempferol, Kaempferol 4'-methyl ether), a natural compound derived from the roots of kaempferia galanga, has a variety of effects including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties.
S5049 Thiocolchicoside Thiocolchicoside (Thiocolchicine 2-glucoside analog, Coltramyl) is a natural occuring glycoside originated from the flower seeds of superba gloriosa with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties as well as pronounced convulsant activity. It is also an antagonist of GABAA receptor.
S8279 Shikonin (C.I. 75535) Shikonin (C.I. 75535, Anchusin, Anchusa acid, Alkanna Red, Isoarnebin 4, NSC 252844), a potent and specific Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) inhibitor, is a major component of zicao (purple gromwell, the dried root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon), a Chinese herbal medicine with various biological activities. It is also an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. Shikonin exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prevents activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway via proteasome inhibition.
S3822 Schisandrin A Schisandrin A (Sch A, Deoxyschizandrin, Wuweizisu A) is an active component of Schisandrae Fructus with liver-protective, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. It is an agonist of the adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) with the IC50 value of 3.5 μM.
S4738 Arctiin Arctiin (Arctigenin-4-Glucoside, NSC 315527) acts on an agonists of the adiponectin receptor 1 with anti-cancer effects.
S3807 Dehydroandrographolide Dehydroandrographolide, isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees (Chuan-xin-lian), is a novel TMEM16A inhibitor and possesses multiple pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-virus and anti-hepatitis activity.
S8132 Deguelin Deguelin, a natural product isolated from plants in the Mundulea sericea family, is an PI3K/AKT Inhibitor.
S3824 Quercitrin Quercitrin (3-rhamnosyl quercetin, Sophoretin, Meletin, Xanthaurine), a glycoside of quercetin, has been found as a main bioactive constituent in T. sinensis leaves and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities.
S2383 Gastrodin Gastrodin (Gastrodine), an anti-inflammatory polyphenol extracted from Chinese natural herbal Gastrodia elata Blume., benefits neurodegenerative diseases.
S2387 Lappaconite HBr Lappaconite Hydrobromide is a kind of alkaloid extracted from Aconitum sinomontanum Nakai and has anti-inflammatory effects.
S3910 4',7-Dimethoxyisoflavone 4',7-Dimethoxyisoflavone, isolated from the leaves of Albizzia lebbeck, shows antifungal activity in vitro.
S3832 Euphorbiasteroid Euphorbiasteroid (Euphorbia factor L1), a component of Euphorbia lathyris L., inhibits adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells through activation of the AMPK pathway and induces HL-60 cells to apoptosis via promoting Bcl-2/Bax apoptotic signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Euphorbiasteroid is a tricyclic diperpene of Euphorbia lathyris L., inhibits tyrosinase, and increases the phosphorylation of AMPK, with anti-cancer, anti-virus, anti-obesity and multidrug resistance-modulating effect.
S4884 Trans-Zeatin Trans-Zeatina ((E)-Zeatin) is the member of the plant growth hormone family known as cytokinins, which regulate cell division, development, and nutrient processing. Trans-Zeatin inhibits UVB-induced MMP-1 expression, c-Jun activation and phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38 MAP kinases (MAPKs) dose-dependently.
S2250 (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate(EGCG) is the main catechin extraction of green tea that inhibits telomerase and DNA methyltransferase. EGCG blocks the activation of EGF receptors and HER-2 receptors. ECGG inhibits fatty acid synthase and glutamate dehydrogenase activity.
S2290 Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) Dihydroartemisinin (DHA, Dihydroqinghaosu, β-Dihydroartemisinin, Artenimol) is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin and isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua. Dihydroartemisinin induces autophagy and apoptosis by suppressing NF-κB activation.
S7409 Anisomycin Anisomycin (Flagecidin, Wuningmeisu C) is a bacterial antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces griseolus, which inhibits protein synthesis, and also act as a JNK activator. Anisomycin upregulates autophagy and increases apoptosis.
S2295 Emodin Emodin is a purgative resin, 6-methyl-1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, from rhubarb, the buckthorn and Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica).
S2320 Luteolin Luteolin (Luteoline, Luteolol, Digitoflavone) is a flavonoid found in Terminalia chebula, which is a non-selective phisphodiesterase PDE inhibitor for PDE1-5 with Ki of 15.0 μM, 6.4 μM, 13.9 μM, 11.1 μM and 9.5 μM, respectively. Phase 2.
S3818 Tectoridin Tectoridin (Shekanin), an isoflavone isolated from flowers of Pueraria thunbergiana, has several pharmacological effects including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotectivy.
S2302 Glycyrrhizin (NSC 167409) Glycyrrhizin (NSC 167409, Glycyrrhizic Acid) is a direct HMGB1(high mobility group box 1) inhibitor that inhibits HMGB1-dependent inflammatory molecule expression and oxidative stress; modulates P38 and P-JNK but not p-ERK signalling; Also inhibits 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and monoamine oxidase (MAO).
S4603 Gallic acid Gallic acid (3,4,5-Trihydroxybenzoic acid, Gallate, Benzoic acid), known as powerful antioxidants, is an organic acid found in a variety of foods and herbs.
S3841 Eleutheroside B Eleutheroside B (syringin, Syringoside, Lilacin) is a phenylpropanoid glycoside first isolated from A. senticosus and has neuroprotective, tonic, adaptogenic, and immune-modulating properties.
S3845 Panaxadiol Panaxadiol (20(R)-Panaxadiol) is a triterpene sapogenin originally found in species of Panax (ginseng) and exhibits anticancer, cardioprotective, anti-arrhythmic, and antioxidative activities. It inhibits Ca2+ channels, decreasing channel open time and open state probability in vitro and displaying anti-arrhythmic potential.
S3847 Panaxatriol Panaxatriol is a triterpene sapogenin originally found in species of Panax (ginseng) and exhibits anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-arrhythmic, and antioxidative activities.
S3848 Hydroxytyrosol Acetate Hydroxytyrosol acetate (HTy-Ac), an extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenol, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
S3778 Patchouli alcohol Patchouli alcohol (Patchoulol, Patchouli camphor), an ingredient in pogostemonis herba, has various pharmacological activities and acts as an inhibitor of asexual fungal propagation, inflammation, the influenza virus, and tumorigenesis.
S3912 Cephalotaxine Cephalotaxine is a naturally occurring alkaloid which is the structural motif of a number of compounds and has shown promising anti-cancer properties.
S3930 Liquiritin Liquiritin (LIQ, Liquiritoside, Liquiritigenin-4'-O-glucoside) is a main component among the licorice flavonoids, and possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer abilities.
S4758 Crocin Crocin (Alpha-Crocin, Gardenia Yellow) is a water-soluble carotenoid pigment of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). It has been used as a spice for flavoring and coloring food preparations, and in Chinese traditional medicine as an anodyne or tranquilizer.
S3874 Curcumenol Curcumenol, a sesquiterpene isolated from Curcuma zedoaria, is known to possess a variety of health and medicinal values which includes neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and hepatoprotective activities. It inhibits NF-κB activation by suppressing the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and blocking IκBα phosphorylation and degradation.
S3877 Lysionotin Lysionotin is a natural flavonoid predominantly found in fewflower lysionotus herbs and possesses many pharmacological properties, such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and free radical scavenging activities.
S3809 Imperatorin Imperatorin (Ammidin, Marmelosin, Pentosalen, 8-Isoamylenoxypsoralen), a naturally occurring psoralen-type furanocoumarin, is a potent myorelaxant agent and acts as a calcium antagonist on vascular smooth muscle.
S3892 Isopsoralen Isopsoralen (Angelicin), also known as angelicin, is a constituent of roots and leaves of angelica with anti-inflammatory activity and regulates LPS-induced inflammation via inhibiting MAPK/NF-κB pathways. It also shows antiviral activity against gammaherpesviruses.
S3908 4'-Demethylpodophyllotoxin 4'-Demethylpodophyllotoxin is isolated from the herb of Dysosma pleiantha (Hance) Woodson with remarkable cytotoxic potential in diverse cancer cell lines.
S3938 Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) is a natural demethoxy derivative of curcumin and possesses several biological activities, such as anti-inflammation and anti-cancer activities.
S3890 Leonurine Leonurine, an active alkaloid extracted from Traditional Chinese Medicine Herba leonuri, exerts several biological effects, such as antidiabetic, cardiovascular, and bovine mastitis protection.
S3816 Dehydroevodiamine Dehydroevodiamine (DHED), a constituent of Evodia rutaecarpa, has various biological effects such as hypotensive, negative chronotropic, ion channel depressant, inhibition of nitric oxide production and cerebral blood flow enhancing activities. Dehydroevodiamine inhibits LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression in murine macrophage cells.
S5144 Neferine Neferine ((R)-1,2-Dimethoxyaporphine), a natural component of Nelumbo nucifera, has antitumor efficiency. Neferine induces apoptosis in renal cancer cells. Neferine prevents autophagy through activation of Akt/mTOR pathway and Nrf2 in muscle cells. Neferine strongly inhibits NF-κB activation. Neferine possesses a number of therapeutic effects such as anti-diabetic, anti-aging, anti-microbial, anti-thrombotic, anti-arrhythmic, anti-inflammatory and even anti-HIV.
S4761 Thymoquinone Thymoquinone (TQ) is the bioactive phytochemical constituent of the seeds oil of Nigella sativa with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects.
S3906 Astragalus polyphenols Astragalus is a wonderful immune enhancing herb that has strong anti-viral activity and produces extra interferon in the body. It contains rich polyphenol with various effects including antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions.
S3907 Bulleyaconi cine A Bulleyaconi cine A (Bulleyaconitine A, BLA) is an active ingredient of Aconitum bulleyanum plants and classified as an "aconitine-like" alkaloid. It is a potent use-dependent blocker for both Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 Na+ currents.
S3909 Catalpol Catalpol (Catalpinoside, Digitalis purpurea L), an iridoid glucoside contained richly in the roots of the small flowering plant species Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, has been shown to have antioxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis and other neuroprotective properties and plays a role in neuroprotection against hypoxic/ischemic injury, AD and PD in both in vivo and in vitro models.
S3922 (-)-epigallocatechin (-)-Epigallocatechin, widespread in plants, has been shown to exhibit anti-tumor, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory functions.
S3923 Ginsenoside Rg1 Ginsenoside Rg1 (Ginsenoside A2, Panaxoside A, Panaxoside Rg1, Sanchinoside C1, Sanchinoside Rg1), one of the major active components of ginseng, is identified as a protopanaxatriol-type and has pharmacological actions such as neuroprotective and anti-tumor effects on various cancer types. Ginsenoside Rg1 reduces cerebral Aβ levels and NF-κB nuclear translocation.
S3924 Ginsenoside Rb1 Ginsenoside Rb1 (Gypenoside Ⅲ) is a protopanaxadiol that has diverse in vitro and in vivo effects, including neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity actions. Ginsenoside Rb1, a main constituent of the root of Panax ginseng, inhibits Na+, K+-ATPase activity with IC50 of 6.3±1.0 μM. Ginsenoside also inhibits IRAK-1 activation and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65. Ginsenoside Rb1 reduces the expressions of TLR3, TLR4 and TRAF-6, and down-regulates the levels of TNF-α, IFN-β and iNOS.
S3925 (-)-Epicatechin gallate (-)-Epicatechin gallate (ECG) is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) with IC50 of 7.5 μM.
S3926 Forsythin Forsythin (FOR, Phillyrin) is an active ingredient extracted from the fruit of the medicinal plant Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl and has been shown to have antioxidant, antibacterial and antiinflammatory properties.
S2317 L-(+)-Rhamnose Monohydrate L(+)-Rhamnose (Rham) is a naturally-occurring deoxy sugar that is found primarily in plants and some bacteria.
S3901 Astragaloside IV Astragaloside IV (AST-IV, AS-IV) is a bioactive saponin first isolated from the dried plant roots of the genus Astragalus, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine. It has various effect on the cardiovascular, immune, digestive, and nervous systems. AS-IV suppresses activation of p-Akt, p-mTOR, p-NF-κB and p-Erk1/2.
S3915 Gracillin Gracillin, a kind of steroidal saponin isolated from the root bark of wild yam Dioscorea nipponica, has been reported to exert antitumor activity.
S3916 Macranthoidin B Macranthoidin B (Macranthoiside I) is a major bioactive saponin in rat plasma after oral administration of extraction of saponins from Flos Lonicerae.
S3920 7β-Hydroxylathyrol 7β-Hydroxylathyrol (7beta-Hydroxylathyrol, 7-Hydroxylathyrol) is natural occuring product extracted from the seeds of Euphorbia lathyris L.
S3921 Lathyrol Lathyrol is a natural product that is used for cancer treatment.
S3931 Ginsenoside Rd Ginsenoside Rd (Panaxoside Rd, Sanchinoside Rd), a minor ginseng saponin, has several pharmacological activities such as immunosuppressive activity, anti-inflammatory activity, immunological adjuvant, anti-cancer activity and wound-healing activity. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits TNFα-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity with an IC50 of 12.05±0.82 μM in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits expression of COX-2 and iNOS mRNA. Ginsenoside Rd also inhibits Ca2+ influx. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9, with IC50s of 58.0±4.5 μM, 78.4±5.3 μM, 81.7±2.6 μM, and 85.1±9.1 μM, respectively.
S3765 Picroside II Picroside II (6-Vanilloylcatalpol, Vanilloyl catalpol) is the main active ingredient in iridoid glycosides, which is the principal component of Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle. It has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immune regulatory, anti-virus and other pharmacological activities.
S3875 Alpinetin Alpinetin, a composition of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been reported to have a number of biological properties, such as antibacterial, antitumor and other important therapeutic activities. Alpinetin is a flavonoid isolated from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, activates activates PPAR-γ, with potent anti-inflammatory activity.
S3878 Bavachinin Bavachinin (7-O-Methylbavachin) is a novel natural pan-PPAR agonist from the fruit of the traditional Chinese glucose-lowering herb malaytea scurfpea. It shows stronger activities with PPAR-γ than with PPAR-α and PPAR-β/δ (EC50 = 0.74 μmol/l, 4.00 μmol/l and 8.07 μmol/l in 293T cells, respectively).
S3881 Scopoletin Scopoletin (Esculetin 6-methyl ether, Gelseminic acid, 6-Methylesculetin, Chrysatropic acid) is the main bioactive constituent of flower buds from Magnolia fargesii with anti-inflammatory, hypouricemic, and antioxidant activities.
S3883 Protopine Protopine (Corydinine, Fumarine, Biflorine, Macleyine), an alkaloid present in different plants, has been shown to exhibit a number of activities, such as inhibition of calcium influx through both voltage and receptor-operated channels and inhibition of rabbit blood platelet aggregation. It also possesses anti-cholinergic and anti-histaminic as well as anti-bacterial activities.
S3884 Jatrorrhizine Jatrorrhizine (Neprotin, Yatrorizine), one of the active constituents of Coptis chinensis Franch, has multiple bioactivities, such as hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities. It is an inhibitor of AChE with IC50 of 872 nM and demonstrates >115-fold selectivity for AChE over BuChE.
S3800 Lycorine hydrochloride Lycorine (Galanthidine, Amarylline, Narcissine, Licorine), a natural alkaloid extracted from the Amaryllidaceae plant family, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of physiological effects, including the potential effect against cancer. It is an HCV inhibitor with strong activity.
S3801 Sodium Houttuyfonate Sodium Houttuyfonate, the active compound of the Houttuynia plant, is mainly used for treating purulent skin infections, respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia in elderly patients, and chronic bronchitis.
S3804 Alpha-Mangostin Alpha-mangostin is the main xanthone purified from mangosteen and has health promoting benefits including anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and cardioprotective activities. alpha-Mangostin (α-Mangostin) is a dietary xanthone with broad biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. It is an inhibitor of mutant IDH1 (IDH1-R132H) with a Ki of 2.85 μM. Alpha-mangostin is also an agonist of human STING.
S3808 Mangiferin Mangiferin (Alpizarin, Chinomin, Hedysarid) is a bioactive compound that demonstrates many health perspectives and has been used to prepare medicinal and food supplements. Mangiferin is a Nrf2 activator. Mangiferin suppresses nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunits p65 and p50.
S3810 Scutellarin Scutellarin (Breviscapine, Breviscapin, Scutellarein-7-glucuronide), the major active principal flavonoids extracted from the Chinese herbal medicines Scutellaria baicalensis and Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz, has many pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, and antiinflammatory activities. Scutellarin can down-regulates the STAT3/Girdin/Akt signaling in HCC cells, and inhibits RANKL-mediated MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway in osteoclasts.
S3811 Ginsenoside Re Ginsenoside Re (Ginsenoside B2, Panaxoside Re, Sanchinoside Re, Chikusetsusaponin Ivc), an extract from Panax notoginseng, is a major ginsenoside in ginseng and belongs to 20(S)-protopanaxatriol group. It has diverse in vitro and in vivo effects, including vasorelaxant, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, and angiogenic actions. Ginsenoside Re decreases the β-amyloid protein (Aβ). Ginsenoside Re plays a role in antiinflammation through inhibition of JNK and NF-κB.
S3891 Vincamine Vincamine (Angiopac, Devincan, Equipur, Minorin, Novicet, Oxybral, Perval, Sostenil, Tripervan), an indole alkaloid found in the leaves of V. minor and C. roseus, is a peripheral vasodilator that increases blood flow to the brain.
S3813 Bakuchiol Bakuchiol ((S)-(+)-Bakuchiol) is a meroterpene phenol abundant in seeds and leaves of the plant Psoralea corylifolia. It has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.
S3919 Hederacoside C Hederacoside C (HDC, Kalopanaxsaponin B) is one of the active ingredients in Hedera helix leaf extract (Ivy Ex.) and used to treat respiratory disorders.
S3837 Echinocystic acid Echinocystic acid (EA), a natural triterpone enriched in various herbs, displays a range of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
S3844 Rosavin Rosavin, a cinnamyl alcohol glycoside found in the plant Rhodiola rosea, possesses antidepressant and anxiolytic activities.
S3846 Eupatilin Eupatilin (NSC 122413), a major flavonoid from Artemisia plants, possesses various beneficial biological effects including anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-allergy, and anti-oxidation activity. Eupatilin, a lipophilic flavonoid isolated from Artemisia species, is a PPARα agonist, and possesses anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities.
S3779 cis-Anethole Anethole ((Z)-Anethole, Cis-p-Propenylanisole, Cis-p-Anethole) has two isomers, the cis(Z) isomer being 15-38 times more toxic to animal than the trans(E) isomer. cis-Anethole is found in anise and Only a low level is permitted in flavours.
S3782 Neomangiferin Neomangiferin (Mangiferin 7-glucoside), a natural xanthone C-glycoside mainly obtained from the well-known traditional Chinese medicine rhizoma of Anemarrhena asphodeloides, exhibits antidiabetic activity and antiosteoporotic action.
S3783 Echinacoside Echinacoside, a natural polyphenolic compound, has various biological activities, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, nitric oxide radical-scavenging and vasodilative actions. Echinacoside, one of the phenylethanoids isolated from the stems of Cistanche salsa, elicits neuroprotection by activating Trk receptors and their downstream signal pathways. Echinacoside also has a remarkable antiosteoporotic activity.
S3777 Gentiopicroside Gentiopicroside (GE, Gentiopicrin), a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside, inhibits CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 with IC50 values of 21.8μg/ml and 594μg/ml, respectively in human liver microsomes, and dose not inhibit CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP1A2 or CYP3A4 activities.
S3784 Obacunone (AI3-37934) Obacunone (AI3-37934, CCRIS 8657), a natural compound present in citrus fruits, has been demonstrated for various biological activities including anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. It significantly inhibits aromatase activity in an in vitro enzyme assay with an IC50 value of 28.04 μM; also a novel activator of Nrf2.
S3786 Glabridin Glabridin (Q-100692, KB-289522, LS-176045), one of the active phytochemicals in licorice extract, binds to and activates the ligand binding domain of PPARγ, as well as the full length receptor. It is also a GABAA receptor positive modulator promoting fatty acid oxidation and improving learning and memory.
S3787 Picroside I Picroside I (6'-Cinnamoylcatalpol), an iridoid glycoside, is a hepatoprotective agent which is reported to be antimicrobial and used against hepatitis B.
S3780 Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a plant lignan isolated from flaxseed, has strong antioxidant activity, cardioprotective effects, reduces the blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and reduces the risk of hormone related cancer.
S3914 α-Hederin α-hederin is a water-soluble pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin which has shown hemolytic and apoptotic properties.
S3929 Liquiritigenin Liquiritigenin (4',7-Dihydroxyflavanone), the most active estrogenic compound from the root of Glycyrrhizae uralensis Fisch, selectively binds to ERβ with an IC50 value of 7.5 μM and activates multiple ER regulatory elements and native target genes with Erβ but not ERα.
S3932 Astilbin Astilbin (Isoastilbin, Neoastilbin, Neoisoastilbin, Taxifolin 3-O-rhamnoside), a flavonoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Smilax glabra Roxb, displays anticancer, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppressive activities.
S3760 Stachydrine hydrochloride Stachydrine is isolated from seed husk and the pulp of the fruit of C. Leonurus, and many other Asian plants and fruits. It has potent anti-metastatic activity and cardioprotective effects. Stachydrine hydrochloride is the major active constituent of Herba Leonuri, which is a potential therapy for cardiovascular diseases. Stachydrine can inhibit the NF-κB signal pathway. Anti-hypertrophic activities.
S3764 Isoferulic Acid Isoferulic acid (Hesperetic acid, Hesperetate, Isoferulate), a major active ingredient of Cimicifuga heracleifolia, shows anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties. Isoferulic acid (3-Hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid) is a cinnamic acid derivative that has antidiabetic activity. Isoferulic acid binds to and activates α1-adrenergic receptors (IC50=1.4 µM) to enhance secretion of β-endorphin (EC50=52.2 nM) and increase glucose use.
S3766 Tanshinone IIA sulfonate sodium Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) is a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA isolated as the main pharmacologically active natural compound from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge known as Danshen. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) is a potent negative allosteric modulator of the human purinergic receptor P2X7. Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) inhibits the activity of CYP3A4 and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) through store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOCC) via downregulating the expression of transient receptor potential canonical proteins (TRPC).
S3771 Stachydrine Stachydrine (Proline betaine, L-stachydrine, Methyl hygrate betaine) is a quaternary ammonium derivative of proline that occurs widely in Medicago species. It is an osmoprotective compound found in urine. Stachydrine is a major constituent of Chinese herb leonurus heterophyllus sweet used to promote blood circulation and dispel blood stasis. Stachydrine can inhibit the NF-κB signal pathway.
S3773 Tyrosol Tyrosol (4-Hydroxyphenylethanol, 4-Hydroxyphenethyl alcohol, 2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)ethanol) is an antioxidant that is naturally present in several foods such as wines and green tea and is present most abundantly in olives. Tyrosol is a derivative of phenethyl alcohol. Tyrosol attenuates pro-inflammatory cytokines from cultured astrocytes and NF-κB activation. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.
S3775 Ligustrazine hydrochloride Ligustrazine hydrochloride (Tetramethylpyrazine, Tetrapyrazine) is a chemical compound found in natto and in fermented cocoa beans with anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antiplatelet, and antiapoptosis activities.
S5101 Tabersonine hydrochloride Tabersonine, an ingredient extracted from the bean of Voacanga africana, is a potent inhibitor against Aβ(1−42) aggregation and toxicity.
S2318 Lappaconitine Lappaconitine (LC) is a natural diterpenoid alkaloid (DTA), acting as a human heart sodium channel blocker and possessing a wide range of biological activities, including anti-arrhythmic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anticancer, epileptiform etc.
S3815 Mogroside V Mogroside V is a natural cucurbitane glycoside which has a sweetening strength of 250 times that of sucrose and is derived from mature fruit of luo-han-guo (Siraitia grosvenorii, monk fruit).
S3819 Decursinol angelate Decursinol angelate is a cytotoxic and protein kinase C activating agent from the root of Angelica gigas.
S3820 Dehydroevodiamine hydrochloride Dehydroevodiamine (DHE), a major phytochemical in fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa, can inhibit AChE. It has hypotensive and neuroprotective effects and modulates nitric oxide production.
S3825 Glycitin Glycitin (Glycitein-7-β-O-glucoside), a natural isoflavone isolated from legumes, has antibacterial, antiviral and estrogenic activities and may exerts preventative effects on alcoholism, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and some types of cancer.
S3826 Hydroxytyrosol Hydroxytyrosol (3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol) is one of the main phenolic components of olive oil with excellent antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic activities.
S3827 Royal jelly acid Royal jelly acid (10-Hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid, 10H2DA) is the principal lipid component in royal jelly which is the food for queen and larvae honeybees. It is involved in several treatment processes of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated macrophage responses, inhibition of T-cell proliferation and anti-rheumatoid activity.
S3828 Orcinol glucoside Orcinol glucoside (OG, Sakakin) is an active constituent isolated from the rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. It shows potent antioxidative and anxiolytic activities without sedative effects.
S3829 Isoalantolactone Isoalantolactone, one of the major sesquiterpene lactone compounds, is isolated from the roots of Anula helenium and possesses multiple biological activities including antifungal, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitrypanosomal activities and antiproliferative effects on several cancer cell lines, such as colon, melanoma, ovary, prostate, lung, and leukemia. Isoalantolactone is an apoptosis inducer, which also acts as an alkylating agent.
S3834 Astaxanthin Astaxanthin (β-Carotene-4,4'-dione, Trans-Astaxanthin), a xanthophyll carotenoid, is a nutrient with unique cell membrane actions and diverse clinical benefits with excellent safety and tolerability. Astaxanthin, a red dietary carotenoid isolated from Haematococcus pluvialis, is a modulator of PPARγ and a potent antioxidant with antiproliferative, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activity.
S3835 Loganin Loganin (Loganoside) is an iridoid glycoside first isolated from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica, a member of the Loganiaceae family. It is a non-competitive inhibitor of BACE1 with IC50 of 47.97 μM an also inhibits AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 3.95 μM and 33.02 μM, respectively.
S3836 6-Gingerol 6-Gingerol is the active constituent of fresh ginger known to exhibit a variety of biological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxidation.
S3838 Carnosic acid Carnosic acid (Salvin) is a phenolic diterpene, endowed with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. It is increasingly used within food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries.
S3840 Baohuoside I Baohuoside I (Icariside II) is a flavonoid isolated from Epimedium koreanum Nakai with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. It may exert cytotoxic effect via the ROS/MAPK pathway.
S3842 Isoquercitrin Isoquercitrin (Hirsutrin, 3-Glucosylquercetin, Quercetin 3-o-glucopyranoside), a flavonoid compound with anticancer activity isolated from Bidens bipinnata L, is an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin that acts downstream of the β-catenin nuclear translocation.
S3833 Amentoflavone Amentoflavone (Didemethyl Ginkgetin) is a biflavonoid originally isolated from Selaginella with antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, antidiabetic, and neuroprotective activities.
S3943 Lycopene Lycopene (ψ,ψ-Carotene) is a linear, unsaturated hydrocarbon carotenoid, the major red pigment in fruits such as tomatoes, pink grapefruit, apricots, red oranges, watermelon, rosehips, and guava. It is a natural antioxidant.
S3960 Higenamine hydrochloride Higenamine (Norcoclaurine, (+-)-Demethylcoclaurine), also known as Norcoclaurine HCl, is a non-selective β2 adrenoceptor agonist which is a chemical compound naturally occurring in a number of plants.
S3941 Pinocembrin Pinocembrin (Dihydrochrysin, Galangin flavanone, 5,7-Dihydroxyflavanone) is a major flavonoid molecule incorporated as multifunctional in the pharmaceutical industry. Its vast range of pharmacological activities has been well researched including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.
S5104 Tea polyphenol Tea polyphenols are chemical compounds such as flavanoids and tannins found naturally in tea. Several biological properties have been associated to tea polyphenols (TP), including antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic and antimicrobial activities.
S3939 4'-Methoxyresveratrol 4-Methoxyresveratrol is a stibenoid found in the Chinese herb Gnetum cleistostachyum. 4'-Methoxyresveratrol alleviates AGE-induced inflammation through suppressing RAGE-mediated MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
S3940 3'-Hydroxypterostilbene 3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (3'-HPT) is one of the active constituents of Sphaerophysa salsula and Pterocarpus marsupium which may be useful in treating different types of haematological malignancies. 3'-Hydroxypterostilbene, a natural pterostilbene analogue, effectively inhibits the growth of human colon cancer cells (IC50s of 9.0, 40.2, and 70.9 µM for COLO 205, HCT-116, and HT-29 cells, respectively) by inducing apoptosis and autophagy. 3'-Hydroxypterostilbene inhibits the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K, and p38MAPK pathways and activates the ERK1/2, JNK1/2 MAPK pathways.
S3614 Lupeol Lupeol (Clerodol, Monogynol B, Fagarasterol, Farganasterol) is a significant lupane-type triterpene represented in the plant, fungi and animal kingdoms with anticancer, antiprotozoal, chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties.
S3747 Levothyroxine sodium Levothyroxine (L-T4, L-Thyroxine) is the major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. It is the agonist of Thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta.
S3668 Thymopentin Thymopentin (TP5) has immuno-regulatory activities. The immuno-regulatory actions of thymopentin on peripheral T cells are mediated by intracellular cyclic GMP elevations in contrast to the intracellular cyclic AMP elevations induced in precursor T cells that trigger their further differentiation to T cells.
S3608 Demethylzeylasteral (T-96) Demethylzeylasteral (T-96), the active component isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., inhibits UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms UGT1A6 and UGT2B7 with immunosuppressive effects.
S3610 Cordycepin Cordycepin (3'-Deoxyadenosine) is an adenosine analogue, which is readily phosphorylated to its mono-, di-, and triphosphate intracellularly. It has a very potent anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
S3613 Scoparone Scoparone (6,7-dimethoxycoumarin, Aesculetin dimethyl ether, 6,7-Dimethylesculetin, Escoparone) is a natural organic compound discovered from Chinese herb Artemisia scoparia with anticoagulant, hypolipidemic, vasorelaxant, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory actions.
S3615 Dehydrocostus Lactone Dehydrocostus lactone (DHE), a natural sesquiterpene lactone, inhibits IKKβ activity, IκBα phosphorylation and degradation, coactivators p300 recruitments and p50/p65 NF-κB nuclear translocation, and their DNA binding activity on COX-2 promoter. It has anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, immunomodulatory and anti-tumor properties.
S3616 Asiaticoside Asiaticoside (Ba 2742, BRN0078195, CCRIS8995, NSC166062, Emdecassol,Madecassol), the major active principle of Centella asiatica, prevents ultraviolet A-dependent photoaging by suppressing ultraviolet A-induced reactive oxygen species production. It also decreases DNA binding by MITF.
S3606 Fangchinoline Fangchinoline, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, is a novel HIV-1 inhibitor with pain-relieving, blood pressure-depressing, and antibiotic activities.
S4757 Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) Dihydrotestosterone (DHT, androstanolone, stanolone, 5α-DHT) is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone and a potent agonist of the androgen receptor with 2-3-fold greater androgen receptor affinity than testosterone and 10-fold higher potency of inducing androgen receptor signaling.
S4752 Corticosterone (NSC-9705) Corticosterone (NSC-9705, 17-deoxycortisol, 11β,21-dihydroxyprogesterone), the major stress hormone, is an adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid.
S8291 Atractylenolide I Atractylenolide I is the major sesquiterpenoid of the rhizome of A. macrocephala and shows a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities such as antiinflammatory, digestion promoting, and antioxidant effects.
S4742 Rebaudioside C Rebaudioside C (Dulcoside B) belongs to the family of Steviol Glycosides. It is a natural constituent of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and used as natural sweeteners to diabetics and others on carbohydrate-controlled diets.
S4743 Wogonin Wogonin (Vogonin), a natural and biologically-active flavonoid found in plants, is an inhibitor of CDK9 and does not inhibit CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 at doses that inhibit CDK9 activity; Also inhibits N-acetyltransferase.
S4741 Danshensu Danshensu (Salvianic acid A), a herbal preparation used in traditional Chinese medicine, possesses potential antitumor and anti‑angiogenesis effects. Danshensu inhibits CYP2E1 and CYP2C9 with IC50 of 36.63 and 75.76 μm, respectively.
S4739 Oxyresveratrol Oxyresveratrol (Tetrahydroxystilbene, 2,3',4,5'-tetrahydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring compound particularly found in Morus alba L., exhibits a potent inhibitory effect on dopa oxidase activity of tyrosinase which catalyzes rate-limiting steps of melanin biosynthesis.
S4746 (20S)-Protopanaxadiol 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD, 20-Epiprotopanaxadiol), the main intestinal metabolite of ginsenosides, is one of the active ingredients in ginseng. 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol inhibits P-glycoprotein in multidrug resistant cancer cells.
S4735 Salvianolic acid B Salvianolic acid B (Sal B, Lithospermate B, Lithospermic acid B), an antioxidant and free radical scavenging compound, is the most abundant bioactive compound extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.
S8318 Alantolactone Alantolactone (helenin, helenine, Eupatal), a naturally occurring eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone (SL), could induce activin/SMAD3 signaling and disrupt Cripto-1/activin receptor type II A interaction.
S4707 Oleic Acid Oleic acid (Oleate, 9-Octadecenoic Acid, Elaidoic acid) is a fatty acid that occurs naturally in various animal and vegetable fats and oils. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. Oleic acid is an abundant monounsaturated fatty acid. Oleic acid is a Na+/K+ ATPase activator.
S4722 (+)-Catechin (+)-Catechin (Cianidanol, Catechinic acid, Catechuic acid) is an antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.
S4723 (-)Epicatechin (−)Epicatechin (L-Epicatechin, (-)-Epicatechol) is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. It is a strong antioxidant, has insulin mimic action and improves heart health.
S4726 Lauric Acid Lauric Acid (dodecanoic acid, N-Dodecanoic acid, Dodecylic acid) is a saturated medium-chain fatty acid with a 12-carbon backbone. Lauric acid is found naturally in various plant and animal fats and oils, and is a major component of coconut oil and palm kernel oil.
S4719 Kynurenic acid Kynurenic acid (Quinurenic acid, Kynurenate), a natural metabolite of tryptophan via the kynurenine pathway, is a broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist; It proved to be an antagonist at NMDA, kainate and AMPA receptors.
S4711 Esculetin Esculetin (Cichorigenin, Aesculetin) is a coumarin derivative found in various natural plant products with various biological and pharmaceutical properties including anti-edema, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour effects. It inhibits lipoxygenases (LOs).
S4728 3,3'-Diindolylmethane 3,3'-Diindolylmethane(DIM) is a major digestive product of indole-3-carbinol, a potential anticancer component of cruciferous vegetables. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane is a strong, pure androgen receptor (AR) antagonist.
S4708 Palmitoylethanolamide Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA, Palmidrol, N-palmitoylethanolamine) is an endogenous fatty acid amide and selectively activates PPAR-α in vitro with an EC50 value of 3.1±0.4 μM.
S4690 Escin Escin (Aescin) is a mixture of saponins with anti-inflammatory, vasoconstrictor and vasoprotective effects found in Aesculus hippocastanum(the horse chestnut).
S4686 Vitamin E Vitamin E (D-alpha-Tocopherol) is a fat-soluble vitamin with potent antioxidant properties. It is a potent peroxyl radical scavenger and inhibits noncompetitively cyclooxygenase activity in many tissues, also inhibits angiogenesis and tumor dormancy through suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transcription.
S4706 Eugenol Eugenol (4-Allyl-2-methoxyphenol, 4-Allylguaiacol, Eugenic acid, Allylguaiacol) is a naturally occuring scent chemical found in clove oil and other plants. The physiologic effect of eugenol is by means of increased Histamine Release, and cell-mediated Immunity.
S4539 Salicylic acid Salicylic acid (2-Hydroxybenzoic acid) is a beta hydroxy acid that occurs as a natural compound in plants which is an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis and cyclooxygenase activity.
S4507 17-Hydroxyprogesterone 17-Hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) is an endogenous progestogen as well as chemical intermediate in the biosynthesis of other steroid hormones, including the corticosteroids and the androgens and the estrogens.
S7867 Oleuropein Oleuropein is an antioxidant polyphenol isolated from olive leaf. Oleuropein exerts antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic effects and suppresses the adipocyte differentiation in vitro. Oleuropein inhibits PPARγ activity. Oleuropein exerts anti-adipogenic effect through direct inhibition of PPARγ transcriptional activity. Oleuropein also inhibits aromatase. Oleuropein induces apoptosis. Phase 2.
S7594 Abscisic Acid (Dormin) Abscisic Acid (Dormin, Abscisin II) is a plant hormone, which is involved in many plant developmental processes, modulates ion homeostasis and metabolism, and inhibits germination and seedling growth.
S7582 Anacardic Acid Anacardic Acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic Acid) is a potent inhibitor of p300 and p300/CBP-associated factor histone acetyltranferases, which also has antibacterial activity, antimicrobial activity, prostaglandin synthase inhibition, and tyrosinase and lipoxygenase inhibition.
S8036 Butein Butein, a plant polyphenol isolated from Rhus verniciflua, is able to inhibit the activation of protein tyrosine kinase, NF-κB and STAT3, also inhibits EGFR.
S7025 Embelin Embelin (Embelic Acid, NSC 91874), a quinone isolated from the Japanese Ardisia herb, is an inhibitor of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) with IC50 of 4.1 μM in a cell-free assay.
S4916 Cyanidin Chloride Cyanidin Chloride, a natural flavonoid abundant in fruits and vegetables, is an agonistic ligand for liver X receptor alpha and beta with EC50 of 3.5 μM and 125.2 μM, respectively.
S4033 Sennoside A Sennoside A (NSC 112929), a kind of irritant laxative isolated from rhei rhizome, causes purgative actions in the intestine.
S4018 Sennoside B Sennoside B, a kind of irritant laxative isolated from rhei rhizome, inhibits PDGF-stimulated cell proliferation.
S2252 (+)-Usniacin (+)-Usniacin (D-Usnic Acid) is a naturally occurring dibenzofuran derivative found in several lichen species.
S2253 3-Indolebutyric acid (IBA) 3-Indolebutyric acid(IBA) is a plant hormone in the auxin family and is an ingredient in many commercial plant rooting horticultural products.
S2424 Hypoxanthine Hypoxanthine, a naturally occurring purine derivative, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis, formed from adenylic acid and itself a precursor of xanthine.
S2374 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, NSC-92523), also known as oxitriptan (INN), is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor for the treatment of depression.
S2256 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) 4-Methylumbelliferone is a hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.4 mM.
S2375 Aloin Aloin (Barbaloin, Barbalin), a natural anthracycline from Aloe vera, is a tyrosinase inhibitor.
S2258 Esculin Esculin (Aesculin) is a glucoside found in horse chestnuts.
S2377 Biochanin A Biochanin A (4-Methylgenistein), an O-methylated isoflavone from Trifolium pratense, inhibits protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) of epidermal growth factor receptor with IC50 values of 91.5 μM.
S2259 Aloe-emodin Aloe-emodin (NSC 38628, Rhabarberone) is an interferon-inducing agent with IC50 of about 1 μg/mL for JEV and of about 0.33 μg/mL for EV71.
S3071 Vanillin Vanillin (FEMA 3107), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, is a food additive.
S2260 Amygdalin Amygdalin is a glycoside initially isolated from the seeds of the tree Prunus dulcis, also known as bitter almonds.
S2379 Dioscin Dioscin (Collettiside III, Saponin) is a saponin extracted and isolated from Polygonatum Zanlanscianense Pamp, showing antitumor activities.
S2261 Andrographolide Andrographolide is a labdane diterpenoid that is the main bioactive component of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata.
S2380 Diosmetin Diosmetin (Luteolin 4-methyl ether) is a bioflavonoid found in spearmint, oregano, and many other plants.
S2262 Apigenin (LY 080400) Apigenin (NSC 83244, LY 080400) is a potent P450 inhibitor for CYP2C9 with Ki of 2 μM.
S2263 Arbutin Arbutin (Uva, p-Arbutin, β-Arbutin) is a tyrosinase inhibitor with IC50 of 0.9 mM and 0.7 mM for Monophenolase and Diphenolase, respectively.
S2382 Evodiamine Evodiamine (Isoevodiamine), an alkaloid extract from the fruit of Evodiae Fructus exhibits antitumor activities against the human tumor cells. It is shown to inhibit NF-kB activation through suppression of IkB kinase activity.
S2384 Hematoxylin Hematoxylin (Hydroxybrazilin) is a compound that forms strongly colored complexes with certain metal ions, notably Fe(III) and Al(III) salts and a kind of stain in histology.
S2266 Asiatic Acid Asiatic acid (Dammarolic acid, Asiantic acid) is the aglycone of asiaticoside isolated from the plant Centella asiatica, commonly used in wound healing.
S2386 Indirubin (NSC 105327) Indirubin (NSC 105327) is a potent cyclin-dependent kinases and GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of about 5 μM and 0.6 μM.
S2267 Azomycin Azomycin (2-Nitroimidazole) is an antimicrobial antibiotic produced by a strain of Nocardia mesenterica.
S2268 Baicalein Baicalein is a CYP2C9 and prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor.
S2269 Baicalin (NSC-661431) Baicalin (NSC-661431) is a known prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor and affects the GABA receptors.
S2389 Naringin Dihydrochalcone Naringin Dihydrochalcone(Naringin DC) is a new-style sweetening agent and an artificial sweetener derived from naringin and also an inhibitor of CYP enzymes.
S2270 Bergenin Bergenin (Cuscutin) is trihydroxybenzoic acid glycoside and the C-glycoside of 4-O-methyl gallic acid.
S2390 Polydatin Polydatin (Piceid) is a crystal component extracted from the root stem of perennial herbage Polygonum Cuspidatum Zucc.
S2271 Berberine chloride (NSC 646666) Berberine chloride (NSC 646666, Natural Yellow 18) is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of isoquinoline alkaloids. Berberine activates caspase 3 and caspase 8, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and the release of cytochrome c. Berberine chloride decreases the expression of c-IAP1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Berberine chloride induces apoptosis with sustained phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, as well as generation of the ROS. Berberine chloride is a dual topoisomerase I and II inhibitor. Berberine chloride is also a potential autophagy modulator.
S2391 Quercetin (NSC 9221) Quercetin (NSC 9221, Sophoretin, C.I. 75720), a natural flavonoid present in vegetables, fruit and wine, is a stimulator of recombinant SIRT1 and also a PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 2.4-5.4 μM. Quercetin induces mitophagy, apoptosis and protective autophagy. Phase 4.
S3600 Schisandrin B (Sch B) Schisandrin B is the most abundant dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan present in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. It is a kind of ATR and P-gp inhibitor with high safety.
S2273 β-Sitosterol β-Sitosterol (SKF 14463, 22,23-Dihydrostigmasterol) is one of several phytosterols (plant sterols) with chemical structures similar to that of cholesterol.
S2392 Sesamin Sesamin (Fagarol, Fsesamin), a lignan isolated from the bark of Fagara plants and from sesame oil, exhibits various health benefits.
S2448 Gambogic Acid Gambogic Acid (Guttatic Acid, Guttic Acid, Beta-Guttiferrin) activates caspases with EC50 of 0.78-1.64 μM and competitively inhibits Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, Bcl-W, Bcl-B, Bfl-1 and Mcl-1 with IC50 of 1.47, 1.21, 2.02, 0.66, 1.06 and 0.79 μM, respectively.
S2276 Bilobalide Bilobalide is a biologically active terpenic trilactone present in Ginkgo biloba.
S2277 Caffeic Acid Caffeic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, a naturally occurring organic compound. Caffeic acid is an inhibitor of both TRPV1 ion channel and 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO).
S2281 Chrysin Chrysin (NSC 407436) is a naturally occurring flavone chemically extracted from the blue passion flower (Passiflora caerulea).
S2282 Cinchonidine Cinchonidine is an alkaloid used in asymmetric synthesis in organic chemistry.
S2422 Ipriflavone (Osteofix) Ipriflavone (7-Isopropoxyisoflavon) is used to inhibit bone resorption.
S2285 Cryptotanshinone Cryptotanshinone is a STAT3 inhibitor with IC50 of 4.6 μM in a cell-free assay, strongly inhibits phosphorylation of STAT3 Tyr705, with a small effect on STAT3 Ser727, but none against STAT1 nor STAT5. Cryptotanshinone induces ROS-dependent autophagy and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.
S2423 (S)-10-Hydroxycamptothecin (S)-10-Hydroxycamptothecin (10-HCPT) is a DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor with potent anti-tumor activity.
S2437 Rotundine Rotundine (L-tetrahydropalmatine, L-THP) is a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist with IC50 of 166 nM.
S2287 Cytisine Cytisine (Baphitoxine, Sophorine) is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist.
S2289 Daidzin Daidzin (Daidzoside, Daidzein 7-O-glucoside, Daidzein 7-glucoside), a natural organic compound in the class of phytochemicals known as isoflavones, is a potent and selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and inhibits ALDH-I selectively (Ki=20 nM); at least 500 times less effective against ALDH-Ⅱ, the cytosolic isozyme (Ki=10 μM).
S2385 Hordenine Hordenine (N,N-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenylethylamine) is a phenylethylamine alkaloid with antibacterial and antibiotic properties.
S2394 Naringenin Naringenin (NSC 34875, S-Dihydrogenistein, NSC 11855, Salipurol) is a natural predominant flavanone derived from plant food, which is considered to have a bioactive effect on human health as antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory, carbohydrate metabolism promoter, and immune system modulator.
S2292 Diosmin Diosmin is an agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Diosmin is a semisynthetic phlebotropic agent and a flavonoid found in a variety of citrus fruits.
S1973 Cyclocytidine HCl Cyclocytidine (NSC 145668) is the prodrug of cytarabine, which is a pyrimidine nucleoside analog that inhibits the DNA synthesis and used mainly in the treatment of leukemia.
S2296 Enoxolone Enoxolone (Glycyrrhetin) is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative of the beta-amyrin type obtained from the hydrolysis of glycyrrhizic acid, which was obtained from the herb liquorice.
S2395 Rheochrysidin Rheochrysidin (Physcione) is an anthraquinone from roots of Rheum officinale Baill.
S2297 Ergosterol Ergosterol is a sterol and a biological precursor (a provitamin) to vitamin D2.
S2396 Salidroside Salidroside (Rhodioloside), a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea, has been reported to have a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties. Salidroside is a prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor. Salidroside alleviates cachexia symptoms in mouse models of cancer cachexia via activating mTOR signalling. Salidroside protects dopaminergic neurons by enhancing PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy.
S2298 Fisetin Fisetin (Fustel) is a potent sirtuin activating compound (STAC) and an agent that modulates sirtuins.
S2397 Palmatine chloride Palmatine hydrochloride (Palmatine chloride (6CI,7CI); Fibrauretin) is a hydrochloride salt of palmatine which is a protoberberine alkaloid.
S2299 Formononetin Formononetin (Formononetol, Biochanin B) is a phytoestrogen from the root of Astragalus membranaceus and an O-methylated isoflavone.
S2398 Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q) is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration.
S2300 Ferulic Acid Ferulic Acid (Fumalic) is a hydroxycinnamic acid and a type of organic compound found in the Ferula assafoetida L. or Ligusticum chuanxiong. Ferulic acid is a novel fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor with IC50s of 3.78 μM and 12.5 μM for FGFR1 and FGFR2, respectively.
S2399 Dihydromyricetin Dihydromyricetin (Ampelopsin, Ampeloptin) is a natural antioxidant flavonoid from Ampelopsis grossedentata.
S2301 Genistin (Genistoside) Genistin (Genistoside, Genistine, Genistein 7-glucoside, Genistein glucoside) is an isoflavone found in a number of dietary plants like soy and kudzu. Genistin attenuates cellular growth and promotes apoptotic cell death breast cancer cells through modulation of Estrogen Receptor α (ERα) signaling pathway.
S2400 Rheic Acid Rhein (Monorhein, NSC 38629, Rheinic) is an anthraquinone compound enriched in the fresh rhizome of Rheum coreanum Nakai, showing anti-inflammation and antitumor activities. Rhein is an FTO (mRNA N6-methyladenine demethylase) inhibitor and also inhibits AlkB repair enzymes.
S2401 Sodium Danshensu Sodium Danshensu is a mono sodium of danshensu, which is a natural phenolic acid of caffeic acid derivatives isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza.
S2303 Gossypol Acetate Gossypol Acetate (Gossypol Acetic acid, Pogosin, AT101) is a polyphenolic aldehyde that permeates cells and acts as an inhibitor for several dehydrogenase enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase, NAD-linked enzymes.
S2402 Cyclovirobuxine D Cyclovirobuxine D (Cyclovirobuxin D, Cyclovirobuxine, Bebuxine, CVB-D) is an active compound extracted from Buxus microphylla, which has been used for treating acute myocardial ischemia.
S2304 Gramine Gramine (Donaxine) is a natural indole alkaloid isolated from giant reed, acts as an active adiponectin receptor (AdipoR) agonist, with IC50 of 3.2 µM and 4.2 µM for AdipoR2 and AdipoR1, respectively. Gramine is also a human and mouse β2-Adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) agonist.
S2403 Tetrandrine (NSC-77037) Tetrandrine (NSC-77037, Fanchinine, d-Tetrandrine), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from Stephania tetrandra, is a calcium channel blocker.
S2306 Gynostemma Extract Gynostemma Extract (Gynostemma Pentaphyllum, Gypenoside) is a saponins extract derived from the Gynostemma pentaphyllum.
S2308 Hesperetin Hesperetin is a bioflavonoid and, to be more specific, a flavanone.
S2309 Hesperidin Hesperidin (Cirantin) is a flavanone glycoside found abundantly in citrus fruits.
S2404 Isoliquiritigenin Isoliquiritigenin, an anti-tumor flavonoid from the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, inhibits aldose reductase with an IC50 of 320 nM.
S2405 Sophocarpine Sophocarpine, a major ingredient of Sophora alopecuroides, has a wide range of pharmacological effects.
S2311 Hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) Hyodeoxycholic (HDCA, NSC 60672) acid is a secondary bile acid, one of the metabolic byproducts of intestinal bacteria.
S2406 Chrysophanic Acid Chrysophanic Acid (Chrysophanol) a natural anthraquinone isolated from Dianella longifolia, is a EGFR/mTOR pathway inhibitor.
S2312 Icariin Icariin is a cGMP-specific PDE5 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.432 μM, 167-fold more selective for PDE5 than PDE4.
S2407 Curcumol Curcumol is a pure monomer isolated from Rhizoma Curcumaeis with antitumor activities.
S2313 Indole-3-carbinol Indole-3-carbinol is produced by the breakdown of the glucosinolate glucobrassicin, which can be found at relatively high levels in cruciferous vegetables. Indole-3-carbinol suppresses NF-κB and IκBα kinase activation.
S2314 Kaempferol (NSC 407289) Kaempferol (NSC 407289, Robigenin), a natural flavonol, functions as an ERRα and ERRγ inverse agonist. It inhibits topoisomerase I catalyzed DNA religation and may also inhibit the activity of fatty acid synthase.
S1450 Nanchangmycin Nanchangmycin is a polyether antibiotic with similar structure to dianemycin and is very active against a broad spectrum of harmful nematodes and insects but not for mammals and plants.
S2316 Kinetin Kinetin (6-Furfuryladenine) is a type of cytokinin, a class of plant hormone that promotes cell division.
S2319 Limonin Limonin is a triterpenoid enriched in citrus fruits, which has antivirus and antitumor ability.
S2415 Astragaloside A Astragaloside A (Astragaloside IV) is the primary pure saponin isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, which has been widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
S2321 Magnolol Magnolol (NSC 293099) is a bioactive lignin found in the bark of the Houpu magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) which shows antifungal properties. It can block TNF-α-induced NF-KB activation.
S2322 (+)-Matrine Matrine((+)-Matrine) is an alkaloid found in plants from the Sophora family, which has a variety of pharmacological effects, including anti-cancer effects, and action as a kappa opioid receptor agonist.
S3032 Bindarit (AF 2838) Bindarit (AF 2838) exhibits selective inhibition against monocyte chemotactic proteins MCP-1/CCL2, MCP-3/CCL7 and MCP-2/CCL8.
S2326 Myricetin Myricetin, a natural flavonoid with antioxidant and anti tumor properties, is a novel inhibitor of MEK1 activity and transformation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells. It also inhibits PI3Kγ with Kd of 0.17 μM.
S2327 Myricitrin Myricitrin (Myricitrine), a flavonoid compound isolated from the root bark of Myrica cerifera, which exerts antinociceptive effects.
S2439 Guanosine Guanosine is a purine nucleoside comprising guanine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) ring via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.
S2329 Naringin Naringin (Naringoside) is a flavanone glycoside, which exerts a variety of pharmacological effects such as antioxidant activity, blood lipid lowering, anticancer activity, and inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes.
S2333 Nobiletin (NSC 76751) Nobiletin (NSC 76751, Hexamethoxyflavone), a citrus flavonoid isolated from citrus peels like in tangerine, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities.
S2334 Oleanolic Acid Oleanolic Acid (Caryophyllin) is a non-toxic, hepatoprotective triterpenoid found in Phytolacca Americana, which exerts antitumor and antiviral properties.
S2335 Oridonin (NSC-250682) Oridonin (Isodonol, Rubescenin, NSC-250682), a diterpenoid purified from Rabdosia rubescens, is a traditional agent with antitumor, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Oridonin inhibits AKT1 and AKT2 kinase activity with IC50 of 8.4 μM and 8.9 μM, respectively.
S2336 Orotic acid (6-Carboxyuracil) Orotic acid(6-Carboxyuracil) is a heterocyclic compound and an acid.
S2337 Osthole Osthol is an O-methylated coumarin, which is found in the plants such as Cnidium monnieri, Angelica archangelica and Angelica pubescens.
S2338 Oxymatrine Oxymatrine (Matrine N-oxide) is a quinolizidine alkaloid extracted from the root of Sophora flavescens with anti-inflammatory, antifibrosis, and antitumor effects, inhibits the iNOS expression and TGF-β/Smad pathway. It is used for the treatment of viral hepatitis, cancer, viral myocarditis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and skin diseases.
S2339 Paeonol Paeonol (Peonol), a phenolic compound extracted from Chinese herbs Paeonia suffruticosa (moutan cortex) and Cynanchum paniculatum, inhibits MAO with an IC50 of about 50 μM.
S3603 Betulinic acid Betulinic acid (ALS-357, Lupatic acid, Betulic acid), a pentacyclic triterpenoid from Syzigium claviflorum, is a inhibitor of HIV-1 with EC50 of 1.4 μ M. Betulinic acid acts as a new activator of NF-kB.Phase 1/2.
S2341 (-)-Parthenolide (-)-Parthenolide, an inhibitor of the Nuclear Factor-κB Pathway, specifically depletes HDAC1 protein without affecting other class I/II HDACs; Also promotes the ubiquitination of MDM2 and activates p53 cellular functions.
S2343 Phlorizin Phlorizin (Phloridzin) is a dihydrochalcone found in the bark of pear (Pyrus communis), apple, cherry and other fruit trees. Phlorizin is a non-selective SGLT inhibitor with Ki of 300 nM and 39 nM for hSGLT1 and hSGLT2, respectively. Phlorizin is also a Na+/K+-ATPase inhibitor.
S3604 Triptolide (PG490) Triptolide (PG490, NSC 163062) is a diterpene triepoxide, immunosuppresive agent extracted from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii. It functions as a NF-κB inhibitor with dual actions by disruption of p65/CBP interaction and by reduction of p65 protein. Triptolide (PG490) abrogates the transactivation function of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). Triptolide inhibits MDM2 and induces apoptosis through a p53-independent pathway.
S2344 Piperine Piperine (1-Piperoylpiperidine) is the alkaloid responsible for the pungency of black pepper and long pepper, which has also been used in some forms of traditional medicine and as an insecticide.
S2346 Puerarin Puerarin (Kakonein), an isoflavones found in the root of Radix puerariae, is a 5-HT2C receptor and benzodiazepine site antagonist.
S2347 Quercetin Dihydrate Quercetin (Sophoretin), a polyphenolic flavonoid found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, such as apples, onions, berries, and red wine, is utilized in many different cultures for their nervous system and anticancer effects. Quercetin (dihydrate), a natural flavonoid, is a stimulator of recombinant SIRT1 and a PI3K inhibitor with IC50s of 2.4 μM, 3.0 μM and 5.4 μM for PI3K γ, PI3K δ and PI3K β, respectively.
S2349 Rutaecarpine Rutaecarpine (Rutecarpine) is an indolopyridoquinazolinone alkaloid isolated from Evodia rutaecarpa and related herbs; a new class of COX-2 inhibitor.
S2350 Rutin Rutin (Rutoside), a flavonol glycoside found in many plants including buckwheat; tobacco; forsythia; hydrangea; viola, etc., which possesses healthy effects for human.
S2351 Salicin Salicin (Salicoside, Salicine) is a phenol β-glycosid produced from willow bark that shows anti-inflammatory effects. It is a natural, non-selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor.
S2354 Sclareol Sclareol, a labdane-type diterpene isolated from clary sage (Salvia sclarea), exerts growth inhibition and cytotoxic activity against a variety of human cancer cell lines.
S2355 Sclareolide Sclareolide (Norambreinolide) is a sesquiterpene lactone natural product derived from various plant sources including Salvia sclarea, Salvia yosgadensis, and cigar tobacco.
S2356 Shikimic Acid Shikimic acid (Shikimate), more commonly known as its anionic form shikimate, is an important biochemical intermediate in plants and microorganisms.
S2357 Silibinin (NSC 651520) Silibinin (NSC 651520, Silybin, Silibinin A, Silymarin I, Flavobin), the main flavonoid extracted from the milk thistle Silybum marianum, displays hepatoprotective properties in acute and chronic liver injury.
S2358 Silymarin Silymarin (Silybin B), a polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the seeds of Silybum marianum or milk thistle, is used in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases and primary liver cancer.
S2359 Sinomenine Sinomenine (Cucoline, Kukoline), a pure alkaloid extracted from the chinese medical plant Sinomenium acutum, is used for the treatment of rheumatism and arthritis.
S2361 Stigmasterol Stigmasterol is an unsaturated plant sterol that exhibits anti-cancer, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating effects.
S2362 Synephrine Synephrine (Oxedrine), a natural protoalkaloid in the extract of bitter orange and other citrus species, is commonly used for weight loss.
S2363 Tangeretin Tangeretin (Tangeritin), a natural polymethoxylated flavone concentrated in the peel of citrus fruits, is known to have antiproliferative, antiinvasive, antimetastatic and antioxidant activities.
S2364 Tanshinone I Tanshinone I, an active principle isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), is structurally similar to tanshinone IIA and may possess similar cytotoxic effects on tumor cells.
S2365 Tanshinone IIA Tanshinone IIA (Tanshinone B) is the most abundant diterpene quinone in Danshen, Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix, a widely prescribed traditional herbal medicine that is used to treat cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases; A natural monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor.
S2366 Taxifolin (Dihydroquercetin) Taxifolin, type I inhibitor for VEGFR-2 kinase, is a flavonoid in many plants such as Taxus chinensis, Siberian larch, Cedrus deodara and so on.
S2368 Theobromine Theobromine (3,7-Dimethylxanthine) is a xanthine alkaloid widely consumed as stimulants and snacks in coffee and cocoa based foods and most often as part of ingredients in drugs.
S2371 Vanillylacetone Vanillylacetone (NSC 15335) is similar in chemical structure to other flavor chemicals such as vanillin and eugenol and is used as a flavor additive in spice oils and in perfumery to introduce spicy aromas. Vanillylacetone (Zingerone) alleviates oxidative stress and inflammation, down-regulates NF-κB mediated signaling pathways. Zingerone acts as an anti-mitotic agent, and inhibits the growth of neuroblastoma cells.
S2372 Xanthone Xanthone (Genicide) is an organic compound, which can be prepared by the heating of phenyl salicylate.
S2373 Yohimbine HCl Yohimbine (Antagonil) has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of impotence. It is also alleged to be an aphrodisiac.
E0538 Rhodionin Rhodionin, isolated from the root of Rhodiola crenulata, is a specific non-competitive cytochrome P450 2D6 inhibitor, exhibiting potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and potent DPPH free radical scavenging activities.
S3286 Lycobetaine

Lycobetaine is a quaternary phenanthridinium alkaloid from <i>Lycoris radiata</i> of the Amaryllidaceae family, with significant cytotoxic activity against Lewis lung carcinoma.

S3243 Zeaxanthin

Zeaxanthin, a diet-obtained carotenoid, presents in the macula region of the eye with antioxidant effects.

E0776 Isoneochamaejasmine A

Isoneochamaejasmin A, a biflavonoid isolated from the dried root of <i>Stellera chamaejasme</i> L., is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine.

E2437 Denudatine

Denudatine is primarily isolated from plants of the genera Aconitum and Delphinium. Denudatine has effects on the action potential of ventricular fibers and inhibits the arrhythmogenic action of aconitine.

E2438 Ginsenoside Rg3

Ginsenoside Rg3 is a natural product found in <i>Panax ginseng</i> and <i>Panax notoginseng</i>. Ginsenoside Rg3 has a role as an apoptosis inducer, an antineoplastic agent, a plant metabolite and an angiogenesis modulating agent.

E2439 4-Hydroxyacetophenone

4-Hydroxyacetophenone (P-hydroxyacetophenone) is a key hepatoprotective and choleretic compound in <i>Artemisia capillaris</i> and <i>A. morrisonensis</i>, also has an anti-hepatitis B virus effect and anti-inflammatory effect.

E2440 Pseudoginsenoside RT5

Pseudoginsenoside RT5 is isolated from <i>Panax quinquefolium</i>.

E2441 Qingyangshengenin

Qingyanshengenin (NSC 379666), a pregnane glycoside, is a C21 steroidal aglycone isolated from the root of <i>Cynanchumot ophyllum</i> (Asclepiadaceae). Qingyanshengenin has anti-cancer activity.

E2442 Ganoderic acid D

Ganoderic acid D, a highly oxygenated tetracyclic triterpenoid, is the major active component of <i>Ganoderma lucidum</i>. Ganoderic acid D upregulates the protein expression of SIRT3 and induces the deacetylated cyclophilin D (CypD) by SIRT3. Ganoderic acid D inhibits the energy reprogramming of colon cancer cells including glucose uptake, lactate production, pyruvate and acetyl-coenzyme production in colon cancer cells. Ganoderic acid D induces HeLa human cervical carcinoma apoptosis.

E2443 Corynoxine B

Corynoxine B is an oxindole alkaloid isolated from <i>Uncaria rhynchophylla</i> (Miq.) Jacks (Gouteng in Chinese); a Beclin-1-dependent autophagy inducer.

E2444 Neotriptophenolide

Neotriptophenolide is a sesquiterpene pyridine alkaloid isolated from the root barks of <i>Tripterygium hypoglaucum</i>.

E2445 Thonningianin A

Thonningianin A, an ellagitannin, is isolated from the methanolic extract of the African medicinal herb, <i>Thonningia sanguinea</i>. The antioxidant properties of Th A involve radical scavenging, anti-superoxide formation, and metal chelation. Anti-cancer activities.

E2446 Methylophiopogonone A

Methylophiopogonone A, a homoisoflavonoid isolated from the tuberous roots of <i>Ophiopogon japonicas</i>, shows anti-inflammatory activity.

E2447 Guajavarin

Guaijaverin is a <b>urease</b> inhibitor with an IC<sup>50</sup> of 120 μM. Guaijaverin shows antioxidant and anti-Streptococcus mutans activities.

E2448 Demethoxydeacetoxypseudolaric acid B

Demethoxydeacetoxypseudolaric acid B is a metabolite of the glucoside of pseudolaric acid C2 (PC2).

E2449 Eleutheroside A

Eleutheroside A (Daucosterol) is a natural sterolin, displaying the neuroprotective activity.

E2450 Escin IB

Escin IB is a saponin isolated from skin and the endosperm of seeds of horse chestnut (<i>Aesculus hippocastanum</i>). Escin IB shows an inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity.

S9847 Methyllycaconitine citrate

Methyllycaconitine citrate is a specific antagonist of <b>α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR)</b>.

E2451 (+)-peucedanol

(+)-Peusedanol is a coumarin isolated from <i>Peucedanumjaponicum</i>.

E2452 Platycodin D2

Platycodin D2 is a saponin isolated from <i>Platycodon grandiflorum</i>, with anti-cancer activity.

E2453 Rosiridin

Rosiridin inhibits <b>MAO A</b> and <b>MAO B</b> with potential beneficial effect in depression and senile dementia.

E2454 Soyasaponin Aa

Soyasaponin Aa is a soyasaponin that exerts an anti-obesity effect in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ).

E2455 Soyasaponin Ba

Soyasaponin Ba is a soyasaponin isolated from <i>Phaseolus vulgaris</i>, acts as an <b>aldose reductase</b> inhibitors (ARI).

E2456 Soyasaponin Bb

Soyasaponin Bb is a soyasaponin isolated from <i>Phaseolus vulgaris </i>, acting as an  <b>aldose reductase</b> differential inhibitor  (ARDI).

E2457 Quercetin 3-O-beta-gentiobioside

Quercetin 3-O-beta-gentiobioside is isolated from <i>A. iwayomogi</i>, <b>AR</b> and <b>AGE</b> formation inhibitor, demonstrates biological activities against Aldose reductase (AR) and the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs).

E2458 Dihydroguaiaretic acid

Dihydroguaiaretic acid, is isolated from the fruits of <i>Schisandra chinensis</i> with an anti-cancer activty.

E2459 Ginsenoside Rg5

Ginsenoside Rg5 is the main component of Red ginseng. Ginsenoside blocks binding of  <b>IGF-1</b> to its receptor with an IC<sup>50</sup> of ~90 nM. Ginsenoside Rg5 also inhibits the mRNA expression of <b>COX-2 </b> via suppression of the DNA binding activities of <b>NF-κB</b> p65.

E2460 3,6-Dimethylmangostin

3,6-Dimethylmangostin (Fuscaxanthone C) is a xanthone isolated from the stem bark of <i>Garcinia fusca</i>.

E2461 Brevifolincarboxylic acid

Brevifolincarboxylic acid is extracted from <i>Polygonum capitatum</i>, has inhibitory effect on the<b> aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)</b>. Brevifolincarboxylic acid is an <b>α-glucosidase</b> inhibitor with an IC<sup>50</sup> of 323.46 μM.

E2462 Tsugaric acid A

Tsugaric acid A can significantly inhibit superoxide anion formation. Tsugaric acid A also protects human keratinocytes against damage induced by ultraviolet B (UV B) light. Tsugaric acid A can protect keratinocytes from photodamage.

E2463 Luteolin 3'-O-beta-D-glucuronide

Luteolin 3'-O-beta-D-glucuronide is a luteolin glucosiduronic acid consisting of luteolin having a beta-D-glucosiduronic acid residue attached at the 3'-position.

E2464 Soyasaponin Ab

Soyasaponin Ab is a soyasaponin that exerts an anti-obesity effect in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ).

E2465 Agaric acid

Agaric acid (Agaricinic Acid) is obtained from various plants of the fungous tribe, i.e. Polyporus Officinalis and Polyporus igniarius. Agaric acid induces mitochondrial permeability transition through its interaction with the adenine nucleotide translocase. Agaric acid promotes efflux of accumulated Ca<sub>2+</sub>, the collapse of transmembrane potential, and mitochondrial swelling. Agaric acid is used to regulate lipid metabolism.

E2466 Phyllanthin

Phyllanthin is a major bioactive lignan component of <i>Phyllanthus amarus</i>. Phyllanthin exhibits high antioxidative and hepatoprotective properties.

E2467 Hypophyllanthin

Hypophyllanthin, a major lignan in <i>Phyllanthus spp</i> with strong anti-inflammatory activity, directly inhibits P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity and do not interfere with multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2) activity.

E2468 Decursinol

Decursinol, isolated from the roots of <i>Angelica gigas</i>, possesses antinociceptive, anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activity.

E2469 Atranorin

Atranorin, a lichen secondary metabolite, inhibits lung cancer cell motility and tumorigenesis by affecting AP-1, Wnt, and STAT signaling and suppressing RhoGTPase activity.

E2470 Glycycoumarin

Glycycoumarin, a major bioactive coumarin of licorice, inhibits hepatocyte lipoapoptosis through activation of autophagy and inhibition of ER stress-mediated JNK and GSK-3-mediated mitochondrial pathway.

E2471 ε-Viniferin

ε-Viniferin, the dimer of Resveratrol and isolated from <i>Vitis vinifera</i>, displays potent inhibitory for all the CYP activities and potent antioxidant capacity.

E2472 Pterosin B

Pterosin B, a indanone found in bracken fern (<i>Pteridium aquilinum</i>), is an inhibitor of salt-inducible kinase 3 (Sik3) signaling.