Natural Product Library

Natural Products

Catalog No. Product Name Information
S8970 HQNO HQNO is a natural quinolone secreted by P. aeruginosa. HQNO is a potent inhibitor of the electron transport chain with Kd of 64 nM for the ubiquinol-ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase segment (Complex III) of the respiratory chain. HQNO is also an inhibitor of bacterial and mitochondrialType II NADH : quinone oxidoreductase (NDH-2) with IC50 of 7.3 μM in the presence of 50μM menadione.
S7895 Thapsigargin Thapsigargin is a potent, non-competitive inhibitor of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) with IC50 of 0.353 nM or 0.448 nM for the carbachol-evoked [Ca2+]i-transients with or without a KCl-prestimulation. Thapsigargin induces cell apoptosis. Thapsigargin is extracted from a plant, Thapsia garganica.
S7905 3',3'-cGAMP 3',3'-cGAMP activates the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident receptor stimulator of interferon genes (STING), thereby inducing an antiviral state and the secretion of type I IFNs.
S7821 Bufalin Bufalin is a potent inhibitor of steroid receptor coactivator SRC-3, SRC-1 and Na+/K+-ATPase. Bufalin binds to the subunit α1, α2 and α3 of Na+/K+-ATPase with Kd of 42.5 nM, 45 nM and 40 nM, respectively. Bufalin is a major digoxin-like immunoreactive component isolated from the Chinese medicine Chan Su with anti-cancer activity.
S7862 Rottlerin Rottlerin, a natural compound purified from Mallotus Philippinensis, is a specific Protein kinase inhibitor with IC50 of 3 μM, 6 μM and 5.3 μM for PKCδ(from baculovirus-infected Sf9 insect cells), PKCδ(from porcine spleen) and CaM kinase III, respectively. Rottlerin also inhibits PKCα, PKCγ, PKCβ, PKCη, CKII and PKA with IC50 of 30 μM, 40 μM, 42 μM, 82 μM, 30 μM and 78 μM, respectively.
S2447 Ansamitocin p-3 (Maytansinol isobutyrate, NSC292222) Ansamitocin p-3 (Maytansinol isobutyrate, NSC292222) is a potent inhibitor of tubulin polymerization with IC50 of 3.4 μM.
S6790 Ellipticine hydrochloride Ellipticine Hydrochloride is a potent inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase II and forms covalent DNA adducts mediated by its oxidation with cytochromes P450 (CYP) and peroxidases. Ellipticine Hydrochloride is a natural product isolated from the Australian evergreen tree of the Apocynaceae family with antineoplastic activity.
S8964 Actinomycin D (Dactinomycin) Actinomycin D (Dactinomycin) is a significant polypeptide antibiotic isolated from soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. Actinomycin D (Dactinomycin) inhibits DNA repair and rests the cell cycle at G1 phase with IC50 of 0.42 μM and 0.4 nM, respectively. Actinomycin D is an autophagy activator, induces p53-independent cell death and prolongs survival in high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
S2288 Rubitecan Rubitecan is a topoisomerase I inhibitor extracted from the bark and leaves of the Camptotheca acuminata tree, which is native to China. Rubitecan is an oral camptothecin with antitumour activity.
S2009 Indirubin-3'-monoxime Indirubin-3'-monoxime is a selective CDK inhibitor with IC50 of 0.18 μM, 0.44 μM, 0.25 μM, 3.33 μM, 0.1 μM for CDK1-cyclinB, CDK2-cyclinA, CDK2-cyclinE, CDK4-cyclinD1, CDK5-p35,respectively. Indirubin-3'-monoxime is a direct and selective 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor with IC50 of 7.8-10 µM.
S1031 3-Hydroxybutyric acid 3-Hydroxybutyric acid is a small molecule metabolite that is elevated in type I diabetes.
S2342 Phloretin Phloretin is a dihydrochalcone found in apple tree leaves, which shows beneficial effects on diabetes.
S9440 Naringenin chalcone Naringenin chalcone is the main active component of tomato skin extract, has been proposed as an antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory, and a regulator of fat and sex hormone metabolism.
S2325 Morin Hydrate Morin hydrate is a flavonoid isolated from Maclura pomifera (Osage orange), Maclura tinctoria (old fustic) and from leaves of Psidium guajava (common guava).
S6670 GPNA (L-γ-Glutamyl-p-nitroanilide) GPNA is a potent and selective inhibitor of the glutamine (Gln) transporter ASCT2(SLC1A5) with Ki of 55 µM.
S2210 Sphingosine Sphingosine is an 18-carbon amino alcohol with an unsaturated hydrocarbon chain, which forms a primary part of sphingolipids, a class of cell membrane lipids that include sphingomyelin, an important phospholipid.
S6674 Cytosporone B Cytosporone B is a naturally occurring agonist for nuclear orphan receptor Nur77(NR4A1) with an EC50 of 0.278nM.
S6474 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2) 3,5-Diiodo-l-thyronine is an endogenous metabolite of thyroid hormones. 3,5-Diiodo-l-thyronine has been proposed as a potential hypolipidemic agent for treatment of obesity and hepatic steatosis.
S9218 Phytolaccagenin Phytolaccagenin, a triterpenoid saponin, is the active component of Radix Phtolaccae.
S6653 Nigericin sodium salt Nigericin sodium salt is an antibiotic derived from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that works by acting as an H+, K+, and Pb2+ ionophore.Nigericin can activate NLRP3 inflammasome to induce pro-inflammatory and immunostimulatory processes.
S3911 Veratramine Veratramine, a major alkaloid from Veratrum nigrum L., has distinct anti-tumor and anti-hypertension effects. It is a good membrane permeant, undergoes rapid passive diffusion, and has a good stability in the gastrointestinal tract during its absorption.
S9403 Ecliptasaponin A Ecliptasaponin A, a natural triterpenoid glucoside, has protective effects against the pulmonary fibrosis induced by bleomycin via reducing the oxidative stress, lung tissue inflammation, and the subsequent epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
S3928 Baccatin Ⅲ Baccatin Ⅲ is a polycyclic diterpene which can be used for the semi-synthesis of paclitaxel and analogs. It exhibits immunomodulatory and anticancer chemotherapeutic activities.
S4938 Cedrol Cedrol, a natural occuring sesquiterpene alcohol, is a potent competitive inhibitor of CYP2B6-mediated bupropion hydroxylase with inhibition constant (Ki) value of 0.9 μM. It also inhibits CYP3A4-mediated midazolam hydroxylation with a Ki value of 3.4 μM while only weakly inhibits CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 activities.
S3942 Cardamonin Cardamonin, isolated from the fruits of Alpinia species, is a chalconoid with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity. It has been shown to be a novel antagonist of hTRPA1 cation channel with IC50 of 454 nM while does not interact with TRPV1 nor TRPV4 channel.
S3756 Methyl salicylate Methyl salicylate is an organic ester naturally produced by many species of plants, particularly wintergreens. It is an agonist for TRPA1 and TRPV1.
S3763 Cinnamaldehyde Cinnamaldehyde is a flavonoid that is naturally synthesized by the shikimate pathway. Its supplementation can improve glucose and lipid homeostasis in diabetic animals; a TRPA1 agonist.
S3605 Borneol Borneol is a bicyclic monoterpenoid compound extracted from medicinal plants such as Blumea balsamifera, and Dryobalanops aromatica. It is a TRPM8 agonist that increases ocular surface wetness.
S4787 Methyl syringate Methyl syringate, a plant phenolic compound, is a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist.
S3867 (E)-Cardamonin Cardamonin is a naturally occurring chalcone with strong anti-inflammatory activity. It is a novel TRPA1 antagonist with IC50 of 454 nM and also a NF-kB inhibitor.
S4714 (-)-Menthol (-)-Menthol is a levo isomer of menthol and used as a cooling agent that strongly activates TRPM8.
S2332 Neohesperidin Neohesperidin, a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits, is an antioxidant agent.
S5755 Methyl Eugenol Methyl eugenol, as a constituent in leaves, fruits, stems, and/or roots, is used as a flavoring agent, as a fragrance and as an anesthetic in rodents.
S2935 Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride (NIAGEN) Nicotinamide Riboside Chloride (NIAGEN) is the chloride salt form of nicotinamide riboside(NR).NR is a new form pyridine-nucleoside of vitamin B3 that functions as a precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) or NAD+ .NIAGEN is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) in the United States for use in food products. Nicotinamide riboside chloride is a crystal form of Nicotinamide riboside (NR) chloride. Nicotinamide riboside chloride increases NAD[+] levels and activates SIRT1 and SIRT3, culminating in enhanced oxidative metabolism and protection against high fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. Nicotinamide riboside chloride is used in dietary supplements.
S3607 Sarsasapogenin Sarsasapogenin (SAR) is a steroidal sapogenin. It can provoke the generation of reactive oxygen species and activate unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways. SAR potently inhibits NF-κB and MAPK activation, as well as IRAK1, TAK1, and IκBα phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated macrophages.
S2425 Apocynin Apocynin is a selective NADPH-oxidase inhibitor with IC50 of 10 μM.
S6751 Brevianamide F Brevianamide F, belonging to a class of naturally occurring 2,5-diketopiperazines, is the simplest member and the biosynthetic precursor of a large family of biologically active prenylated tryptophan-proline 2,5-diketopiperazines that are produced by the fungi A.fumigates and Aspergillus sp..
S2353 Sapogenins Glycosides Sapogenins glycosides are a mixture of triterpene and steroid saponins isolated from medicinal plants such as Aesculus hippocastanum L., Hedera helix L. and Ruscus aculeatus L., which are claimed to be effective for the treatment/prevention of venous insufficiency.
S3627 Tryptamine Tryptamine is a monoamine alkaloid and may play a role as a neuromodulator or neurotransmitter. It is an agonist of hTAAR1. It acts as a non-selective serotonin receptor agonist and serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (SNDRA).
S5153 Tetrahydroberberine Tetrahydroberberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid with micromolar affinity for dopamine D2 (antagonist, pKi = 6.08) and 5-HT1A (agonist, pKi = 5.38) receptors but moderate to no affinity for other relevant serotonin receptors.
S3823 Schizandrol A Schizandrol A is one of the effective components in the dried fruit of Schizandra chinensis Bail and works by increasing dopamine, a neurotransmitter, in the brain.
S5642 Homovanillic acid Homovanillic acid is a major catecholamine metabolite that is used as a reagent to detect oxidative enzymes, and is associated with dopamine levels in the brain.
S9087 Tenuifolin Tenuifolin, a secondary saponin isolated from hydrolysates of polygalasaponins, inhibits beta-amyloid synthesis in vitro and has nootropic activity in vivo via acetylcholine esterase inhibition and increases norepinephrine and dopamine production.
S2367 Tetrahydropapaverine HCl Tetrahydropapaverine, one of the TIQs and an analogue of salsolinol and tetrahydropapaveroline, has been reported to have neurotoxic effects on dopamine neurons.
S3937 Pterostilbene Pterostilbene is a natural dietary compound and the primary antioxidant component of blueberries. It has been implicated in anticarcinogenesis, modulation of neurological disease, anti-inflammation, attenuation of vascular disease, and amelioration of diabetes.
S6428 Wilforlide A Wilforlide A is an active compound in Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TW) which is a traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of autoimmune diseases.
S5850 Vasicine Vasicine, an alkaloid isolated from A. vasica, is a potential natural cholinesterase inhibitor, exhibits promising anticholinesterase activity in preclinical models and has been in development for treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
S7956 Brustaol Brustaol, isolated from the fruit of B. javanica, is a NRF2 inhibitor.
S3781 Ginkgolide C Ginkgolide C, isolated from Ginkgo biloba leaves, is a flavone reported to have multiple biological functions, from decreased platelet aggregation to ameliorating Alzheimer disease. It is an activator of MMP-9.
S9513 Senkyunolide A Senkyunolide A is one of the major bioactive ingredients in Rhizoma Chuanxiong, a Chinese medicinal herb commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular ailments.
S6049 (+)-(S)-Carvone (+)-(S)-Carvone, a monoterpene found mainly in caraway and dill seed oils, is used in cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical preparations.
S6700 Castor oil Castor oil is a popular natural treatment for various common conditions and often used in natural beauty products.
S3830 Protodioscin Protodioscin, a steroidal saponin compound found in a number of plant species, is able to stimulate testosterone production and it also has an androgen-mimetic action, binding and activating the testosterone receptors.
S8870 Epibrassinolide Epibrassinolide is a brassinosteroid isolated from various plants and has been shown to decrease toxicity and stimulate healthy plant growth in plants under stress.
S6701 Corn Oil Corn oil is a refined vegetable oil widely used in cooking and especially deep frying.
S9326 Scopolamine Scopolamine is a tropane alkaloid derived from plants of the nightshade family, specifically Hyoscyamus niger and Atropa belladonna, with anticholinergic, antiemetic and antivertigo properties.
S3860 Allicin Allicin, the main biologically active component of the freshly crushed garlic extracts, possesses various biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal and antiparasitic effects.
S6493 n-Butylidenephthalide n-Butylidenephthalide, isolated from the chloroform extract of Angelica sinensis (AS-C), contributes to a range of biological activities, including diminution of angina, platelet aggregation, proliferation, non-specific spasmosis.
S6601 (±)-Equol (±)-Equol, an isoflavandiol estrogen, is a metabolite of the soy isoflavones, daidzin and daidzein.
S3687 Urea Urea is a highly soluble organic compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
S3839 1-Deoxynojirimycin 1-Deoxynojirimycin is a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor and most commonly found in mulberry leaves. It has therapeutic potency against diabetes mellitus.
S3190 N6-methyladenosine (m6A) N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is a base modified analog of adenosine and is found as a minor nucleoside in natural RNAs.
S2370 Ursolic Acid Ursolic acid (Malol) is a pentacyclic triterpene acid, used in cosmetics.
S6426 Hesperidin methylchalcone Hesperidin methylchalcone is the Citrus original products with powerful antioxidant activity.
S3821 Nuciferine Nuciferine is a major active aporphine alkaloid from the leaves of N. nucifera Gaertn and possesses anti-hyperlipidemia, anti-hypotensive, anti-arrhythmic, and insulin secretagogue activities. Nuciferine is an antagonist at 5-HT2A (IC50=478 nM), 5-HT2C (IC50=131 nM), and 5-HT2B (IC50=1 μM), an inverse agonist at 5-HT7 (IC50=150 nM), a partial agonist at D2 (EC50=64 nM), D5 (EC50=2.6 μM) and 5-HT6 (EC50=700 nM), an agonist at 5-HT1A (EC50=3.2 μM) and D4 (EC50=2 μM) receptor.
S9227 Sinensetin Sinensetin, a natural polymethoxylated flavone, has potent antiangiogenesis activity.
S3973 L-SelenoMethionine L-SelenoMethionine (SeMet), a naturally occurring amino acid, is a major food-form of selenium. It has been used as a supplement, and exhibits some important functions like cancer prevention and antioxidative defense.
S2324 Sodium Monensin Sodium Monensin, isolated from Streptomyces cinnamonensis, is a well-known representative of naturally polyether ionophore antibiotics.
S2348 Rotenone (Barbasco) Rotenone is a botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
S2265 Artesunate Artesunate is a part of the artemisinin group of agents with an IC50 of < 5 μM for small cell lung carcinoma cell line H69. It is a potential inhibitor of STAT-3 and exhibits selective cytotoxicity of cancer cells over normal cells in vitro; A potent inhibitor of EXP1.
S6176 scyllo-Inositol scyllo-Inositol is a naturally occurring plant sugar alcohol found most abundantly in the coconut palm.
S6292 (S)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid (S)-2-Hydroxysuccinic acid (L-Malic acid), is a naturally occurring isomer of malic acid, found mainly in sour and unripe fruits.
S6346 L-(+)-Arabinose L-Arabinose is used as a substrate to identify, differentiate and characterize pentose sugar isomerase(s).
S6061 DL-m-Tyrosine DL-m-Tyrosine is a potent, structurally unusual broad-spectrum phytotoxin exuded by the roots of some fine leaf fescue grasses.
S6163 Traumatic acid Traumatic acid is a plant hormone that was first isolated from damaged green beans. It is a potent wound healing agent and an intermediate in prostaglandin synthesis.
S6264 Rutin hydrate Rutin is a glycoside found in a wide variety of plants including citrus fruit.
S6112 Oxalacetic acid Oxalacetic acid is an intermediate of the citric acid cycle, where it reacts with acetyl-CoA to form citrate, catalysed by citrate synthase. It is also involved in gluconeogenesis, urea cycle, glyoxylate cycle, amino acid synthesis, and fatty acid synthesis. Oxaloacetate is also a potent inhibitor of Complex II.
S6221 Methyl cinnamate Methyl cinnamate, an active component of Zanthoxylum armatum, is a widely used natural flavor compound with antimicrobial and tyrosinase inhibitor activities. Methyl Cinnamate Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation via Activation of the CaMKK2--AMPK Pathway in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes.
S6008 p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde, which can be found in the orchids Gastrodia elata, Galeola faberi and vanilla, is a hydroxybenzaldehyde that reacts with NAD+ and H2O to produce 4-hydroxybenzoate, NADH, and 2 protons. p-Hydroxybenzaldehyde at 101.7 μM can significantly reduce the GABA-induced chloride current of GABAA receptors(α1β2γ2S subtype) expressed.
S6011 Acetamide Acetamide is an organic compound that can be used as a plasticizer and an industrial solvent.
S6018 2,3,4-Trihydroxybenzoic acid 2,3,4-Trihydroxybenzoic acid is a phenol constituent of Pachysandra terminalis with antioxidant activity.
S6043 3-Indoleacetonitrile 3-Indoleacetonitrile, a plant growth hormone, is a light-induced auxin-inhibitory substance that is isolated from light-grown cabbage (Brassica olearea L.) shoots.
S6045 L-Arabinitol L-Arabinitol is a member of the class of compounds known as sugar alcohols that exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to humans. It can be found in a number of food items such as sweet potato, deerberry, moth bean, and European chestnut, which makes L-arabitol a potential biomarker for the consumption of these food products.
S6047 Lactose Lactose is a disaccharide naturally found in milk and dairy.
S6071 3,5-Dimethoxyphenol 3,5-Dimethoxyphenol is a toxin metabolite that can be found in human consuming yew (Taxus baccata) leaves.
S6076 Phenylacetylglutamine Phenylacetylglutamine is a product formed by the conjugation of phenylacetate and glutamine. It is a normal constituent of human urine, but other mammals such as the dog, cat, rat, monkey, sheep, and horse do not excrete this compound.
S9564 p-Hydroxy-cinnamic Acid  
S2254 4-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin(NSC-122819,VM-26) 4'-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin is an antimitotic agent which binds to monomeric tubulin, preventing micro-tubule polymerization. It is a potent inhibitor of microtubule assembly.
S2442 Inosine Inosine is a nucleoside that is formed when hypoxanthine is attached to a ribose ring via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.
S2280 Chlorogenic Acid Chlorogenic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid and a member of a family of naturally occurring organic compounds.
S6250 L-Lactic acid L-Lactic acid is a natural product that is used as a food additive.
S6275 (−)-β-Pinene  
S6287 3-Methylbutanoic acid 3-Methylbutanoic acid is a natural fatty acid found in a wide variety of plants and essential oils. It has a strong pungent cheesy or sweaty smell, but its volatile esters have pleasing scents and are used widely in perfumery.
S6296 Octanoic acid Octanoic acid is found naturally in the milk of various mammals, and as a minor constituent of coconut oil and palm kernel oil. It is used in the production of esters used in perfumery and also in the manufacture of dyes.
S6303 trans-2-Hexenal Trans-2-hexenal is an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound protecting plants against harmful substances.
S5887 Khellin Khellin, a compound isolated from the seeds of Ammi Visnaga Lam (Umbelliferae), is used to treat a variety of maladies.
S2331 Neohesperidin Dihydrochalcone (Nhdc) Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone(Nhdc), sometimes abbreviated to neohesperidin DC or simply NHDC, is an artificial sweetener derived from citrus.
S9432 Ginkgolic Acid Ginkgolic acid, toxic phenolic compounds present in the fruits and leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., is a potent sumoylation inhibitor also reported to inhibit histone acetylation transferase (HAT).
S9445 Ginkgolic Acid (C13:0) Ginkgolic Acid (C13:0) is a natural anticariogenic agent in Ginkgo biloba L. that exhibits antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and suppresses the specific virulence factors associated with its cariogenicity. Ginkgolic acid is a potent sumoylation inhibitor and reported to inhibit histone acetylation transferase (HAT).
S2360 Solanesol (Nonaisoprenol) Solanesol is a long-chain polyisoprenoid alcohol compound with inhibitory activities toward FAK. It mainly accumulates in solanaceous crops, including tobacco, tomato, potato, eggplant, and pepper plants.
S2369 Troxerutin Troxerutin, a natural bioflavonoid isolated from Sophora japonica, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. Troxerutin, also known as vitamin P4, is a tri-hydroxyethylated derivative of natural bioflavonoid rutins which can inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depress ER stress-mediated NOD activation.
S5934 (-)-Fenchone Fenchone is a constituent of absinthe and the essential oil of fennel. It is used as a flavor in foods and in perfumery.
S6055 (S)-(−)-Limonene (S)-(−)-Limonene, a fragrance monoterpene mainly found in citrus peel oil, is also naturally occurs in the essential oils of herbs, tea tree oil, and turpentine oil.
S6058 β-Caryophyllene β-Caryophyllene is a natural bicyclic sesquiterpene that is a constituent of many essential oils. It acts as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, a fragrance and a metabolite.
S6059 cis-3-Hexen-1-ol cis-3-Hexen-1-ol is a very important aroma compound that is used in fruit and vegetable flavors and in perfumes and acts as an attractant to many predatory insects.
S6118 Terpinen-4-ol Terpinen-4-ol, a naturally occurring monoterpene, is the main bioactive component of tea-tree oil and has been shown to have many biological activities such as antifungal properties.
S6150 Farnesyl Acetate (mixture of isomers) Farnesyl Acetate is a flavouring compound identified in foods such as blueberries.
S6162 2-Octenoic acid 2-Octenoic acid is a normal organic acid produced by hepatic microsomal oxidation of aliphatic aldehydes and is a metabolite naturally found in the urine and plasma.
S6164 (-)-Citronellal (-)-Citronellal, a constituent of citronella oil, is used in the synthesis of bioactive compounds.
S6185 Arachidonic acid Arachidonic acid is an unsaturated, essential fatty acid found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs. It is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
S6208 Diethyl malonate Diethyl malonate, naturally occuring in grapes and strawberries, is used in the synthesis of chemicals.
S9476 Dendrobine Dendrobine, a plant alkaloid isolated from Dendrobium nobile, has been used for the quality control and discrimination of Dendrobium.
S9551 Uvaol Uvaol is a pentacyclic triterpene, found in the non-glyceride fraction of olive pomace oil, exhibiting both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties.
S4792 N-Acetylneuraminic acid N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac or NANA) is the predominant sialic acid found in mammalian cells. Sialic acids are negatively charged monosaccharides attached to the end of sugar chains, giving rise to a wide variety of glycoproteins and glycolipids in biological fluids and cell membranes.
S5526 β-Alanine β-Alanine is a naturally occurring beta amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. It acts as a neurotransmitter by activating glycine and GABA receptors.
S4676 Gluconolactone Gluconolactone is a naturally occurring polyhydroxy acid with metal chelating, moisturizing and antioxidant activity.
S5851 4'-Methoxychalcone 4'-Methoxychalcone, found in citrus, is chalcone derivative that has shown diverse pharmacological properties, including anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory activities. 4'-Methoxychalcone significantly enhanced adipocyte differentiation, in part, by its potent effects on PPARγ activation and by its reverse effect on TNF-α.
S9481 Blinin Blinin, isolated from the whole plant of Conyza blinii, is used in folk medicine in the south-west of China.
S9557 Isobergapten Isobergapten is a furanocoumarin with plant growth regulating activity.
S9560 Anisodamine Hydrobromide Anisodamine is a naturally occurring atropine derivative and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. It also inhibits α1-adrenergic receptors and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs).
S5865 Hyaluronic acid Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an anionic, nonsulfated glycosaminoglycan distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues. It is widely used in skin care.
S9193 Aristolochic acid A Aristolochic acid A is a carcinogenic, mutagenic, and nephrotoxic agent extracted from the flowering plant family Aristolochiaceae.Aristolochic acid A significantly reduces both activator protein 1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activities.
S9563 Evodine Evodine, a natural product extracted from Evodiae fructus (EF), is a biomarker for quality assessment of EF in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Evodine is a potent P-gp inhibitor.
S9554 Bakkenolide A Bakkenolide A, extracted from Petasites tricholobus, has been suggested to against cancer and display protective effects on inflammatory cytokines formation.
S9552 Farrerol Farrerol, an important bioactive constituent of rhododendron, exhibits broad activities such as anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.
S9487 Praeruptorin C Praeruptorin C is a natural compound derived from the dried roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum and has beneficial effects in suppressing osteoclast formation and resorption function. It is frequently utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for treating upper respiratory infections and as an antipyretic, antitussive, and mucolytic agent.
S9484 Darutoside Darutoside, derived from botanical extracts, has a powerful regenerating action via decreasing inflammation and restoring collagen.
S9480 Raspberry Ketone Raspberry ketone is a natural phenolic compound that is the primary aroma compound of red raspberries. Raspberry ketone shows cardioprotective action against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats, and the effects may be due to its PPAR-α agonistic activity.
S9473 Nuzhenide Nuzhenide, a major component of olive seeds, is a member of the class of compounds known as saccharolipids. It has strong antioxidant activity.
S9474 Acetylharpagide Acetylharpagide is a monomeric compound extracted from Ajuga decumbens, widely used for remedying infectious and inflammatory diseases.
S5846 Apocarotenal Apocarotenal is a carotenoid found in spinach and citrus fruits and plays a role as a precursor of vitamin A.
S9475 Hupehenine Hupehenine is a steriodal alkaloid extracted from the bulbs of Fritillaria Hupehensis, with the potential for inhibiting acetylcholine, antagonism for muscarinic receptors and cholinesterase inhibition.
S9479 Complanatoside A Complanatoside A is a flavonol glycoside isolated from Astragalus complanatus and is used as a quality control index for A. complanatus in the 2010 edition of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.
S9488 Praeruptorin D Praeruptorin D, a major pyranocoumarin isolated from Radix Peucedani, exhibits antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9491 (+)-Guaiacin (+)-Guaiacin, found in herbs and spices, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as aryltetralin lignans.
S9562 Pomolic acid Pomolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from Euscaphis japonica, and is highly effective in inhibiting cell growth and induces apoptosis.
S9192 Vitexin Vitexin, an naturally occuring apigenin flavone glycoside, acts as a platelet aggregation and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor and shows antineoplastic activity.
S3964 Mucic Acid Mucic Acid (Galactaric acid) is the dicarboxylic sugar acid resulting from oxidation glactose with dilute nitric acid. It is a substrate of galactarate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase.
S5928 Zerumbone Zerumbone, derived from several plant species of the Zingiberaceae family, is a naturally occurring dietary compound and may have multiple biomedical properties, such as antiproliferative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities.
S5794 Glycochenodeoxycholic acid Glycochenodeoxycholic acid is a bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption. Glycochenodeoxycholic acid
S5820 L-Hydroxyproline L-Hydroxyproline is a collagen-specific amino acid. It is used as a diagnostic marker of bone turnover and liver fibrosis.
S5824 Cinnamyl alcohol Cinnamyl alcohol is a naturally occurring compound that is found within cinnamon. Cinnamyl alcohol can be significantly attenuated the enhanced expression of obesity-related proteins PPARγ in MDI medium-cultivated 3T3-L1 cells.
S5821 Linoleic acid Linoleic acid is an essential fatty acid used in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid and found in the lipids of cell membranes.
S5823 L-Pyroglutamic acid L-pyroglutamic acid is a natural nutrient and amino acid derived from glutamic acid. It is a metabolite in the glutathione cycle that is converted to glutamate by 5-oxoprolinase.
S5828 L-Abrine L-Abrine (N-Methyl-L-tryptophan), an extremely toxic toxalbumin found in the seeds of the rosary pea, is a ribosome inhibiting protein.
S9367 Adenosine disodium triphosphate Adenosine disodium triphosphate is the sodium salt form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a complex organic chemical that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells.
S5805 Allopregnanolone Allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid synthesized from progesterone in brain, acts as a highly potent positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor.
S5771 sulforaphane Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring isothiocyanate derived from the consumption of cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, cabbage, and kale. It is an inducer of Nrf2.
S9334 2-Pentylfuran 2-Pentylfuran is a naturally occuring flavouring ingredient.
S9383 Methyl palmitate Methyl palmitate, a kind of fatty acid methyl ester, could be found in many plants and possesses acaricidal activity.
S9453 2-Undecanol 2-Undecanol is a fatty alcohol lipid molecule.
S9454 Undecanoic acid Undecanoic acid is a medium chain length monocarboxylic acid that appears to be involved in the control of triacylglycerol synthesis.
S9385 Ligustilide Ligustilide is the most abundant bioactive ingredient in Rhizoma Chuanxiong, a Chinese medicinal herb commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular ailments. Solutions are best fresh-prepared.
S9033 Incensole acetate Incensole acetate, isolated from Boswellia Resin, is a novel anti-inflammatory compound that inhibits NF-κB activation.
S9043 6-Shogaol 6-Shogaol, a naturally occuring product found in ginger, has anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties.
S9071 Nootkatone Nootkatone, a natural ingredient that occurs in grapefruit and certain other plants, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
S9094 Pogostone Pogostone is one of the secondary metabolites from Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. (Lamiaceae), serving as the effective component of the antimicrobial activity.
S9118 Beta-Asarone Beta-Asarone, found in certain plants such as Acorus and Asarum, could pass the blood-brain barrier and exerts neuroprotection effects.
S9140 Pulegone Pulegone, a naturally occurring organic compound, is a fragrance and flavour ingredient.pulegone stimulates both TRPM8 and TRPA1 channel in chicken sensory neurons and suppresses the former but not the latter at high concentrations.
S9142 Sparteine Sparteine, which could be extracted from scotch broom, is a sodium channel blocker and a class 1a antiarrhythmic agent.
S9158 Atractylon Atractylon, the sesquiterpenoid oxide isolated from the rhizomes of Atractylodes japonica and its related plants (Compositae), shows significant antiviral activities for influenza A virus.
S9236 α-Cyperone α-Cyperone, a major active compound of Cyperus rotundus, exhibits biological activities, such as antivirulence, antigenotoxic, and antibacterial activities.
S9263 3-n-Butylphathlide 3-n-Butylphathlide, initially isolated from the seeds of Apium graveolens Linn., has shown significant neuroprotective effects.
S5370 10-Hydroxydecanoic acid 10-Hydroxydecanoic acid, a minor constituent of royal jelly, is a saturated fatty acid that has cytotoxic effects.
S9450 1-Undecanol 1-Undecanol, found naturally in many foods such as fruits (including apples and bananas), butter, eggs and cooked pork, is used as a flavoring ingredient.
S5761 Citric acid Citric acid is a weak organic acid that occurs naturally in citrus fruits. It is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle.
S5763 D-Mannose D-mannose is a naturally occurring simple sugar that may help your body cleanse the urinary tract and maintain a healthy bladder lining.
S5391 α-Boswellic acid α-Boswellic acid is a naturally occuring triterpenoic acid.
S5757 Isoeugenol Isoeugenol, an essential oil constituent of nutmeg, clove, and cinnamon, shows antimicrobial activity.
S5759 Methyl linoleate Methyl linoleate, found in cloves, is a fatty acid methyl ester of linoleic acid which is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes.
S5756 Methyl Stearate Methyl Stearate, found in cloves, is an antifoaming agent and fermentation nutrient.
S5577 6-Biopterin 6-Biopterin is a natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.
S5743 γ-Linolenic acid γ-Linolenic Acid (18:3, n-6), the Δ6-desaturase product of linolenic acid, is an unsaturated fatty acid found primarily in vegetable oils.
S5600 Flavokawain A Flavokawain A, extracted from kava, is an apoptotic inducers and anticarcinogenic agent. Flavokawain A can down-regulation of antiapoptotic proteins, such as XIAP, survivin, and Bcl-xL, thereby changing the balance between apoptotic and antiapoptotic molecules and then induce cell death in tumor cells.
S5732 Sebacic acid Sebacic acid is a saturated, straight-chain naturally occurring dicarboxylic acid
S5733 Stearic acid Stearic acid is a natural saturated fatty acid found in animal and vegetable fats. It could be used as a food additive and used in soaps, cosmetics and detergents.
S9375 2'-Hydroxyacetophenone 2'-Hydroxyacetophenone is a flavouring ingredient.
S9379 Dihydrocoumarin Dihydrocoumarin, a compound found in Melilotus officinalis (sweet clover) and Dipteryx odorata Willd (tonka beans), is added as a flavoring agent to a wide variety of foods, including soft drinks, yogurt, and muffins, and is used as a common fragrance in cosmetics, lotions, and soaps.
S9382 Thymine Thymine is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA.
S9333 Gibberellin A7 Gibberellin A7, an endogenous plant growth regulator, promotes the growth and elongation of cells.
S5691 Terpinyl Acetate Terpinyl Acetate, a naturally occuring compound found in several essential oils, is a flavouring agent.
S5616 4-Methylcatechol 4-Methylcatechol is an inducer of nerve growth factor. It is used to synthesize antimicrobial and antioxidant.
S9352 Homogentisic Acid Homogentisic Acid is found in Arbutus unedo (strawberry-tree) honey or present in the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli as well as in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.
S5684 Lapachol Lapachol, a natural compound isolated from the bark of the lapacho tree, shows both antimicrobial and antiviral activity.
S5640 Ethyl caffeate Ethyl caffeate, a naturally occurring compound found in Bidens pilosa, suppresses NF-kappaB activation and its downstream inflammatory mediators, iNOS, COX-2 and PGE2 in vitro.
S5680 (-)-Verbenone (-)-Verbenone, an important component of the essential oil from rosemary, is an insect pheromone with a spicy odor and camphoraceous fragrance.
S5617 Myristic Acid Myristic acid is a fatty acid that occurs naturally in some foods. Myristic acid inhibits the phosphorylation of poly E4Y by Src with an Ki of 35 mm.
S9046 Berberine Berberine, an alkaloid isolated from Rhizoma coptidis, has broad applications, particularly as an antibacterial agent in the clinic.
S9047 Leonurine Hydrochloride Leonurine, a natural alkaloid extracted from Herba leonuri, is a promising anti-glycation agent with vasodilator, antioxidative, cardioprotective and neuroprotective effects.
S9037 Tenacissoside H Tenacissoside H, a natural compound found in M. tenacissima, exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects.
S9027 Corynoxine Corynoxine, a natural oxindole alkaloid, is a new autophagy enhancer.
S9041 Corosolic acid Corosolic acid is one of the pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from Lagerstroemia speciose and has been reported to exhibit anti-cancer and anti-proliferative activities in various cancer cells.
S9035 Isovitexin Isovitexin, an active component of many traditional Chinese medicines, has various activities, such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-alzheimer disease (AD) effects and so on.
S9032 Sanguinarine Sanguinarine, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid known as an anti-inflammatory agent, is a potent inhibitor of NF-κB activation.
S9036 (20R)Ginsenoside Rh2 (20R)Ginsenoside Rh2, a natural compound found in Panax ginseng, shows antiviral and anticancer activities. It is a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor.
S9024 3-O-Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) 3-O-Acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA), the major active ingredient of the gum resin from Boswellia serrata and Boswellia carteri Birdw., exerts anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects and noncompetitively inhibits 5-lipoxygenase, topoisomerase, and leukocyte elastase.
S9044 Ginsenoside F2 Ginsenoside F2, a ginsenoside found in Panax species, is an autophagic initiater with anti-cancer, and anti-obesity activities.
S9042 Wedelolactone Wedelolactone, a medicinal plant-derived natural compound, is an inhibitor of IKK that is critical for activation of NF-κB by mediating phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα.
S9030 Tenacissoside I Tenacissoside I is a natural compound found in M. tenacissima at relatively high level.
S5677 Xanthopterin Hydrate Xanthopterin, isolated from butterfly wings and found in many other sources, replace folic acid in the nutrition of many animal species.
S9353 L-serine L-serine, one of the so-called non-essential amino acids, plays a central role in cellular proliferation.
S9349 D-(+)-Raffinose pentahydrate Raffinose is a trisaccharide composed of galactose, glucose, and fructose.
S9341 3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid 3,4-Dimethoxycinnamic acid is a bioavailable coffee component as a perspective anti-prion compound and bind potently to prion protein with a Kd of 405 nM.
S9344 DL-Methionine DL-Methionine is an amino acid that has a role in the defence of oxidative stress.
S9004 Chondroitine sulfate Chondroitin sulfate is an important structural component of cartilage and has been used as a dietary supplement to treat symptoms of joint discomfort.
S9373 Neryl acetate Neryl acetate, a chemical compound found in citrus oils, is a flavouring agent.
S9339 S-(-)-Cotinine S-(-)-Cotinine, a constituent of tobacco products and the major metabolite of nicotine, stimulates nicotinic receptors to evoke the release of DA in a calcium-dependent manner from superfused rat striatal slices.
S9372 Ethyl palmitate Ethyl palmitate is a long-chain fatty acid ethyl ester that is used as a hair- and skin-conditioning agent.
S4937 4'-Hydroxychalcone 4'-Hydroxychalcone, found in herbs and spices and tea, is a member of the class of compounds known as retrochalcones. It has diverse biological activities, inhibiting TNFα-induced NF-κB pathway activation in a dose-dependent manner and activating BMP signaling.
S3622 Diammonium Glycyrrhizinate Diammonium glycyrrhizinate (DG), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is extracted and purified from liquorices (Radix glycyrrhizae). It is known for its anti-inflammatory effects, resistance to biologic oxidation and membranous protection. DG is able to reduce inflammatory injury via suppression of NF‑κB, TNF‑α and intercellular adhesion molecule 1.
S3769 Palmatine Palmatine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, has sedative, antidepressant, antioxidative, anti-ulcerative, antacid, anticancer, and anti-metastatic activities.
S3788 Carvacrol Carvacrol, monoterpenic phenol isomeric with thymol, has diverse activities such as antimicrobial, antitumor, an-timutagenic, antigenotoxic, analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, antiparasitic, antiplatelet, AChE inhibitory, antielastase, insecticidal, antihepatotoxic and hepatoprotective activities.
S5176 Fructose Fructose is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants.
S5178 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)furanone 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)furanone is a naturally occurring substance found in a variety of fruits and has been shown to have antimicrobial activity.
S5592 Vitamin A Vitamin A is a naturally occuring fat-soluble vitamin that is important for normal vision, the immune system, and reproduction. It also plays roles in normal functioning of heart, lungs, kidneys, and other organs.
S5591 Ectoine Ectoine is a natural amino acid derivate with membrane stabilizing and inflammation reducing capacities. It is produced by bacteria living under extreme harsh environmental conditions where it serves as osmoregulatory compatible solute.
S4888 Guanine Guanine is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA.
S5505 2’-deoxyuridine 2'-deoxyuridine is frequently halogenated to create thymidine analogues useful for studies of DNA synthesis and degradation mechanisms.
S5503 O-Acetyl-L-carnitine hydrochloride O-Acetyl-L-carnitine can be synthesis or is naturally found in healthy humans. It could help transport fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix where fatty acid metabolism occurs.
S9368 ADP ADP, also known as Adenosine diphosphate, is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.
S5550 Ethyl gallate Ethyl gallat, which could be found naturally in a variety of plant sources, is a food additive with antimicrobial activity. Ethyl gallat activates the death receptor-dependent pathway of apoptosis by enhancing the expression of caspases-8, -9, and -3 and the Bcl-2 interacting domain (Bid).
S9390 Astragaloside II Astragaloside II, extracted from Astragalus membranaceus, has been reported to promote tissue wound repair and could be a potential adjunctive agent in cancer chemotherapy, enhancement of osteogenesis, and modulation of T cell activation.
S9166 Griffonilide Griffonilide is a natural product that has been reported to induce bone remodeling activity resulting in structural changes.
S9169 Polygalasaponin F Polygalasaponin F, a triterpenoid saponin isolated from Polygala japonica, possesses anxiolytic and sedative-hypnotic activities, and has cognition improving and cerebral protective effects.
S9198 Obtusifolin Obtusifolin is anthraquinone found in the seeds of Cassia obtusifolia, has inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation and aldose reductase.
S9220 Stylopine hydrochloride Stylopine, a major component of the leaf of Chelidonium majus L., is a protoberberine-type alkaloid that has potential biological activities, including anti-inflammatory activity.
S9241 Polygalaxanthone III Polygalaxanthone III is a natural product with the efficacy of tranquilization, glaangal, eliminating sputum and detumescence. Polygalaxanthone III inhibits chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylation catalyzed by CYP2E1 with an IC50 of 50.56 μM.
S9259 Lithospermic acid Lithospermic acid, an active component isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza radix, is known to have multiple pharmacological actions such as antihypertensive and antioxidant effects.
S9262 Raddeanin A Raddeanin A, a triterpenoid saponin from Anemone raddeana Regel, displays moderate inhibitory activity against histone deacetylases (HDACs) and has high antiangiogenic potency, antitumor activity.
S9264 Decursin Decursin (D), purified from Angelica gigas Nakai, shows potential anti-inflammatory activity and neuroprotective property.
S9306 Corynoxeine Corynoxeine, which could be isolated from Uncaria rhynchophylla, is a useful and prospective compound in the prevention and treatment for vascular diseases. It is a potent ERK1/2 inhibitor of key PDGF-BB-induced VSMC proliferation.
S9310 Isorhychophylline Isorhynchophylline is a major tetracyclic oxindole alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.)Jacks (Gouteng in Chinese). It acts as a neuronal autophagy inducer with therapeutic potential for cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases.
S9414 Cyasterone Cyasterone is the main phytoecdysteroid component found in Cyathula capitata. It is a natural EGFR inhibitor and maybe a promising anti-cancer agent.
S9448 D-(+)-Turanose D(+)-Turanose is a naturally occuring compound. It is a reducing disaccharide.
S5745 Glyceryl 1,3-dipalmitate Glyceryl 1,3-dipalmitate acts as a metabolite of saccharomyces cerevisiae, plant and human.
S9507 (−)-Norepinephrine (−)-Norepinephrine is a natural neurotransmitter and hormone. It is an agonist of adrenergic receptors with Ki values of 330, 56, and 740 nM for α1, α2, and β1 adrenoceptors, respectively.
S9505 Oleanonic Acid Oleanonic Acid, extracted from Pistacia terebinthus galls, is a cell cycle inhibitor and used as antitumor agents.
S5686 Tryptanthrin Tryptanthrin is a natural alkaloidal compound having basic indoloquinazoline moiety. It has broad spectrum of biological activities including anticancer activity, anti-inflammatory, antiprotozoal, antiallergic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial.
S5690 Triacanthine Triacanthine, which could be isolated from the leaves of G. triacanthos, shows hypertensive activity, also cardiotonic, antispasmodic and a respiratory analeptic.
S5554 Lanatoside C Lanatoside C, a cardiac glycoside which belongs to a class of compounds derived from plants called foxglove, possesses the ability to inhibit the interchange of Na+ and K+ across cell membrane and is widely used to treat anti-arrhythmias and heart failure.
S5312 Urolithin A Urolithin A, a metabolite of ellagitannin, is a first-in-class natural compound that induces mitophagy both in vitro and in vivo following oral consumption.
S3817 Harmine hydrochloride Harmine, a fluorescent harmala alkaloid belonging to the beta-carboline family of compounds, is a highly cell-permeant and competitive inhibitor of ATP binding to the kinase pocket of DYRK1A, with about 60-fold higher IC50 value for DYRK2. It can also inhibit monoamine oxidases (MAOs) and cdc-like kinases (CLKs).
S5318 Acacetin Acacetin is a flavonoid compound that has been shown to have anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-peroxidative effects.
S9345 Disodium 5'-Inosinate Disodium 5'-Inosinate, widely distributed in all animal and plant tissues, is used as a flavor enhancer.
S9059 4'-O-Glucosylvitexin 4'-O-Glucosylvitexin is a kind of flavonoid fraction from the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida.
S9364 6-Hydroxycoumarin 6-Hydroxycoumarin demonstrates cytotoxic effect against the cancer cell lines.
S9365 Disodium uridine-5'-monophosphate Disodium uridine-5'-monophosphate is a nucleotide that is a major component of ribonucleic acid.
S9366 5'-Adenylic acid AMP, also known as 5'-Adenylic acid and Adenosine monophosphate, is a nucleotide that is found in RNA. It is used as a dietary supplement to boost immune activity, and is also used as a substitute sweetener to aid in the maintenance of a low-calorie diet.
S9369 Xanthosine Xanthosine is an intermediate in purine metabolism, formed from IMP, and forming GMP.
S9370 Adenosine Cyclophosphate Adenosine Cyclophosphate is useful for improving myocardial hypoxia, dilating coronary artery and strengthening myocardiac contraction.
S9384 Sophocarpine Monohydrate Sophocarpine, a naturally occurring tetracyclic quinolizidine alkaloid derived from Sophora alopecuroides L, has shown promising therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, and antivirus activities.
S9386 Polygalacic acid Polygalacic acid is the triterpenoid tetrahydroxyacid isolated from Polygala paenea L.. Polygalacic acid (0-100 μM; 24 hours) significantly decreases the mRNAexpressions of MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-13 and COX-2, which are significantly increased by IL-1β, in a dose-dependent manner.
S9387 Maackiain Maackiain is a pterocarpan that is widely distributed in leguminous plants. It has anticancer and antimicrobial effects.
S9388 (+)-Praeruptorin A Praeruptorin A is a coumarin compound naturally occurring in the roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn., a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of certain respiratory diseases and hypertension. (+)-Praeruptorin A is one of enantiomers that shows more potent relaxant effects than (−)-praeruptorin A in rat aorta rings and may be an activator of eNOS.
S9389 Phorbol Phorbol is a natural, plant-derived organic compound that exerts a broad range of biological activities.
S9401 3,6'-Disinapoyl sucrose 3,6'-Disinapoyl sucrose, an oligosaccharide ester natural product originating from the root of wild Polygala tenuifolia, has neuroprotective effects and antidepressive activity in rats.
S9400 Rhynchophylline Rhynchophylline, an active component isolated from species of the genus Uncaria, acts as a calcium channel blocker and is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine mainly for treating ailments of central nervous and cardiovascular systems, such as lightheadedness, convulsions, numbness, and hypertension.
S9398 Crassicauline A Crassicauline A, a diterpenoid alkaloid in Aconitum herbs, is an analgesic drug clinically used in China.
S9397 Alliin Alliin is a sulfoxide that is a natural constituent of fresh garlic.
S9396 Geraniin Geraniin, a hydrolysable polyphenol derived from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit rind, has been shown to possess significant antioxidant activity in vitro.The IC50 values of TNF-α release inhibition were 43 μM for geraniin.
S9392 Praeruptorin B Praeruptorin B is an important compound isolated from Bai-hua Qian-hu and has been reported to exert multiple biochemical and pharmacological activities.praeruptorin B exerts lipid-lowering effects through inhibits SREBPs and could serve as a possible therapeutic option to improve hyperlipidemia and hyperlipidemia-induced comorbidities.
S9402 (20R)-Protopanaxdiol (20R)-Protopanaxdiol, isolated from the roots of Panax ginseng, has protective effect on myocardial ischemia.
S9404 Pristimerin Pristimerin is a naturally occurring triterpenoid that has been shown to suppress the proliferation of various cancer cell lines at the concentration (IC50) range of 0.2-4 μM, including those of breast, glioma, prostate, pancreatic, ovarian, colon. Pristimerin can inhibits monoacylglycerol lipase(MGL) with an IC50 of 93 nM through a reversible mechanism.
S9405 Sesamoside Sesamoside, a main chemical ingredient iridoid glycoside from Lamiophlomic rotata, has analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects in animal studies.
S9406 Sauchinone Sauchinone, one of the active lignan isolated from the roots of Saururus chinensis, possesses diverse pharmacological properties, such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects.
S9407 Angoroside C Angoroside C, an important phenylpropanoid glycoside of the traditional Chinese medicine Scrophulariae Radix, possesses the effects of preventing ventricular remodeling, reducing pulmonary oedema, and reducing blood pressure, as well as having the properties of anti-platelet aggregation, hepatoprotection and anti-nephritis, etc.
S9408 Beta-Elemonic acid Beta-Elemonic acid, a known triterpene isolated from Boswellia (Burseraceae), exhibits anti‑inflammatory effects.
S9409 Kavain Kavain, the main kavalactone found mostly in the roots of the kava plant, has anticonvulsive properties, attenuating vascular smooth muscle contraction through interactions with voltage-dependent Na+ and Ca2+ channels. Kavain positively modulated γ-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor.
S9410 Euphorbia factor L1 Euphorbia factor L1, a diterpenoid isolated from Euphorbia lathyris, inhibits osteoclastogenesis and induces osteoclast apoptosis.
S9411 Liensinine Liensinine, an important functional compound in lotus seeds, has anti-cancer, anti-fibrosis, anti-proliferative, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9412 Flavokawain B Flavokawain B is a natural chalcone first isolated from extracts of kava roots that induces apoptosis in cancer cells.
S9413 Yangonin Yangonin is a dienolide kavalactone originally found in Piper methysticum (kava plant) and exhibits neuroprotective, neuromodulatory, and antifungal activities. It activates cannabinoid (CB1) receptors and potentiates the effects of GABA-A receptors.
S9416 Triptonide Triptonide, isolated from the roots of Tripterygium wilfordii, can effectively inhibit canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by targeting the downstream C-terminal transcription domain of β-catenin or a nuclear component associated with β-catenin. It is also an antineoplastic agent, an anti-inflammatory agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
S9417 Homoplantaginin Homoplantaginin, a main flavonoid from a traditional Chinese medicine Salvia plebeia, has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties.
S9420 Sinoacutine Sinoacutine, isolated from the Chinese drug Ching-fengteng, elicits mild antitussive properties.
S9421 Demethylnobiletin 5-Demethylnobiletin is a unique flavonoid found in citrus fruits with potential chemopreventive effects against human cancers.5-Demethylnobiletin is a direct inhibitor of 5-LOX with IC50 of 0.1 μM, without affecting the expression of COX-2. 5-Demethylnobiletin has anti-inflammatory activity, inhibits leukotriene B 4(LTB4) formation in rat neutrophils and elastase release in human neutrophils with IC50 of 0.35 μM.
S9422 Diosbulbin B Diosbulbin B is the main hepatotoxic compound in Airpotato yam, which is traditionally used for treating thyroid disease and cancer.
S9423 Narcissoside Narcissoside has antioxidant and antiproliferative activity in cancer.
S9425 Trifolirhizin Trifolirhizin, a natural pterocarcan flavonoid extracted from Sophora flavescens, has many pharmacological activities, such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferation, and skin-whitening.
S9427 Tabersonine Tabersonine is a terpene indole alkaloid found in the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus and shows hypotensive activity, anti-tumor activity, hypoglycemic, diuretic activity.
S9428 Brazilin Brazilin is a red pigment obtained from the wood of the brazilwood family. It is used to dye fabric and has diverse biological activities, including neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties.
S9429 6α-Hydroxygeniposide 6α-Hydroxygeniposide, an iridoid glycoside, is a chemical constituents of Pittosporum glabratum Lindl.
S9430 Tomatidine Tomatidine, a natural steroidal alkaloid, possesses potent antibacterial activity and has anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages.
S9431 Dehydrocorydalin Dehydrocorydalin is an alkaloidal component isolated from Rhizoma corydalis. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects and can protect the cardiovascular system.
S9433 Tubeimoside II Tubeimoside II, a natural triterpenoid saponin isolated from herb, show anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and antitumor-promoting effects.
S9434 8-Gingerol 8-Gingerol is a bioactive ingredient of ginger root (Zingiber officinale), a medicinal plant having anti-nausea, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties and a carminative effect.
S9435 Secoxyloganin Secoxyloganin is a secoiridoids that is extensively used in synthetic and biosynthetic studies of monoterpene indole alkaloids and related natural products.
S9436 Pinoresinol dimethyl ether Pinoresinol dimethyl ether, which could be isolated from the wood of the basal tree Humbertieae, show a variety of activities as the inhibitor of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
S9437 Echinatin Echinatin is a licorice extract that displays antioxidant properties and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9438 Isosakuranetin Isosakuranetin, an O-methylated flavonoid, is the 4'-methoxy derivative of naringenin, a flavanone found in Citrus species.
S9120 Scutellarein Scutellarein, extracted from the perennial herb Scutellaria lateriflora, has antioxidant, antitumor, anti-adipogenic, antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities
S9439 Kaurenoic acid Kaurenoic acid is a natural diterpenoid found in the herbs of Croton antisyphiliticus. Kaurenoic acid has anti-inflammatory activity, the mechanisms may through inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression.
S9441 Sibiricose A5 Sibiricose A5, which could be isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Polygalae Radix, shows potent antioxidant activity.
S9442 Bergaptol Bergaptol is a natural furanocoumarin found in the essential oils of citrus including lemon and bergamot.Bergaptol is a potent inhibitors of debenzylation activity of CYP3A4 enzyme with an IC50 value of 24.92 μM.
S9443 Schisantherin B Schisantherin B is one bioactive of lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill which has been commonly used as a traditional herbal medicine.
S9444 Tomatine Tomatine is a natural glycoalkaloid with fungicidal, antimicrobial, and insecticidal properties.
S9446 Dihydrokavain Dihydrokavain is a kavalactone source from kava beverages used in herbal medicine to treat sleep disturbances, as well as stress and anxiety.
S9447 1F-Fructofuranosylnystose 1F-Fructofuranosylnystose is a kind of Fructooligosaccharides which are naturally occurring sugars with potentially beneficial nutritional effects.
S9503 Fraxetin Fraxetin, found in Fraxinus rhynchophylla, shows potent antioxidant activity.fraxetin alleviates lipid peroxidation, enhances hepatic antioxidant capabilities, inhibits CYP2E1 activity, and reduced the inflammatory mediators, including TNF-α and IL-1β via up-regulation of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein.
S9502 Madecassic acid Madecassic acid, a natural triterpene first isolated from C. asiatica, has diverse anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects, blocking NF-κB activation in macrophages and altering lipid metabolism in mice, at least in part through antioxidant actions.
S9001 Malic acid Malic acid is a common, naturally occurring ingredient in many foods. It is the main acid found in apples and other fruits.
S9002 L-Fucose Fucose is found on N-linked glycans on the mammalian, insect and plant cell surface. L-Fucose is claimed to have application in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and dietary supplements.
S9006 Perillartine Perillartine is a sweetener. Perillartine can activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse in a species-dependent manner.
S9014 AstragalosideⅠ AstragalosideⅠ, is a bioactive saponin first isolated from the dried plant roots of the genus Astragalus, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine.
S5083 Lentinan Lentinan, isolated and purified from a hot water extract of Lentinula edodes fruit bodies, is a fungal polysaccharide immunomodulator with anti-tumor effects.
S9272 Koumine Koumine, a Gelsemium alkaloid, possesses analgesic, anti-inflammatory and neurosteroid modulating activities.
S9273 Timosaponin BII Timosaponin BII (BII) is a steroidal saponin showing potential anti-dementia and antioxidant activity.
S9274 Isochlorogenic acid B Isochlorogenic acid B, naturally isolated from Laggera alata, has antioxidative and hepatoprotective properties.
S9275 Isoguanosine Isoguanosine inhibits FLT3 and HDAC3/6 for the treatment of AML.Isoguanosine is a naturally occurring active isomer of guanosine that is found in the seeds of Croton tiglium.
S9276 Alisol B Alisol B, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizoma, induces Bax up-regulation and nuclear translocation, the activation of initiator caspase-8 and caspase-9, and executor caspase-3, suggesting the involvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways.
S9277 Alisol A Alisol A is one of the major active triterpenes isolated from Rhizoma Alismatis (RA), a famous Traditional Chinese Medicine widely used for diuretic, hypolipidemic, anti-nephrolithic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic purposes.
S9278 Saikosaponin C Saikosaponin C is a triterpene saponin found in Bupleurum that exhibits antiviral and pro-angiogenic activities.
S9279 Euphorbia factor L3 Euphorbia factor L3, belonging to the lathyrane diterpenoids isolated from Caper Euphorbia Seed, shows potent cytotoxicity and induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway in A549 cells.
S9280 Demethoxycurcumin Demethoxycurcumin, a natural demethoxy derivative of curcumin, has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-angiogenesis properties.
S9281 Peimine Peimine is a major biologically active component of Fritillaria ussuriensis, exhibits anti-inflammatory and pain suppression properties at the cellular level.
S9267 Epimedin A Epimedin A is a major component of Herba Epimedii with bioactivities.
S9268 Epmedin B Epimedin B is a component extracted from Epimedii Folium and may have antiosteoporotic activity.
S9269 Epmedin C Epimedin C, a flavonoid isolated from the herbs of Epimedium brevicornum Maxim, exhibits immunostimulatory and anticancer activities.
S9270 Dracohodin perochlorate Dracohodin perochlorate, extracted from Dragon's blood, is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, especially in wound healing.
S9271 Pulchinenoside A Pulchinenoside A, a natural triterpenoid saponin, is a AMPARs and NMDAR modulator.
S9282 Isochlorogenic acid A Isochlorogenic acid A, isolated from Brazilian propolis and Suaeda glauca, exhibits hepatoprotective and cytotoxic activities.
S9283 Aristolone Aristolone, which could be extracted from essential oil of Elyonurus hensii, is likely to induce an antalgic activity.
S9284 Aloesin Aloesin is a kind of herbal extraction form the aloe vera. It is a strong inhibitor of tyrosinase activity and up-regulates cyclin E-dependent kinase activity in vitro.
S9285 Fargesin Fargesin is a neolignan isolated from Magnolia plants. It is a potential β1AR antagonist through cAMP/PKA pathway.
S9286 Neobavaisoflavone Neobavaisoflavone, isolated from seeds of Psoralea corylifolia, exhibits inhibitory activity against DNA polymerase and platelet aggregation.
S9287 Genkwanin Genkwanin is one of the major non-glycosylated flavonoids in herbs. It has a variety of pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antiplasmodial, radical scavenging, chemopreventive and inhibiting 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activities.
S9288 Casticin Casticin, as the major active substance in Lithospermum erythrorhyzon, had been reported to mediate multiple pharmacological activities such as antioxidation, antiviral, cardiovascular protection, antineoplastic and anti-inflammation.
S9289 Astragalin Astragalin, a flavonoid from leaves of persimmon and green tea seeds, has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities.
S9290 Linarin Linarin, a natural flavonoid cpompound, has pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, neuro-protective, cardioprotective and antioxidative effects.
S9291 Isopimpinellin Isopimpinellin is a natural product synthesized by numerous plant species. It may acts as an anticarcinogen.
S9292 Dictamnine Dictamnine, a natural plant product, has been reported to have antimicrobial activity against bacteria and fungi.
S9293 Isoliquiritin Isoliquiritin is a flavonoid glycoside compound from licorice possessing a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-depression activities.
S9294 Gelsemine Gelsemine, a principal alkaloid from Gelsemium sempervirens Ait., is a highly toxic compound and may be a glycine receptor agonist with significantly higher binding affinity for some of these receptors than its native agonist, glycine.
S9295 Dauricine Dauricine, a plant metabolite isolated from the Asian vine Menispermum dauricum, plays a variety of biological roles in the human body, from inhibiting cancer cell growth to blocking cardiac transmembrane Na+, K+, and Ca2+ ion currents.Dauricine induces apoptosis, inhibits proliferation and invasion through inhibiting NF‐κB signaling pathway in colon cancer cells.
S9296 Fraxin Fraxin, a main active component isolated from Cortex Fraxini, possesses a variety of bioactivities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, antimicrobial, antiviral, immunomodulatory, anti-hyperuricemia and diuresis.
S9297 Kirenol Kirenol is a biologically active substance isolated from Herba Siegesbeckiae. It has been reported to possess anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-adipogenic, and anti-arthritic activities.
S9298 Corylin Corylin, a main compound isolated from Psoralea corylifolia L. (Fabaceae), has a variety of pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, anti-proliferation, and anti-inflammatory properties.
S9300 Methylprotodioscin "Methyl protodioscin, a bioactive natural compound isolated from Dioscorea collettii Makino (Dioscoreaceae), has numerous pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation, lipid-lowering, and anticancer activities."
S9301 Verbenalin Verbenalin, an iridoid glycoside found in Verbena officinalis, has been reported to exhibit uterine stimulant activity and demonstrated cardioprotection against experimental myocardial ischemic injury.
S9302 Polyphyllin VI Polyphyllin VI derived from Paris polyphylla possess anti-cancer activities.
S9303 Saikosaponin B2 Saikosaponin B2 is a naturally occurring terpenoid that efficiently inhibits hepatitis C virus entry.
S9304 Platycodin D Platycodin D, the main saponin isolated from Chinese herb Platycodonis Radix, exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, cholesterol-lowering and neuroprotective properties.
S9305 Toosendanin Toosendanin, a triterpenoid extracted from Melia toosendan Sieb et Zucc, possesses broad biological actions from blocking neurotransmission and antibotulism to inducing cell differentiation and apoptosis.
S9307 Shanzhiside methyl ester Shanzhiside methylester is a principle effective iridoid glycoside of L. rotata and serves as a small molecule glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist.
S9308 Pulsatilla saponin D Pulsatilla saponin D, isolated from the root of Pulsatilla koreana, targets c-Met and exerts antiangiogenic and antitumor activities.
S9309 Micheliolide Micheliolide, a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Michelia compressa and Michelia champaca, inhibits various inflammatory response and may serve as a neuroprotective agent in neuroinflammation-related neurodegenerative disorders.
S9311 Germacrone Germacrone, a major activity component found in Curcuma zedoaria oil product, shows anti-inflammatory, antiandrogenic, and antimicrobial activities.
S9312 Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride is a natural product with anti-oxidant and neuroprotective effects.
S9313 Atractylenolide III Atractylenolide III, a major component of Atractylodes rhizome, has anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenesis activities.
S9314 Atractylenolide II AT-II, a major sesquiterpenoids isolated from the dried Rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala, shows a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities, for example, against insomnia and anxiety, neuroprotective, platelet activation and anti-cancer effect.
S9315 Praeruptorin A Praeruptorin A, a naturally existing pyranocumarin, is isolated from the dried root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn. Praeruptorin A inhibits p38/Akt-c-Fos-NFATc1 signaling and PLCγ-independent Ca2+ oscillation. Praeruptorin A can significantly upregulates multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 expression via the constitutive androstane receptor-mediated pathway in vitro, and this should be taken as an herb-drug interaction.
S9316 Polyphyllin II Polyphyllin II, a natural compound extracted from Rhizoma of Paris polyphyllin, shows hemolytic activity.
S9317 Forsythoside A Forsythoside A, one of the main active ingredients in Forsythiae fructus, has been shown to possess anti-bacterial and immunomodulatory properties.
S9318 (20R)-Ginsenoside Rh1 (20R)-Ginsenoside Rh1, isolated from the root of Panax Ginseng, exhibits various pharmacological activities including vasorelaxation, antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and anticancer.
S9319 Cryptochlorogenic acid Cryptochlorogenic acid, a phenolic acid found in various plant species, including Artemisia, honeysuckle, and H. sabdariffa, possesses antioxidant properties.
S9322 Neodiosmin  
S9324 Alnustone Alnustone, a naturally occuring compound found in the rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorrhiza, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antihepatotoxic and antiemetic activities.
S9329 Orcinol Orcinol, occurs in many species of lichens including Roccella tinctoria and Lecanora, exhibits antimutagenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, radical-scavenging effects.
S9343 Sequoyitol Sequoia alcohol (Sequoyitol) is isolated from Taxus natural organic compounds, it can be used to treat diabetes and other indications.
S9347 Allitol Allitol is a rare polyol found in nature that is useful not only as a sweetener, but also as the raw material for production of chemical compounds.
S9348 D-(+)-Trehalose Anhydrous Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar. It is thought to provide plants and animals with the ability to withstanding periods of dehydration.
S9350 Ethyl 4-Methoxycinnamate Ethyl 4-Methoxycinnamate, a natural product found in K. galanga and C. zedoaria extracts, has anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, antifungal, larvicidal, and analgesic activities.
S9354 Oxalic acid Oxalic acid is a strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables.
S5636 Methyl furan-2-carboxylate Methyl furan-2-carboxylate (Methyl 2-furoate) is found in cocoa and cocoa products. It is used in food flavouring and preparation of sesquiterpene lactone.
S3814 Tubeimoside I Tubeimoside I (TBMS1), a triterpenoid saponin, isolated from the tubers of Bolbostemma paniculatum, shows potent antitumor and antitumor-promoting effects.
S3790 Methyl gallate Methyl Gallate is a plant polyphenol with antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory activities.
S4800 Daminozide Daminozide, a plant growth regulator, selectively inhibits the KDM2/7 JmjC subfamily with IC50 of 1.5±0.7 μM for KDM2A. It is at least 100-fold selective as an inhibitor of the KDM2/7 subfamily over the other demethylase subfamily members tested, with IC50s of 2 μM or less against KDM2A, PHF8, and KIAA1718 and IC50s of 127 μM for KDM3A or greater (mM range) against other demethylases.
S9188 Magnoflorine chloride Magnoflorine, isolated from the rhizome of Sinomenium acutum and from Pachygone ovata, is usually used as an anxiolytic chemical with anti-oxidant, α-tyrosinase inhibitory and anti-inflammationary activities.
S9189 Oroxin A Oroxin A, an active component isolated from the herb Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz, activates PPARγ and inhibits α-glucosidase, exerting antioxidant activity.
S9190 Oroxin B Oroxin B, one of flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese herbal medicine Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent, selectively induces tumor-suppressive ER stress in malignant lymphoma cells and has antioxidant activity. Oroxin B significantly inhibits proliferation and induce apoptosis, which may be strongly associated with the inhibiting COX-2/VEGF and PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in SMMC-7721 cells, Oroxin B potentially be used as a novel therapeutic agent for liver cancer.COX-2, VEGF, PI3K, and p-AKT expression levels is found to be downregulated, while PTEN was upregulated after Oroxin B treatment.
S9191 Loganic acid Loganic acid is a naturally occurring iridoid monoterpeneglusoside involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloids in Vinca rosea.
S9194 Toddalolactone Toddalolactone, a natural coumarin, inhibits the activity of recombinant human Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in a dose-dependent manner, yielding an IC50 value of 37.31 ± 3.23 μM.
S9195 Maltotetraose Maltotetraose, found in many foods, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as oligosaccharides.
S9196 Calceolarioside B Calceolarioside B, found in the herbs of Ajuga becumbens Thunb., has anti-proliferation property.Calceolarioside B exhibits significant inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR) with an IC50 of 23.99 μM. Calceolarioside B displays inhibitory effect on DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 of 94.60 μM.
S9199 Pseudoginsenoside F11 Pseudoginsenoside F11, a natural product found in American ginseng but not in Asian ginseng, is a novel partial PPARγ agonist.
S9200 Pneumocandin B0 Pneumocandin B0 is a natural product and a key intermediate in the synthesis of the antifungal agent.
S9203 Notopterol Notopterol is a kind of furanocoumarin that possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anticancer activities.
S9204 Oroxylin A Oroxylin A is a flavonoid isolated from Scutellaria root that exhibits multiple pharmacological activities, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties.
S9205 Hydroxygenkwanin Hydroxygenkwanin, a natural flavonoid compound, has anti-oxidant ability and can act as tissue factor (TF) inhibitor to prevent thrombosis.
S9206 Hydroprotopine Hydroprotopine is a kind of natural herbal extract.
S9514 Rotundic acid Rotundic acid, a natural compound, exhibit cytotoxic activities toward human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), malignant melanoma (A375), SCLC (NCI-H446), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colon cancer (HT-29) cell lines.RA induces cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and apoptosis by modulating the AKT/mTOR and MAPK pathways.
S9207 Gypenoside XVII Gypenoside XVII, a ginsenoside found in Panax species, has neuroprotective effects and is widely used to prevent cardiovascular disease.GP-17 treatment predominantly up-regulating the expression of ERα but not ERβ.
S9208 Ginsenoside Rb3 Ginsenoside Rb3, extracted from the plant Panax ginseng, plays important roles in cardiovascular diseases, including myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Ginsenoside Rb3 (0.1-10 μM) is tested for inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)-induced nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) luciferase reporter activity using a human kidney 293T cell-based assay. Ginsenoside Rb3 shows the significant activity with an IC50 of 8.2 μM. Ginsenoside Rb3 also inhibits the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) messenger Ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in a dose-dependent manner after HepG2 cells have been treated with TNF-α (10 ng/mL).
S9209 Tritetradecanoin Tritetradecanoin, found in Myristica fragrans Houtt., is used as an antiadhesion agent and lubricating agent.
S9210 Ginsenoside Rk1 Ginsenoside Rk1, one of the main elements of Sung Ginseng, has been confirmed as a new endothelial barrier enhancer recently and has anti-cancer activity.
S9211 Eriocitrin Eriocitrin is a flavone glycoside mainly found in lemon with antioxidant activity.
S9213 Jujuboside A Jujuboside A, isolated from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, exerts anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory activities, and reduces the cell apoptosis.
S9214 Jujuboside B Jujuboside B, one of the saponins isolated from the seeds of Zizyphus jujuba var. spinosa, is used in traditional chinese medicine for treating cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative diseases.
S9215 Pinoresinol diglucoside Pinoresinol diglucoside, one of the major lignans isolated from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver bark, has various pharmacological functions, including antihypertension and prevention of osteoporosis.
S9216 Esculentoside A Esculentoside A, isolated from the Chinese herb phytolacca esculenta, possesses a broad inhibitory effect on a panel of pro-inflammation molecules with less toxicity.
S9217 Complanatuside Complanatuside, a flavonoid compound isolated from Astragalus complanatus and Lysimachia christinae, has anti-inflammation, lipid-lowering and hepatoprotective effects.
S9219 Huperzine B Huperzine B, a natural alkaloid existed in Lycopodium plants, is a novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and has neuroprotective effects.
S9221 Ferulaldehyde Ferulaldehyde is a natural intermediate of polyphenol metabolism of intestinal microflora.
S9222 Dipotassium glycyrrhizinate Glycyrrhizinate dipotassium is a widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root.
S9223 Talatisamine Talatisamine, a delphinine type alkaloid extracted from Aconitum talassicum, is a newly identified K+ channel blocker with hypotensive and antiarrhythmic activities.
S9224 Dehydroandrographolide Succinate Dehydroandrographolide succinate (DAS), extracted from herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata (Burm f) Nees, has antibacterial and antiviral effects.
S9226 Steviolbioside Steviolbioside, a natural sweetener, exhibits moderate antituberculosis activity against M. tuberculosis strain H37RV in vitro.
S9228 Schisandrin C Schisandrin C, a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from the fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill, has many characteristics including anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidation.
S9229 Linderane Linderane, isolated from Lindera strychnifolia vill., is an indirect PDE3 activator and possesses multiple biological effects, including superoxide anion radical-scavenging and antioxidative activity and protective activity against gastritis, gastric ulcers and backache.
S9230 Vaccarin Vaccarin, a major flavonoid glycoside found in Semen vaccariae, exhibits extensive biological activities including vascular endothelial cell protective effects.
S9231 Schisanhenol Schisanhenol is a compound derived from the fruit of a traditional Chinese herb Schisandra rubriflora, exhibiting strong inhibition toward UGT2B7.
S9232 Crocin II Crocin II, a carotenoid chemical compound that is found in the flowers crocus and gardenia, is an antioxidant and neural protective agent.
S9233 Imperialine Imperialine is an alkaloid found in the bulbs of species of the genus Fritillaria.
S9234 Schaftoside Schaftoside, a bioactive compound found in the Herba Desmodii Styracifolii, exhibits pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity.
S9235 Didymin Didymin is a citrus-derived natural compound that kills p53 wild-type as well as drug-resistant p53-mutant neuroblastoma cells in culture. It possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammation and anti-cancer properties.
S9237 Berberrubine Berberrubine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from many medicinal plants, possesses diverse pharmacological activities, including glucose-lowering, lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects.
S9238 Polygalic acid Polygalic acid, a triterpenoid saponin, shows expectorant, emetic and stimulant effects.
S9239 Isocorynoxeine Isocorynoxeine, a major alkaloid found in Uncaria rhynchophylla, exhibits wide beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and cardiocerebral vascular systems. Isocorynoxeine suppress 5-HT2A receptor-mediated current response with IC50 of 72.4 μM.
S9240 Isofraxidin Isofraxidin, a bioactive coumarin compound isolated from the functional foods Siberian ginseng and Apium graveolens, is an anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory agent.
S9242 Narirutin Narirutin, a flavanone abundant in citrus fruits, possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.
S9243 Protosappanin B Protosappanin B, extracted from Lignum Sappan, possesses anti-inflammation and anti-oxidation properties.
S9244 8-O-acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester 8-O-acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester, isolated from the leaves of Lamiophlomis rotata Kudo, promotes angiogenesis, which leads to the improvement of functional outcome after stroke.8-O-Acetyl shanzhiside methyl ester can inhibts NF-κB
S9245 Phellodendrine chloride Phellodendrine chloride, isolated from the Phellodrndron amurensis, exhibits immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9246 Tiliroside Tiliroside, a glycosidic flavonoid, possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticarcinogenic and hepatoprotective activities.
S9247 Isoliensinine Isoliensinine is an alkaloid produced by the edible plant Nelumbo nucifera. It possesses anti-cancer, anti-fibrosis, anti-proliferative, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9248 Homoorientin Homoorientin is a flavone that acts as a radical scavenger and an antineoplastic agent.
S9249 Securinine Securinine, a major natural alkaloid product from the root of the plant Securinega suffruticosa, acts as a γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptor antagonist.
S9250 Isosilybin Isosilybin is a flavanolignan found in the extract of S. marianum fruits with antioxidant and anticancer activities. Isosilybin inhibits CYP3A4 induction with an IC50 of 74 μM.
S9251 Oxypeucedanin Oxypeucedanin is a major coumarin aglycone that can be extracted from Ostericum koreanum. It is a kind of open-channel blocker of the hKv1.5 channel.
S9252 Corydaline Corydaline is a bioactive alkaloid with various anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-allergic, and anti-nociceptive activities found in the medicinal herb Corydalis Tubers.
S9253 Coixol Coixol acts as a central muscle relaxant with an anti-convulsant effect.
S9254 Skimmin Skimmin is one of the major pharmacologically active molecules present in Hydrangea paniculata, a medical herb used in the traditional Chinese medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent.
S9255 Isoscopoletin Isoscopoletin is a member of the class of compounds known as hydroxycoumarins. Isoscopoletin can be found in coriander and eggplant, which makes isoscopoletin a potential biomarker for the consumption of these food products.
S9256 Isobavachin Isobavachin is a flavonoid compound obtained from Psoralea Corylifolia Linn.
S9257 Acetylshikonin Acetylshikonin is a biologically active compound with anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity, which is isolated from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizoma. It is a novel general P450 inhibitor with IC50 values of 1.4-4.0 μM for all tested P450s.
S9258 (+)-Isocorynoline Isocorynoxeine, a major bioactive tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids found in Uncaria rhynchophylla, exhibits a dose-dependent inhibition of 5-HT2A receptor-mediated current response with an IC50 of 72.4 μM and shows various beneficial effects, including lowering blood pressure, vasodilatation, and protection against ischemia-induced neuronal damage.
S9260 Nodakenin Nodakenin, a coumarin compound, acts as an AChE inhibitor that inhibits AChE activity in a dosedependent manner with an IC50 value of 84.7 μM.
S9265 7-Epitaxol 7-epitaxol is the major derivative of taxol found in cells. Taxol (paclitaxel) is a well-known natural-source cancer drug.
S9266 Ginsenoside Rc Ginsenoside Rc, isolated from Panax ginseng, may exert various activities including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antiobesity, and anti-diabetic effects.
S9186 Liensinine perchlorate Liensinine is the active constituent of plumula nelambinis with anti-hypertension.
S9187 Phillygenin Phillygenin, a bioactive intergradient in Osmanthus fragrans, has anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity and antipyretic activities. It could reduce blood lipid levels and low density lipoprotein.
S9517 Liriope muscari baily saponins C Liriope muscari baily saponins C, extracted from the roots of Liriope muscari (Decne.) Baily, induces autophagy and has an anti-thrombotic activity.
S9201 Levistilide A Levistilide A, a natural compound isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, is a potential P-gp modulator and used for treating cancer.
S9512 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid is a phenolic compound found in artichoke. It shows antioxidant and choleretic properties and is a potential immunosuppressive agent.
S9114 Polyphyllin I Polyphyllin I, a small molecular monomer extracted from Rhizoma of Paris polyphyllin, is used in the treatment of infectious disease and cancer. Polyphyllin I inhibits proliferation and induces apoptotic cell death in U251 cells. Polyphyllin I is an activator of the JNK signaling pathway with a potential anti-glioma effect.
S9115 Wogonoside Wogonoside, the main flavonoid component derived from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, displays anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anticancer chemotherapeutic activities.
S9116 Chikusetsusaponin IVa Chikusetsusaponin IVa, a major active ingredient of triterpenoid saponins, has numerous pharmacological activities, including cytotoxic activity against various cancer cells, anti-inflammatory activity, prevention of dental caries and induction of genta-micin nephrotoxicity.
S9117 (20S)Ginsenoside Rg2 (20S)Ginsenoside Rg2, a constituent existing in red ginseng, has been reported to exert strong inhibitory action on various cancer cells.
S9119 Leonuride Leonuride, an active alkaloid that is extracted from Traditional Chinese Medicine Herba leonuri, is a terpene glycoside that can be used for some gynecological disease.
S9121 Irigenin Irigenin, an O-methylated isoflavone, can be isolated from the rhizomes of the leopard lily (Belamcanda chinensis), and Iris kemaonensis.
S9122 Tectorigenin Tectorigenin (TEC) is an isoflavone isolated from various medicinal plants, such as Pueraria thunbergiana Benth, Belamcanda chinensis, and Iris unguicularis. It has been reported to exert pharmacological actions, including antitumor and antibacterial effects, free radical neutralization, and selective estrogen receptor modulation.
S9123 Eriodictyol Eriodictyol, a flavonoid extracted from yerba santa, has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and taste-modifying properties.
S9125 Apigetrin Apigetrin, a flavonoid found in many plant leaves and seeds, has been known to possess antimutagenic, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
S9126 Schizandrol B Schizandrol B, extracted from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill., exhibits potent antitumor activities.
S9127 Carnosol Carnosol is a naturally occurring phenolic diterpene found in rosemary. It has anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities.
S9128 Isoacteoside Isoacteoside, a phenylethanoid isolated from Monochasma savatieri Franch. ex Maxim., is an anti‐inflammatory herb widely used in traditional Chinese medicine.
S9129 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh1 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh1 is one of major bioactive compounds extracted from red ginseng, which has been increasingly used for enhancing cognition and physical health worldwide. It exhibits potent characteristics of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory effects, and positive effects on the nervous system.
S9130 Rubusoside Rubusoside is a natural sweetener and a solubilizing agent with antiangiogenic and antiallergic properties.
S9131 Punicalagin Punicalagin, a major ellagitannin found in pomegranate extracts, has been shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects.
S9132 Harpagide Harpagide, isolated from the secondary roots of Harpagophytum procumbens (Hp), has valuable medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic and potential antirheumatic effects.
S9133 Chicoric acid Chicoric acid, identified in many plants, exerts various properties include anti-cancer, anti-obesity, antiviral, and anti-diabetic effects.
S9134 Spinosin Spinosin, a flavone-C-glycoside, is a bioactive ingredient isolated from a traditional Chinese herb Zizyphi Spinosi Semen. It acts as a plant metabolite and an anxiolytic drug.
S9135 Artemisic acid Artemisic acid (Artemisinic acid), an amorphane sesquiterpene isolated from Artemisia annua L., has a variety of pharmacological activity, such as antimalarial activity, anti-tumor activity, antipyretic effect, antibacterial activity, allelopathy effect and anti-adipogenesis effect.
S9136 Neochlorogenic acid Neochlorogenic acid is a natural polyphenolic compound found in some types of dried fruits and a variety of other plant sources such as peaches. It shows antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and antipyretic activities and exerts neuroprotective effects through the inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways in activated microglia.
S9137 Erianin Erianin, a natural product derived from Dendrobium chrysotoxum, has been used as an analgesic in traditional Chinese medicine and is a potential anti-tumor agent. Erianin can inhibit IDO-induced tumor angiogenesis.
S9138 Picfeltarraenin IA Picfeltarraenin IA is an AChE inhibitior, and an potential PI3K and EGFR inhibitor. It also acts as an inhibitor on both the classical and alternative pathways of the complement system.
S9141 Berbamine Berbamine (BA), a traditional Chinese medicines extracted from Berberis amurensis (xiaoboan), is a novel inhibitor of bcr/abl fusion gene with potent anti-leukemia activity and also an inhibitor of NF-κB.
S9143 Ammonium Glycyrrhizate Ammonium glycyrrhizate is an ammonium salt extract isolated from licorice root and is commonly used as a flavoring agent and is also used in fragrances, and skin and hair care products.
S9144 Solasonine Solasonine, a natural glycoalkaloid compound, has anti-inflammation and anti-tumor properties.
S9145 Solamargine Solamargine, a bioactive steroidal alkaloid isolated from Solanum aculeastrum, induces potent, non-selective cytotoxicity and P-gp inhibition.
S9146 Anwuligan Anwuligan, a natural compound isolated from Myristica fragrans Houtt, has antimicrobial and anticariogenic activity against Streptococcus mutans and other streptococcus species. It also shows antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and neuroprotective activities.
S9148 Peiminine Peiminine, a biologically active component extracted from Fritillaria walujewii Regel, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory, antitussive, and expectorant effects. It induces autophagic cell death thus represses colorectal carcinoma tumor growth.
S9149 Benzoylpaeoniflorin Benzoylpaeoniflorin, a natural product isolated from Chinese paeony root, could inhibit COX-1 and COX-2 in vitro.
S9150 Daurisoline Daurisoline, a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the rhizomes of Menispermum dauricum, is a potent autophagy blockers with antiarrhythmic effects.
S9151 Praeruptorin E Praeruptorin E, isolated from Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn., is a cardiotonic agent with selective cardiac calcium channel agonistic effect.
S9152 Epiberberine Epiberberine, a natural protoberberine alkaloid, is a potent inhibitor against both ureases with IC50 values of 3.0±0.01μM for HPU (ureases from Helicobacter pylori) and 2.3±0.01μM for JBU (ureases from jack bean).
S9153 Betulinicaldehyde Betulinicaldehyde, isolated from the bark of tectona grandis., is an anti-tumor agent.
S9154 Chelidonine Chelidonine, a major bioactive, isoquinoline alkaloid ingredient in Chelidonium majus, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.
S9155 Aurantio-obtusin Aurantio-obtusin is a natural effective compound isolated from Semen Cassiae, which possesses hypotensive and hypolipidemic effects.
S9156 Chonglou Saponin VII Chonglou Saponin VII, a kind of steroidal saponins from Chonglou (Rhizoma Paridis Chonglou), inhibits EMT and reduces the invasion of ovarian cancer cells via the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.
S9157 Neoandrographolide Neoandrographolide, a principle diterpenoids isolated from A. paniculata, exerts a wide range of therapeutic actions, including immunosuppressant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative stress, antipyretic, anti-edematogenic, and anti-nociceptive activities.
S9159 momordin-Ic Momordin Ic, a natural triterpenoid saponin, is a novel SENP1 (SUMO-specific protease 1) inhibitor that inhibited proliferation of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
S5742 Deferoxamine mesylate Deferoxamine mesylate is the mesylate salt of Deferoxamine, which forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent.
S9160 Ziyu-glycoside I Ziyuglycoside I is one of the major active ingredients in Sanguisorba officinalis and could be used as an active ingredient for cosmetics.
S9161 Ziyuglycoside II Ziyuglycoside II is an active compound of Sanguisorba officinalis L. that has anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antibiosis, and homeostasis properties.
S9162 Rubimaillin Rubimaillin, found in the Chinese medical plant Rubia cordifola, is a dual inhibitor of ACAT1 and ACAT2, but is more selective for the ACAT2 isozyme.
S9163 Rhapontigenin Rhapontigenin, produced from rhapontin isolated from a methanol extract of Rheum undulatum roots by enzymatic transformation, is a selective inactivator of cytochrome P450 1A1 (IC50 = 400 nM).
S9164 Curdione Curdione, one of the major components of Curcuma zedoaria, shows an excellent antithrombotic activity in vivo.
S9165 Poncirin Poncirin, extracted from trifoliate orange, has anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9167 Columbin Columbin, a diterpenoid furanolactone, is a potential anti-inflammatory drug.
S9168 Periplogenin Periplogenin, isolated from Lagenaria siceraria, has potent anti-psoriatic effects in vitro and in vivo.
S9171 Harpagoside Harpagoside, a natural product found in the plant Harpagophytum procumbens, has potent anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
S9172 Phellodendrine Phellodendrine, a quaternary ammonium alkaloid extracted from the dried bark of Phellodendrom chinensis Schneid and Phellodendrom amurense Rupr, has the effect of suppressing cellular immune response, reducing blood pressure and antinephritis.
S9173 Sec-O-Glucosylhamaudol Sec-O-Glucosylhamaudol is one of the major bioactive compounds of the Saposhnikoviae Radix.
S9174 Xanthotoxol Xanthotoxol, a biologically active linear furocoumarin found in a large number of plants, shows strong pharmacological activities as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, 5-HT antagonistic, and neuroprotective effects.
S9175 Macranthoidin A Macranthoidin A, found in the herbs of Lonicera japonica Thunb., has anti-inflammation activity.
S9176 Pimpinellin Pimpinellin is a furocoumarin that acts as antagonist of proteins with GABA receptor activity.
S9177 Gypenoside XLIX Gypenoside XLIX, a naturally occurring gynosaponin, is a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activator.
S9178 Sinapine thiocyanate Sinapine thiocyanate is the thiocyanate salt form of Sinapine, which shows favorable biological activities such as antioxidant and radio-protective activities.
S9179 Catharanthine hemitartrate Catharanthine hemitartrate is the starting material for the synthesis of the antitumor drugs vinblastine and vincristine.
S9180 Tussilagone Tussilagone, isolated from the flower of buds of Tussilago farfara (Compositae), is a sesquiterpenoid that is used as a traditional oriental medicine for asthma and bronchitis. It shows anti-inflammatory activity in in vitro studies.
S9181 Periplocin Periplocin, extracted from the traditional herbal medicine cortex periplocae, has cardiac and anticancer activity. Periplocin could significantly boost proliferation, migration and stimulate collagen production in fibroblast L929 cells, which is dependent on activation of Src/ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways mediated by Na/K-ATPase, and thus promoting wound healing.
S9182 Crebanine Crebanine, an aporphine alkaloid isolated from the crude hexane extract of the dried tuber of Stephania venosa, exhibits anti-cancer effects.
S9183 Ruscogenin Ruscogenin, a major steroidal sapogenin of traditional Chinese herb Radix Ophiopogon japonicus, has been reported to exert significant anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic activities.
S9184 Forsythoside B Forsythoside B has potent neuroprotective effects and has anti-inflammation, antioxidant, and antisepsis properties.
S9185 Nitidine Chloride Nitidine Chloride, a benzophenanthridine alkaloid found in species of the genus Zanthoxylum, has an anti-malarial activity.
S9455 Isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperoside Isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperoside is the major active substance of Puhuang, a traditional herb medicine widely used in clinical practice to tackle many chronic diseases. It has significant biological and pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, antiatherogenic and antimicrobial effects.
S9511 Crocin I  
S9515 Polyphyllin VII Polyphyllin VII, the the main member of polyphyllin family, shows strong anticancer activity against several carcinomas, including lung cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer, cervical cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and osteosarcoma.
S5129 D-Aspartic acid D-Aspartic acid (D-Asp) is an endogenous amino acid occurring in several tissues and cells of both invertebrates and vertebrates. It can regulate testosterone synthesis and may act on a stimulatory receptor (NMDA).
S9055 Salvianolic acid A Salvianolic acid A, a water-soluble compound extracted from Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), is an antioxidant and free radical scavenging compound that also acts as an inhibitor of the protein-protein interaction mediated by SH2 domains of Src-family kinases Src and Lck.
S9052 Auraptene Auraptene is a natural coumarin derived from citrus plants and possesses valuable pharmacological properties, including anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antihelicobacter, antigenotoxic, and neuroprotective effects.
S9045 Triptophenolide Triptophenolide, derived from Tripterygium wilfordii, is a pan-antagonist for wild-type and mutant androgen receptors with the IC50 values of 260 nM for AR-WT, 480 nM for AR-F876L, 388 nM for AR-T877A, and 437 nM for W741C+T877A.
S9061 Hydroxy safflor yellow A Hydroxy safflor yellow A, a monomer extracted from Carthamus tinctorius L., possesses various kinds of bio-activities, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory actions, anti-platelet aggregation, anti-tumor and anti-myocardial injury effects.
S9062 4-Hydroxyisoleucine 4-Hydroxyisoleucine, an atypical branched-chain amino acid derived from fenugreek, has effects on the glucose and lipid metabolism, stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion and reduces insulin resistance in muscle and/or liver.
S9063 Harringtonine Harringtonine is a natural cephalotaxine alkaloid that inhibits protein biosynthesis. It also exhibits antiviral and anticancer activities.
S9064 Trilobatin Trilobatin, a natural flavonoid lipid molecule, is an HIV-1 entry inhibitor targeting the HIV-1 Gp41 envelope and exihibits anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effect.
S9065 Songorine Songorine, a ubiquitous alkaloid in the genus Aconitum, is a novel antagonist of the GABAA receptor in rat brain and has antiarrhythmic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, regenerative and CNS-modulating properties.
S9066 Specnuezhenide Specnuezhenide, one of the main ingredients of Chinese medicine, has anti-angiogenic and vision improvement effects.
S9067 Pseudoprotodioscin Pseudoprotodioscin is a steroidal saponin from plants and exhibits anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities.
S9068 Trillin Trillin is an active ingredient isolated from Dioscorea nipponica Makino and acts as a potential anti-inflammatory drug for chronic hepatic inflammation.
S9069 Jatrorrhizine chloride Jatrorrhizine chloride is the hydrochloride salt form of jatrorrhizine, which is an inhibitor of AChE with IC50 of 872 nM and demonstrates >115-fold selectivity for AChE over BuChE.
S9070 Isoxanthohumol Isoxanthohumol is one of the most important prenylflavonoids found in hops. It exhibits an antiproliferative activity against human breast cancer cell lines, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer cells. Isoxanthohumol shows an antiviral activity towards herpes viruses (HSV1 and HSV2) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).
S9072 Sweroside Sweroside, a bioactive herbal ingredient isolated from Fructus Corni, exhibits diverse biological activities, such as anti-fungal, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects.
S9073 Lithospermoside Lithospermoside, extracted from the roots of Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum and L.officinale (Borginaceae), and Thalictrum rugosum and T. dasycarpum (Ranunculaceae), has anti-oxidant, anti-tumor promoting activities.
S9074 Buddlejasaponin IVb Buddlejasaponin Ivb, a major component of Pleurospermum kamtschaticum, exerts anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects against cancer cells.
S9075 Mulberroside A Mulberroside A, isolated from the ethanol extract of Morus alba roots, is widely employed as an active ingredient in cosmetic products due to its anti-tyrosinase and anti-oxidant activities.
S9076 Typhaneoside Typhaneoside is a flavonoid glycoside plant extract that has an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of human umbilical arterial smooth muscle cell(HUASMC).
S9077 Plantamajoside Plantamajoside, a hydroxycinnamic acid, is used as a biomarker in chemotaxonomical studies, and is a compound with numerous biological applications and considerable pharmacological potential.
S9078 Epigoitrin Epigoitrin, the main bioactive constituent of Radix isatidis, exerts antiviral, anticancer, and antithyroid activities.
S9079 Ginsenoside Rb2 Ginsenoside Rb2 is a ginsenoside found in Panax ginseng that has a role as a plant metabolite, an antiviral agent and a hypoglycemic agent.
S9080 Anhydroicaritin Anhydroicaritin, a prenylated flavonoid natural product, is commonly recognized as one of the effective compounds of Epimedii Herba and exhibits a variety of biological activities, such as activation of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of growth, protection against beta amyloid-induced neurotoxicity, and promotion of neuronal and cardiac cellular differentiation. It is a potent inhibitor of transcription factor SREBPs.
S9081 Anemoside B4 Anemoside B4, extracted from the herb of Pulsatilla chinensis (Bge.) Regel, is a potential antiviral constituent and inhibits the secretion of IL-10.
S9082 Manninotriose Manninotriose, found in many foods, is a novel and important player in the RFO metabolism of red dead deadnettle.
S9083 Rhapontin Rhapontin, a stibene-type glycoside distributed widely in medicinal plants of Rheum genus (Polygonaceae), has anti-inflammatory effect and anti-proliferative activity.
S9084 Rhoifolin Rhoifolin, a natural glycoside of apigenin, has been obtained from the green leaves of Rhus succedanea and possesses a variety of significant biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and anticancer effects.
S9085 Corynoline Corynoline is one of the major active components of many ethnopharmacological plants and exhibits anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities, etc.
S9111 Isorhamnetin Isorhamnetin, a natural flavonol aglycon, is a tyrosinase inhibitor and has antioxidant activity.
S9112 Kaempferitrin Kaempferitrin, isolated from the leaves of Hedyotis verticillata and from Onychium japonicum, has antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9113 Ononin Ononin is an isoflavone glycoside with anti-inflammtory effects.
S9101 Ingenol Ingenol, a plant-derived diterpenoid, is a weak PKC activator and possesses important anticancer activity.
S9019 Quillaic acid  
S9020 Dihydrotanshinone I Dihydrotanshinone I is a naturally occurring compound extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, also known as Chinese sage, red sage root, and the Chinese herbal Dan Shen. It is a potent inhibitor of the HuR:RNA interaction, active in the low nanomolar range, mainly by limiting the association rate of HuR with RNA.
S9021 (20R)Ginsenoside Rg3 (20R)Ginsenoside Rg3 is extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, red ginseng. It has a role as an antioxidant and a plant metabolite.
S9022 20S-Ginsenoside Rg3 20S-Ginsenoside Rg3 is extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, red ginseng. It exihits neuromodulatory, cognition enhancing, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anti-angiogenic, and anticancer activities.
S9023 20S-Ginsenoside Rh2 20S-Ginsenoside Rh2 is a ginsenoside found in Panax species and inhibits cancer development, progression, and metastasis.
S9026 Hastatoside Hastatoside is a characteristic constituent of V. officinalis and exhibit various biological activities including sleep-promoting, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity.
S9029 Prim-o-glucosylcimifugin Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin is a major constituent in Radix Saposhnikovia that has been long used for the treatment of pyrexia, rheumatism, and cancer in traditional Chinese medicine. It shows potential anticancer activity. Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin downregulates the mRNA and protein expression inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner.
S9031 Gambogenic acid Gambogenic Acid, identified from Gamboge, is an inhibitor of the FGFR signaling pathway in erlotinib-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and exhibits anti-tumor effects.
S9034 Isochlorogenic acid C Isochlorogenic acid C, which is a di-O-caffeoyl derivative of chlorogenic acid, is a well-known antioxidant from herbal plants and shows anti-viral effects against EV71.
S9039 Albiflorin Albiflorin, a natural product isolated from Paeoniae Radix, is a novel 5-HT and NE reuptake inhibitor with high selectivity.
S9040 Maslinic acid Maslinic Acid, a Natural Triterpene, exerts a wide range of biological activities, i.e. antitumor, antidiabetic, antioxidant, cardioprotective, neuroprotective, antiparasitic and growth-stimulating. MA significantly suppresses the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB p65 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.
S9054 Pectolinarin Pectolinarin is a major compound in Cirsium setidens with anti-inflammatory activity.
S9050 Boldine Boldine, isolated from Peumus boldus, has alpha-adrenergic antagonist activities in vascular tissue with anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, cytoprotective, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects.
S9049 Parishin A Parishin A, isolated from the rhizomes of Gastrodia elata, has good neuroprotective effects against brain disorders.
S9060 Nystose Nystose, a constituent of seeds of onions and roots of Asparagus, is a low-calorie sweetening agent for food and chewing gum.
S9092 Norisoboldine Norisoboldine, a natural aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist, attenuates ulcerative colitis (UC) and induces the generation of Treg cells.
S9093 Nardosinone Nardosinone, isolated from Nardostachys root, an important Chinese herbal medicine, is an enhancer of nerve growth factor and possesses a wide range of pharmacological effects, including sedative, adaptogen-like, anti-depressive, anti-leukemic, anti-tumorous, and anti-trypanosomal activities.
S9097 Alisol B Acetate Alisol B acetate, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizoma, induces Bax up-regulation and nuclear translocation, the activation of initiator caspase-8 and caspase-9, and executor caspase-3, suggesting the involvement of both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways.
S9098 Dehydrodiisoeugenol Dehydrodiisoeugenol, a naturally occurring lignan from Aristolochia taliscana (Aristolochiaceae), acts as a potent anti-inflammatory agent and shows various pharmacological activities, including anti-lipid peroxidation, anti-bacteial function, and hepatic drug metabolism enzyme inhibition.
S9099 Orientin Orientin, isolated from medicinal plants, has various activities including anti-oxidant, anti-aging, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammation, vasodilatation and cardioprotective, antiadipogenesis, antinociceptive, radiation protective, neuroprotective, and antidepressant-like effects.
S9100 Fraxinellone Fraxinellone is a natural product isolated from the D. dasycarpus plant, which has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities.
S9102 Magnolin Magnolin is a natural compound abundantly found in Magnolia flos targeting ERK1 (IC50=87 nM) and ERK2 (IC50=16.5 nM) and inhibits cell transformation induced by tumor promoters such as epidermal growth factor (EGF).
S9103 Ginsenoside Ro Ginsenoside Ro, one of the high-abundance saponins in ginseng, is widely used as a dietary supplement and has many health-promoting effects.
S9104 Maltopentaose Maltopentaose is a substrate for energy metabolism and carbon for E. coli.
S9105 Ginsenoside CK Ginsenoside CK is a ginsenoside found in Panax species and has a role as a plant metabolite, an antineoplastic agent, a hepatoprotective agent, an anti-allergic agent and an anti-inflammatory agent.
S9108 Timosaponin A3 Timosaponin A3, one of the major steroidal saponin components isolated from Anemarrhena asphodeloides, displays promising pharmacological activity in improving learning, memory, and antineoplastic activity.
S9056 Tuberostemonine Tuberostemonine, a natural product found in Stemona phyllantha and Stemona tuberosa, is an alkaloid and a metabolite.
S9053 Irisflorentin Irisflorentin derived from the roots of Belamcanda chinensis (L.) DC. is an herb which has been used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders in traditional Chinese medicine.
S9051 Asperulosid Asperuloside, an iridoid glycoside found in Herba Paederiae, is a component from traditional Chinese herbal medicine and exerts anti-inflammatory effect.
S9048 (+)-Gallocatechin (+)-Gallocatechin, found notably in green tea, has moderate affinity to the human cannabinoid receptor and acts as an antioxidant.
S9057 Sinigrin Sinigrin is a glucosinolate found in some plants of the Brassicaceae family and exerts various activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and wound healing effects. Sinigrin is a glucosinolate found in some plants of the Brassicaceae family and exerts various activities including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and wound healing effects.
S9058 Gallocatechin gallate Gallocatechin galleate (GCG) is a polyphenol originally derived from a variety of sources, including green tea, coffee, safflower, and almonds.
S9086 Dihydrocapsaicin Dihydrocapsaicin, found in pepper (C. annuum), is a potential nutriceutical.DHC is a selective TRPV1 agonist.
S9088 Calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside Calycosin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside, an isoflavone glycoside isolated from A. mongholicus and A. membranaceus, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective biological activities.
S9089 Magnoflorine Magnoflorine, an important compound in Aristolochia, was usually used as an anxiolytic chemical. It shows significant antioxidant activity as a DPPH free radical scavenger and inhibits α-tyrosinase.
S9090 Corilagin Corilagin, discovered in many medicinal plants such as Phyllanthus speices etc., has multiple activities including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, hepatoprotective and others. It is an inhibitor of TNF-α.
S9091 10-Gingerol 10-Gingerol is a bioactive compound found in ginger with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.
S9095 Senegenin Senegenin is a natural product from Polygala tenuifolia used in Chinese medicine with antioxidative and antiinflammatory activity.
S9096 ligustroflavone Ligustroflavone, isolated from the leaves of Turpinia montana, shows high antioxidant capacity and is reported to be an AMPK activator.
S9106 Eleutheroside E Eleutheroside E, a principal component of Eleutherococcus senticosus (ES), has anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB and protecting against myocardial infarction.
S9107 Glycitein Glycitein is an aglycone isoflavone found in soy and red clover and exhibits a wide variety of beneficial properties, including neuroprotective, antioxidative, anticancer, anti-osteoporotic, and anti-atherosclerotic activities.
S9109 1-Kestose 1-Kestose, a fructooligosaccharide, could efficiently stimulates Faecalibacterium prausnitzii as well as Bifidobacteria in humans.
S9110 Morin Morin, a constituent of various woods, has a role as an antioxidant, a metabolite, an antihypertensive agent, a hepatoprotective agent, a neuroprotective agent, an anti-inflammatory agent, an antineoplastic agent, an antibacterial agent, a DNA topoisomerase inhibitor and an angiogenesis modulating agent.
S4700 4-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter with central nervous system (CNS) inhibitory activity.
S5580 Arabic gum Arabic gum, derived from exudates of Acacia senegal or Acacia seyal trees, is a complex polysaccharide indigestible to both humans and animals and considered as a safe dietary fiber.
S3774 Dehydroandrographolide Succinate Potasium Salt Dehydroandrographolide Succinate (DAS), extracted from herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata (Burm f) Nees, is widely used for the treatment of viral pneumonia and viral upper respiratory tract infections because of its immunostimulatory, anti-infective and anti-inflammatory effect.
S9008 20-Deoxyingenol 20-Deoxyingenol is a natural compound isolated from the seeds of Euphorbia lathyris L.
S5145 Protoporphyrin IX Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is a heterocyclic organic compound, which consists of four pyrrole rings, and is the final intermediate in the heme biosynthetic pathway.
S5288 Estropipate Estropipate is a natural estrogenic substance composed of estrone sulfate and piperazine and is used mainly in menopausal hormone therapy in the treatment of menopausal symptoms.
S3917 Tetrahydrocurcumin Tetrahydrocurcumin, a major metabolite of curcumin, possesses strong antioxidant and cardioprotective properties. Tetrahydrocurcumin is a Curcuminoid found in turmeric (Curcuma longa) that is produced by the reduction of Curcumin. Tetrahydrocurcumin inhibit CYP2C9 and CYP3A4.
S5675 Yamogenin Yamogenin, a sapogenin found in fenugreek, inhibits lipid accumulation through the suppression of gene expression in fatty acid synthesis in hepatocytes.
S5373 Pseudolaric Acid B Pseudolaric Acid B, a natural diterpenoid compound isolated from the root and trunk bark of Pseudolaric kaempferi Gordon, has anti-fungal and anti-fertility properties.
S5676 Zearalenone Zearalenone is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin that acts by binding the estrogen receptor (ER).
S5678 trans-Zeatin-riboside Zeatin Riboside is the most active and ubiquitous form of the naturally occurring cytokinins that promote cell division, stimulate shoot proliferation, inhibit root formation, slow the aging process, and activate gene expression and metabolic activity. Zeatin riboside has an immunomodulatory effect by agonizing the mammalian adenosine A2A receptor.
S5705 Raceanisodamine Raceanisodamine is the active ingredient of Chinese herbal extracts that has vasoactive activity used to treat acute disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients in bacteremic shock.
S3843 Madecassoside Madecassoside is the main active triterpene constituent of Centella asiatica herbs, a traditional Chinese medicine for wound healing and scar management.
S5560 Midecamycin Midecamycin is a naturally occuring macrolide antibiotic that acts by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis.
S5559 Tetrahydropalmatine Tetrahydropalmatine, a plant alkaloid used as an ingredient in dietary supplement products, is a potent and selective D1 receptor antagonist.
S5466 Saikosaponin A Saikosaponin A is a triterpene saponin derived from the medicinal plant, Bupleurum chinensis DC. (Umbelliferae). It has a variety of pharmacological benefits, including anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and anti-bacterial activities.
S5622 Prohydrojasmon Prohydrojasmon is a newly launched plant growth regulator, which has jasmonic acid activity.
S5493 Atropine sulfate Atropine Sulfate is the sulfate salt of atropine, which is a natural alkaloid anticholinergic agent and has potent antimuscarinic effects.
S5102 Stachyose Stachyose is a natural sugar found in many foods like beans and vegetables.
S4545 Warfarin Warfarin is one of the most widely used anticoagulant drugs worldwide, used in the prevention of thrombosis and thromboembolism, the formation of blood clots in the blood vessels and their migration elsewhere in the body.
S3991 Ketoisophorone Ketoisophorone, also known as 4-Oxoisophorone, is the major component of saffron spice.
S3992 D-(+)-Trehalose dihydrate Trehalose is a non-reducing sugar. It is thought to provide plants and animals with the ability to withstanding periods of dehydration.
S3993 Ethyl Vanillate Ethyl vanillin, a vanillin analog, is a flavouring agent and a fungicidal agent that exhibits strong antioxidant activity. Ethyl Vanillate inhibits 17β-HSD2 with an IC50 1.3 µM.
S3994 Methyl Cholate Methyl Cholate is methyl ester form of Cholic acid that is a primary bile acid mainly produced by the liver.
S3995 Guaiazulene Guaiazulene is a bicyclic sesquiterpene that is a constituent of some essential oils, mainly oil of guaiac and chamomile oil, which also serve as its commercial sources.
S3996 Thioctic acid Thioctic acid (DL-α-Lipoic acid) is a cyclic disulfide antioxidant that interconverts with its reduced dithiol form.
S3998 (+)-α-Lipoic acid R(+)-α-lipoic acid, a physiological form of thioctic acid, is a strong antioxidant that relieves diabetic neuropathic symptoms. It shows superior antioxidative effects to its racemate. α-Lipoic Acid is an antioxidant, which is an essential cofactor of mitochondrial enzyme complexes. α-Lipoic Acid inhibits NF-κB-dependent HIV-1 LTR activation.
S5157 Thymol Thymol, a naturally occurring monocyclic phenolic compound derived from Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory property in vivo and vitro.
S5161 1-Octacosanol 1-Octacosanol is a straight-chain aliphatic 28-carbon primary fatty alcohol that is used as a nutritional supplement. It is reported to possess cholesterol-lowering effects, antiaggregatory properties, cytoprotective use, and ergogenic properties.
S5172 1-Triacontanol 1-Triacontanol is a fatty alcohol found in plant cuticle waxes and in beeswax. It is a growth stimulant for many plants, most notably roses.
S5143 Citropten Citropten is a natural organic compound which belongs to coumarins and derivatives class.
S5142 D-(+)-Melezitose Melezitose, also spelled melicitose, is a nonreducing trisaccharide sugar that is produced by many plant sap eating insects.
S5141 Pyrithioxin Pyritinol (Pyrithioxin) is a neurotropic agent which reduces permeability of blood-brain barrier to phosphate. It has no vitamin B6 activity.
S5132 Casanthranol Casanthranol is a purified mixture of te antranol glycosides derived from Cascara sagrada.
S5128 Orsellinic acid ethyl ester Orsellinic acid, a phenolic acid, is of importance in the biochemistry of lichens, from which it can be extracted.
S4954 Djenkolic Acid Djenkolic Acid is a naturally occurring sulfur-containing amino acid extracted from djenkol beans. It is toxic to humans, often causing kidney failure.
S4827 Manganese chloride Manganese chloride occurs in nature as the mineral. It is used as a precursor for other manganese compounds.
S4969 Tropine Tropine is a naturally occurring tropane alkaloid that serves as an intermediate in the synthesis of a variety of bioactive alkaloids, many of which have potent neurological actions.
S4940 Maltol Maltol is a naturally occurring organic compound that is flavour enhancer and flavouring agent.
S4859 TriacetonaMine TriacetonaMine, a member of the class of compounds known as piperidinones, is an extremely weak acidic compound found in green vegetables and tea.
S4863 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid, a chemical compound found in olive oil and beer, is an intermediate used to synthesize atenolol and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid is an inducer of Nrf2 expression.
S4864 2-Furoic acid 2-Furoic acid is an organic compound most widely found in food products as a preservative and a flavoring agent.
S4949 Nonanoic acid Nonanoic acid is a naturally occurring fatty acid found in both vegetable and animal fats.
S4862 Squalene Squalene, a naturally occurring substance found in plants, animals and humans, is a component of some adjuvants that is added to vaccines to enhance the immune response.
S4943 Isovanillin Isovanillin is a reversible inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase. It is largely used as pharmaceutical intermediates and also applied in food and beverage industry, synthetic fragrances, chemical.
S4951 L-Threonine L-Threonine is an essential amino acid which is in its active form. It is important for the formation of collagen, elastin, and tooth enamel, and aids liver and lipotropic function when combined with aspartic acid and methionine.
S4952 Fumaric acid Fumaric acid is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle used by cells to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from food; also a product of the urea cycle.
S4953 Usnic acid Usnic acid is a furandione found uniquely in lichen that is used widely in cosmetics, deodorants, toothpaste and medicinal creams as well as some herbal products. It exhibits antiviral, antiprotozoal, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Usnic acid inhibits breast tumor angiogenesis and growth by suppressing VEGFR2-mediated AKT and ERK1/2 signaling pathways.
S4960 Jasmone Jasmone is a natural organic compound extracted from the volatile portion of the oil from jasmine flowers.
S4957 Linalool Linalool, a monoterpene compound commonly found as major component of essential oils of several aromatic species, is a competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors.
S4941 Farnesol Farnesol is a natural sesquiterpene alcohol that is potent in treating antimetabolic disorders, anti-inflammation, showing antioxidant, anticancer, and antibiotic effects.
S5122 Abietic Acid Abietic acid, an abietane diterpenoid, inhibited soybean 5-lipoxygenase with an IC50 of 29.5 ± 1.29 μM.
S5126 Aleuritic Acid Aleuritic Acid, a major constituent acid of lac resin (shellac), is isolated from the resin and mainly used in the perfumery industry as a starting material for the preparation of "musk" aroma compounds as well as medicinal and bioactive compounds.
S5134 D(-)-Arabinose D-Arabinose is a reducing sugar useful as a substrate in analysis of arabinose isomerases and synthesis of D-erythroascorbic acid in yeast.
S5135 Hydroferulic acid Hydroferulic acid, also known as Dihydroferulic acid, is classified as a member of the phenylpropanoic acids. It is slightly soluble in water and acidic.
S4828 Sodium carbonate Sodium Carbonate is the disodium salt of carbonic acid with alkalinizing property.
S4939 cis-Aconitic acid Cis-Aconitic acid is an intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle produced by the dehydration of citric acid.
S4946 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid is a natural phenol found in Phyllanthus acidus and in the aquatic fern Salvinia molesta, also a product of human aspirin metabolism. It is a potentially useful iron-chelating drug and has antimicrobial properties.
S4962 Agmatine sulfate Agmatine sulfate is a bioactive metabolite of the arginine amino acid. It has been shown to increase nitric oxide, reduce blood sugar levels and even increase growth hormone levels.
S4893 Cytosine Cytosine is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell.
S4958 Glycocholic acid Glycocholic acid is a natural secondary bile acid involved in the emulsification of fats.
S4820 Diastase Diastase, a natural enzyme, catalyses the breakdown of starch into maltose.
S4959 Skatole Skatole (3-Methylindole) is a mildly toxic white crystalline organic compound that occurs naturally in feces. It has a fairly broad bacteriostatic effect.
S4963 Purpurin Purpurin is one of the natural colorants extracted from madder roots and other Rubiaceae family plants. It exhibits anti-angiogenic, antifungal, antibiotic, and antioxidative activities. Purpurin strongly inhibits the activities of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1.
S4966 4-Methylesculetin 4-methylesculetin is one of the coumarin derivatives with great anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
S4968 Cholesteryl Acetate Cholesteryl Acetate, present in diverse fluids, organs, and foods, is a natural and normal human cholesteryl ester.
S4830 Maltose Maltose, an non-essential nutrient that provides energy, is an intermediate in the intestinal digestion of glycogen and starch, and is found in germinating grains (and other plants and vegetables).
S5160 4-Methoxysalicylic acid 4-Methoxysalicylic acid, an arabinose derivative, is used in the synthesis of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives.
S5162 Isovanillic acid Isovanillic acid, a metabolite of isovanillin, is a selective inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase.
S5163 7-Methoxycoumarin 7-Methoxycoumarin, also known as Herniarin, is a methoxy derivative of coumarin and substrate for dealkylase. It has been used in the synthesis of anti-first-pass effect compounds and detergents.
S3950 Maltitol Maltitol is a sugar alcohol (polyol) used as a sugar substitute. It is especially useful in the production of sweets, including sugarless hard candies, chewing gum, chocolates.
S3951 Tannic acid Tannic acid, a polyphenolic compound, is a CXCL12/CXCR4 inhibitor with antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory and antitumor activity.
S5113 Propyl gallate Propyl gallate is an antioxidant used in foods especially animal fats and vegetable oils, also in a wide variety of cosmetics and beauty care products.
S4799 Indole-3-acetic acid Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is the most common plant hormone of the auxin class and it regulates various aspects of plant growth and development.
S5167 Benzyl cinnamate Benzyl cinnamate, a flavouring agent isolated from various plant species, is used in heavy oriental perfumes and as a fixative.
S5168 Anthraquinone Anthraquinones are the main active constituents in herbs often used to relieve constipation.
S5174 Kojic acid Kojic acid is a fungal metabolite that inhibits tyrosinase with an IC50 value of 30.6 µM for mushroom tyrosinase. It is a synthetic intermediate used for production of food additives.
S5175 (-)-Ambroxide Ambroxide, a naturally occurring terpenoid, is one of the key constituents responsible for the odor of ambergris and an autoxidation product of ambrein.
S4762 2,4-Dihydroxyacetophenone 2,4-Dihydroxyacetophenone is a plant metabolite that can act as a qualitative reagent for ferric iron.
S4765 Syringaldehyde Syringaldehyde is an organic compound that occurs naturally in trace amounts. It possesses worthy bioactive properties and is, therefore, used in pharmaceuticals, food, cosmetics, textiles, pulp and paper industries, and even in biological control applications. Syringaldehyde is a polyphenolic compound belonging to the group of flavonoids and is found in different plant species like Manihot esculenta and Magnolia officinalis. Syringaldehyde moderately inhibits COX-2 activity with an IC50 of 3.5 μg/mL[2]. Anti-hyperglycemic and anti-inflammatory activities.
S4768 Melibiose Melibiose is a nondigestible disaccharide that consists of one galactose and one glucose moiety in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
S5110 Safflower Yellow Safflor Yellow (SY), the main active constituent of the traditional Chinese medicine Safflower, is known as a neuroprotective agent that indirectly attenuates neuroinflammation.
S5116 Bilibubin Bilirubin is a tetrapyrrole and a breakdown product of heme catabolism that acts as a physiological, chain-breaking antioxidant.
S4769 L-5-Hydroxytryptophan 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan, is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor as well as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
S4770 Creatine phosphate disodium salt Phosphocreatine, also known as creatine phosphate (CP) or PCr (Pcr), is a phosphorylated creatine molecule that serves as a rapidly mobilizable reserve of high-energy phosphates in skeletal muscle and the brain to recycle adenosine triphosphate, the energy currency of the cell.
S4771 β-thujaplicin β-Thujaplicin (β-TH, Hinokitiol) is a toxic tropolone derivative present in the heartwood of western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and is used as a preservative and antimicrobial additive in a number of commercial goods. Hinokitiol is a component of essential oils isolated from Chymacyparis obtusa, reduces Nrf2 expression, and decreases DNMT1 and UHRF1 mRNA and protein expression, with anti-infective, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor activities.
S4772 alpha-Asarone Alpha (α)-asarone is one of the main pharmacologically active compounds present in Acorus calamus Linn (Acoraceae), Acorus tatarinowii Schott (Acoraceae), and Acorus gramineus Solander. It has anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, anxiolytic and nootropic effects.
S4773 Adrenosterone Adrenosterone is endogenous steroid hormone that has been promoted as a dietary supplement capable of reducing body fat and increasing muscle mass.
S4774 Xanthurenic Acid Xanthurenic acid, a molecule arising from tryptophan metabolism by transamination of 3-hydroxykynurenine, activates mGlu2/3 Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu2 and mGlu3).
S4776 Harmaline Harmaline, a natural occurrence β-carboline alkaloid, is a central nervous system stimulant and an acetylcholinesterase (AChR) inhibitor; also inhibits histamine N-methyltransferase.
S4777 Plumbagin Plumbagin, a quinoid constituent isolated from the root of the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica L, exerts anticancer and antiproliferative activities in animal models and in cell culture.
S3896 (1R,2R)-trans-N-Boc-1,2-cyclohexanediamine (1R,2R)-trans-N-Boc-1,2-cyclohexanediamine is an intermediate in organic synthesis.
S3897 (-)-Arctigenin (-)-Arctigenin, a lignan found in certain plants of the Asteraceae, exerts biological activities including anti-inflammatory, antiviral and anticancer.
S4781 Xanthoxyline Xanthoxylin, isolated from Zanthoxylum piperitum (Japanese pepper tree) and Sapium sebiferum (Chinese tallowtree), is a cytotoxic and fungicidal compound with the characteristics of a typical phytoalexin.
S3899 Hederagenin Hederagenin is a highly water insoluble triterpenoid compound that can be found in various plants including Hedera helix and Chenopodium quinoa. It exhibits a variety of biological activities, including potent antitumor properties both in vitro and in vivo.
S3900 Betulonic acid Betulonic acid, derived from betulinol, a pentacyclic styrene, has shown a highly specific anti-prostate cancer activity in in vitro cell cultures.
S4783 Benzyl isothiocyanate Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) is an isothiocyanate originally found in cruciferous vegetables that exhibits immunomodulatory, anti-parasitic, antibiotic, antioxidative, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-angiogenic, anti-metastatic, anticancer chemotherapeutic, and chemopreventive activities.
S3902 Ursonic acid Ursonic acid, present in many plants, is a pentacyclic triterpenoid that can be used as a cosmetics additive and serve as a starting material for synthesis of more potent bioactive derivatives, such as experimental antitumor agents. Ursonic acid induces the apoptosis of human cancer cells through multiple signaling pathways.
S4784 Phloracetophenone Phloracetophenone, or 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THA), the aglycone component of phloracetophenone glucoside, is a naturally occurring compound obtained from the rhizome of Curcuma comosa (Family Zingiberaceae). Phloracetophenone can stimulate CYP7A1 activity. Phloracetophenone induces cholestasis in rats mediated through Mrp2.
S3903 Lycorine Lycorine is a toxic crystalline alkaloid found in various Amaryllidaceae species that weakly inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ascorbic acid biosynthesis.
S3904 Isoimperatorin Isoimperatorin, a natural furanocoumarin that can be isolated from a variety of plant parts, has analgesic, antimicrobial, vascular relaxing and anticancer activities. Isoimperatorin is a methanolic extract of the roots of Angelica dahurica shows significant inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) with the IC50 of 74.6 μM.
S3905 Iso-Steviol Isosteviol (ISV) is mainly obtained by acid hydrolysis of stevioside, the sweet food additive extracted from the plant Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni (Bertoni). It possesses various biological activities including anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hypertensive, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects.
S4788 L-α-Phosphatidylcholine L-α-phosphatidylcholine, a surfactant and a constituent of the liposomal carrier system, has shown hepatoprotection in the various hepatotoxicity model.
S4791 S-allyl-L-cysteine S-Allyl cysteine (SAC), a natural constituent of fresh garlic, has antioxidant and anticancer properties in animals. S-Allyl cysteine has an anticancer effect through the induction of apoptosis and a cell cycle arrest.
S4793 Cedryl acetate Cedryl Acetate, an acetylated from cedarwood oil, has been applied to chemistry for its properties as a chiral and cell signaling reagent with antifungal and immunotoxicity functions. Cedryl acetate exhibits α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
S4809 3-Indolepropionic acid 3-Indolepropionic acid (IPA), a gut microbial metabolite, is a potent neuroprotective antioxidant and plant auxin.
S5124 DL-Citrulline L-Citrulline (Cit) is a naturally occurring nonessential amino acid which is the key intermediate in the urea cycle.
S5136 Calcium folinate Calcium folinate is a metabolically active, reduced form of folic acid that is rapidly absorbed and extensively metabolized in the liver to other folic acid derivatives.
S3980 Pyridoxine Pyridoxine, also known as vitamin B6, is a form of vitamin B6 found commonly in food and used as dietary supplement. It is a cofactor for both glutamic acid decarboxylase and GABA transaminase.
S3967 Flavone Flavone, a class of flavonoids, mainly found in spices and red or purple plant foods with antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-tumor, anti-microbial, estrogenic, acetyl cholinesterase, anti-inflammatory activities and are also used in cancer, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders etc.
S3975 Protocatechuic acid Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a dihydroxybenzoic acid, is a type of widely distributed naturally occurring phenolic acid.
S3976 Acetylvanillin Acetylvanillin, also known as Vanillin acetate, is found in pulses and is a flavouring material.
S3977 (-)-Borneol (-)-Borneol, one of enantiomers of borneol, has a camphoraceous and evident woody odor. (-)-Borneol has a highly efficacious positive modulating action at GABA receptor with an EC50 of 237 μM.
S4821 Glycine Glycine is a non-essential, non-polar, non-optical, glucogenic amino acid that is primarily found in gelatin and silk fibroin. It is involved in the body's production of DNA, phospholipids and collagen, and in release of energy.
S4826 Aluminium hydroxide Aluminium hydroxide, found in nature as the mineral gibbsite, is amphoteric (i.e., it has both basic and acidic properties). It is used to treat symptoms of increased stomach acid, such as heartburn, upset stomach, sour stomach, or acid indigestion; also reduce phosphate levels in people with certain kidney conditions.
S3986 L(+)-Arabinose L-Arabinose (l-Ara) is a plant saccharide that is not found in animals. It is a component of cell wall and may be useful as a natural pharmaceutical.
S3987 L-Tryptophan L-tryprophan is an essential amino acid that acts like a natural mood regulator that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for nitrogen balance in adults.
S3989 L-Hisidine L-Hisidine is an α-amino acid needed in humans for growth and tissue repair. It is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
S3990 Trans-Anethole Trans-anethole is a phenylpropene derivative found in many essential oils, including anise oil. It has neuromodulatory, anxiolytic, antioxidative, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory activities.
S4972 Choline Glycerophosphate Choline Glycerophosphate is a choline derivative and one of the two major forms of choline storage (along with phosphocholine) in the cytosol.
S4981 Cyclogalegenol Cyclogalegenol, the aglycone derivative of astragaloside A, is found in various species of Astragalus and may activate telomerase.
S4982 2,2':5',2''-Terthiophene 2,2':5',2''-Terthiophene is a natural product occurring in marigold which shows UV-enhanced antibiotic activity.
S4983 Sorbic acid Sorbic acid is a naturally occurring compound that originated from the unripe berries of the Rowan Tree. It inhibits various bacteria, including sporeformers, at various stages of their life cycle (germination, outgrowth and cell division).
S2323 Methyl-Hesperidin Methyl Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside (flavonoid) (C28H34O15) found abundantly in citrus fruits. Its aglycone form is called hesperetin.
S5090 4-Isopropylbenzyl Alcohol 4-Isopropylbenzyl Alcohol, isolated from Eucalyptus camaldulensis, is a compound with insect repellent properties.
S5091 Geranyl acetate Geranyl acetate is a natural organic compound that is used primarily as a component of perfumes for creams and soaps and as a flavoring ingredient. Geranyl acetate exhibits anti-cancer effects by inducing cell apoptosis.
S5089 4-Isopropylbenzaldehyde Cuminaldehyde (4-Isopropylbenzaldehyde), a natural organic compound, is a kind of pharmaceutical intermediate with a pleasant smell and contributes to the aroma of essential oils.
S5086 p-Anisaldehyde p-Anisaldehyde (4-methoxybenzaldehyde), an extract from Pimpinella anisum seeds, exhibits antifungal activity against a number of yeast and mold strains in laboratory media, fruit purees and fruit juices.
S5220 D-Pantethine Pantethine is a naturally occurring compound synthesized in the body from pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) via addition of cysteamine and used as a dietary supplement for lowering blood cholesterol and triglycerides.
S3982 Batyl alcohol Batyl alcohol, isolated from shark liver oil, is also present in yellow bone marrow of animals and has been described as an inflammatory agent.
S5156 4-Methoxysalicylaldehyde 4-Methoxysalicylaldehyde, a naturally occurring product, has a range of industrial applications in the preparation of organic compounds, drugs and therapeutic agents.
S5154 Tetrahydropiperine Tetrahydropiperine, derived from piperine, can be used to treat convulsion, epilepsy, relieve pain, and control insects.
S5155 Raffinose Raffinose is a complex carbohydrate, a trisaccharide composed of galactose, fructose, and glucose. It can be broken apart into galactose and sucrose via the enzyme alpha-galactosidase.
S5226 L-carnosine L-carnosine is an antioxidant naturally found in skeletal muscle, brain tissue, and the heart that protects cells against oxidative stress.
S3970 Vindoline Vindoline is a chemical precursor to vinblastine and exhibits antimitotic activity by inhibiting microtubule assembly.
S5570 Arachidic acid Arachidic acid is a natural saturated fatty acid used for the production of detergents, photographic materials and lubricants.
S3971 Fusidine Fusidine, isolated from Fusidium coccineum, is a steroidal antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis.
S3972 Lobeline hydrochloride Lobeline hydrochloride is an alkaloid that acts on nicotinic cholinergic receptors but is less potent than nicotine. It is also a VMAT2 ligand and an antagonist of μ-opioid receptors.
S5562 2-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol 2-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol (Salicyl alcohol), which can be found in a number of food items such as red huckleberry, rye, jerusalem artichoke, and ceylon cinnamon, is precursor of salicylic acid and is formed from salicin by enzymatic hydrolysis by Salicyl-alcohol beta-D-glucosyltransferase or by acid hydrolysis.
S5335 Corey Lactone Diol Corey Lactone Diol is a pharmaceutical intermediate.
S5336 Hecogenin Hecogenin, a steroid saponin isolated from Agave sisalana, is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of UGT1A4 with an IC50 value of 1.5 μM.
S5338 L(-)-Sorbose L(-)-Sorbose is a ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ascorbic acid.
S5343 Vanillic acid Vanillic acid is a flavoring agent which is also an intermediate in the production of vanillin from ferulic acid. Vanillic acid inhibits NF-κB activation. Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and chemopreventive effects.
S5337 Rauwolscine hydrochloride Rauwolscine hydrochloride is the hydrochloride salt form of Rauwolscine, a specific and potent α2 antagonist with Ki of 12 nM.
S5342 Dihydrojasmone Dihydrojasmone, belonging to the family of ketones, is an aroma compound for perfumery uses.
S5339 4-Allylanisole 4-Allylanisole (Estragole) is a natural organic compound that is a component of various trees and plants. It is used in the preparation of fragrances.
S3785 Notoginsenoside R1 Notoginsenoside R1 is the main ingredient with cardiovascular activity in Panax notoginseng. It inhibits TNF-α-induced PAI-1 overexpression via extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK1/2) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) signaling pathways.
S5345 Nerolidol Nerolidol is a naturally occurring sesquiterpene found in the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers. It has diverse range of pharmacological and biological activities including antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-biofilm, anti-parasitic, insecticidal, anti-ulcer, skin penetration enhancer, anti-tumor, anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties.
S5347 2-Phenylethylamine 2-Phenylethylamine is a natural monoamine alkaloid that functions as a monoaminergic neuromodulator or a neurotransmitter in the human central nervous system.
S5348 Pherocon (4-(4-Acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone) Pherocon (4-(4-Acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone) is a standard melon fly attractant for detection programs.
S5440 Berberine Sulfate Berberine sulfate, an alkaloid extracted from several plants, possesses antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of microorganisms including Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, and protozoa.
S3772 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is an important bio-sourced intermediate, formed from carbohydrates such as glucose or fructose and used for production of fuels and chemical intermediates.
S3792 Guggulsterone E&Z Guggulsterone is one of the active constituent of Commiphora mukul. It occurs in two isomeric forms, namely Z-GS and E-GS. Guggulsterone act as antagonist ligands for the bile acid receptor, farnesoid X receptor, and as active ingredients responsible for the hypolipidemic activity.
S5407 Squalane Squalane is a naturally occuring lipid in both plants and animals. It is usually used as an emollient and moisturizer in cosmetics manufacturing.
S3805 Stevioside Stevioside is a natural sweetener extracted from leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni.
S5583 Cinnamyl acetate Cinnamyl acetate is a naturally occuring compound used as a flavouring agent.
S5584 Citronellol Citronellol, a constituent of rose and geranium oils, is used in perfumes and insect repellents. Citronellol can cause necrotic apoptosis of NCI-H1299 cells by up-regulating TNF-α, RIP1 / RIP3 activities, and down-regulating caspase-3 / caspase-8 activities. Citronellol also results in a biphasic increase in ROS production at 1 h and at 12 h in NCI-H1299 cells.
S5419 1,4-Cineole 1,4-Cineole is a widely distributed, natural, oxygenated monoterpene. 1,4-Cineole, present in eucalyptus oil, activates both human TRPM8 and human TRPA1.
S3894 Cycloastragenol Cycloastragenol is a saponin comprising a group of oil glucosides naturally present in a number of plants. It is a potent telomerase activator in neuronal cells.
S5380 7-Hydroxyflavone 7-Hydroxyflavone is a potent inhibitor of CYP1A1 with a Ki value of 0.015 μM and exhibits 6-fold greater selectivity for CYP1A1 over CYP1A2. It also has excellent antioxidant properties and great potential to be applied as medicines.
S3895 Sophoridine Sophoridine, a natural product obtained from medicinal plants, has a variety of pharmacological effects, including anti-cancer and anti-arrhythmia, and affects the immune and central nervous systems.
S5381 Behenic Acid Behenic Acid is a long-chain saturated fatty acid that exists naturally as a triglyceride in canola. It act as a lubricant that helps restore the skin's natural oils and improve overall levels of hydration.
S3849 D-Galactose D-Galactose is an aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins and is converted enzymatically into D-glucose for metabolism or polysaccharides for storage. It accelerates senescence in invertebrates and mammals and has been used as a model for aging.
S3850 Glucosamine sulfate Glucosamine sulfate is a dietary supplement commonly used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. It is a type of glycosaminoglycan, which is a naturally occurring major component of joint cartilage and joint fluid.
S3851 Camphor Camphor is a bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially cinnamomum camphora and used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.
S3852 L-Theanine L-Theanine is a relaxing and nondietary amino acid found pretty much exclusively in teas from Camellia sinensis and is known to promote relaxation without sedation.
S3854 Tetrahydropalmatine hydrochloride Tetrahydropalmatine (THP) is an isoquinoline alkaloid found in several different plant species, mainly in the Corydalis genus (Yan Hu Suo), but also in other plants such as Stephania rotunda. It is a potent muscle relaxant. Tetrahydropalmatine hydrochloride acts through inhibition of amygdaloid release of dopamine to inhibit an epileptic attack in rats.
S3855 Ethyl ferulate Ethyl ferulate is the alkyl ester derivative of ferulic acid which is a naturally occurring plant product with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and antiproliferative activities.
S3856 Allantoin Allantoin, produced from uric acid, is a major metabolic intermediate in most organisms including animals, plants and bacteria.
S3857 4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, an important phenolic constituent of Gastrodia elata Blume (GEB), has been shown to have many beneficial effects in different animal models of neurological disorders, such as, headaches, convulsive behavior, dizziness, and vertigo.
S3858 Lawsone Lawsone is a red-orange dye present in the leaves of the henna plant (Lawsonia inermis) as well as in the flower of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes).
S3859 Vanillyl Alcohol Vanillyl alcohol, derived from vanillin, is used to flavor food.
S5618 Hippuric acid Hippuric Acid is an acyl glycine produced by the conjugation of benzoic acid and glycine, found as a normal component in urine as a metabolite of aromatic compounds from food.
S3862 Gallic acid trimethyl ether Gallic acid trimethyl ether (Eudesmic acid) is an O-methylated trihydroxybenzoic acid that is found in olive.
S3864 Dulcitol Galactitol (dulcitol) is a naturally occurring product of plants obtained following reduction of galactose.
S3865 Taurochenodeoxycholic acid Taurochenodeoxycholic acid, a bile acid formed in the liver of most species, is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
S3866 Galanthamine Galantamine is a phenanthrene alkaloid and a reversible, competitive acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with IC50 of 0.35 μM, exhibits 50-fold selectivity against butyryl-cholinesterase. It is studied as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.
S3868 Harmine Harmine is an alkaloid of the β-carboline family that regulates PPARγ expression through inhibition of the Wnt signaling pathway. It also selectively binds to MAO-A and reversibly inhibits monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) but not the variant MAO-B.
S3870 D-Pinitol D-pinitol is a naturally occurring compound derived from soy and has significant pharmacological activitites such as inhibition of the T-helpercell-1 response, antiviral, larvicidal, antiinflammatory, antihyperlipidemic, cardioprotective, inhibition of ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation and antioxidant.
S3872 Guaiacol Guaiacol is a phenolic natural product first isolated from Guaiac resin and the oxidation of lignin. It is a precursor to various flavorants, such as eugenoland vanillin. Guaiacol, a phenolic compound isolated from Guaiac resin, inhibits LPS-stimulated COX-2 expression and NF-κB activation. Anti-inflammatory activity.
S5461 Cimicifugoside Cimicifugoside is a triterpenoid originating from the rhizomes of Cimicifuga simplex, and acts to inhibit the subcellular transport of nucleosides.
S5454 Saikosaponin D Saikosaponin D, a calcium mobilizing agent (SERCA inhibitor), is a type of Saponin derivative, which is a component extracted from Bupleurum falactum. Saikosaponin D has anti-cancer activities.
S3981 Sinapinic Acid Sinapinic acid, or sinapic acid is a small naturally occurring hydroxycinnamic acid which belongs to phenylpropanoid family and commonly used as matrix in MALDI mass spectrometry. Sinapinic acid (Sinapic acid) is a phenolic compound isolated from Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. Rhizome, acts as an inhibitor of HDAC, with an IC50 of 2.27 mM, and also inhibits ACE-I activity.
S3983 Caryophyllene oxide Caryophyllene oxide, an oxygenated terpenoid existed in many plant essential oil, is well known as preservative in food, drugs and cosmetics with anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic and skin penetration enhancing properties.
S3984 Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a phenolic antioxidant found in the leaves and twigs of the evergreen desert shrub, Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC) Coville (creosote bush). It is a recognized inhibitor of lipoxygenase (LOX) and has antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties.
S5105 Proanthocyanidins Proanthocyanidins (PAs), also known as condensed tannins, are a class of polyphenols found in a variety of plants. They are very powerful antioxidants that remove harmful free oxygen radicals from cells.
S5148 2-Methylenebutyrolactone 2-Methylenebutyrolactone, also known as α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone (MBL) (Tulipalin A), belongs to the class of sesquiterpene lactone family and is considered as cyclic analog of most common vinyl monomer methyl methacrylate (MMA).
S5119 Olivetol Olivetol is a naturally occurring organic compound being a precursor in various syntheses of tetrahydrocannabinol. It acts as a competitive inhibitor of the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2.
S5150 Phytosterols Phytosterols, also called plant sterols or stanol esters, are specialized compounds found in plants that are structurally similar to cholesterol found in humans.
S5151 Gypenoside Gypenoside (GP) is the predominant effective component of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and possesses capacities against inflammation and oxidation.
S3956 Tetramethylpyrazine Tetramethylpyrazine (ligustrazine, TMP) is a natural compound isolated from Chinese herbal medicine Ligusticum wallichii (Chuan Xiong) with anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antiplatelet, and antiapoptosis activities.
S3957 Gamma-Oryzanol Gamma-oryzanol (GO), a nutriactive phytochemical naturally occurring in crude rice bran oil, is an antioxidant compound used to treat hyperlipidemia, disorders of menopause and to increase the muscle mass. γ-Oryzanol is a potent DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) inhibitor in the striatum of mice. γ-Oryzanol significantly inhibits the activities of DNMT1 (IC50=3.2 μM), DNMT3a (IC50=22.3 μM).
S3959 (+)-Borneol (+)-Borneol is one of enantiomers of borneol which is a valuable medical material, senior aromatic spice, and chemical material and has been used in food and also folk medicine.
S3962 Dihydroactinidiolide Dihydroactinidiolide is known to be a bioactive molecule in animals. It is a component of pheromones in insects, such as red fire ants and in mammals such as the Cat and the Red Fox.
S3963 DL-Glutamine Glutamine is a non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes.
S3968 Histamine Histamine, an organic nitrogenous compound, is involved in local immune responses regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus. It is a potent H1 and H2 receptor agonist.
S5120 Elemicin Elemicin is a constituent of the oleoresin and the essential oil of Canarium luzonicum. Elemicin is a constituent of natural aromatic phenylpropanoids present in many herbs and spices. Elemicin inhibits Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase 1(SCD1) activity in the liver by metabolic activation.
S5121 Phytol Phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll widely used as a food additive and in medicinal fields, shows antinociceptive and antioxidant activities as well as anti-inflammatory and antiallergic effects. It is a specific activator of PPARα.
S5139 Methyl Dihydrojasmonate Methyl dihydrojasmonate is a flavouring ingredien with the smell vaguely similar to jasmin.
S5138 Citral Citral is an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde present in the oils of several plants. It is an aroma compound used in perfumery for its citrus effect and is also used as a flavor and for fortifying lemon oil.
S4754 Betulin Betulin (BE), also known as betulinol, betuline, or betulinic alcohol, is a pentacyclic lupane-type triterpenoid naturally distributed in many plants and displays a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological properties such as anticancer and chemopreventive activity. Betulin (Trochol), is a sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) inhibitor with an IC50 of 14.5 μM in K562 cell line.
S3955 Uric Acid Uric Acid, a normal component of urine, is a product of the metabolic breakdown of purine nucleotides.
S4766 Gibberellic acid Gibberellic acid (GA), a plant hormone stimulating plant growth and development, is a tetracyclic di-terpenoid compound.
S3948 Spermine Spermine is a polyamine involved in cellular metabolism found in all eukaryotic cells. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria.
S2283 Cinchonine(LA40221) Cinchonine is an alkaloid and a stereoisomer and pseudo-enantiomer of cinchonidine.
S3654 Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid (TUDCA) Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is the taurine conjugate of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and acts as a mitochondrial stabilizer and anti-apoptotic agent in several models of neurodegenerative diseases, including AD, Parkinson's diseases (PD), and Huntington's diseases (HD).
S3752 isoleucine Isoleucine is a non-polar, uncharged (at physiological pH), aliphatic amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
S3753 L-Leucine Leucine is one of nine essential amino acids in humans which is important for protein synthesis and many metabolic functions. It contributes to regulation of blood-sugar levels; growth and repair of muscle and bone tissue; growth hormone production; and wound healing. L-Leucine is an essential branched-chain amino acid (BCAA), which activates the mTOR signaling pathway.
S3653 Spermidine trihydrochloride Spermidine, a natural polyamine produced from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM) by spermidine synthase, is a novel autophagy inducer and negatively modulates N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA).
S3754 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, also known as p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), is a phenolic derivative of benzoic acid and widely used in organic synthesis. It is the most widely distributed aromatic organic acid in the vegetable kingdom.
S3893 Bornyl acetate Bornyl acetate, the main volatile constituent in numerous conifer oils and some Chinese traditional herbs, exhibits anti-inflammatory property and it is used as an analgesic.
S3758 Sinomenine hydrochloride Sinomenine (SN), extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant, sinomenium acutum, is a potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent.
S3755 Betaine Betaine, a methyl derivative of glycine first isolated from sugar beets, has been shown to have potential benefits for fighting heart disease, improving body composition, and helping promote muscle gain and fat loss because of its abilities to promote protein synthesis in the body.
S3757 2'-Deoxyinosine 2'-deoxyguanosine is a nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
S3770 Sodium Aescinate Sodium aescinate (SA) is a widely-applied triterpene saponin product derived from horse chestnut seeds, possessing vasoactive and organ-protective activities with oral or injection administration in the clinic. Sodium aescinate is a triterpene saponin derived from Aesculus hippocastanum seeds, with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Sodium aescinate inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth by targeting CARMA3/NF-κB pathway.
S3681 Vitamin E Acetate Vitamin E Acetate is the stable form of Vitamin E most often used in cosmetic formulations for its skin care benefits. It protects the cells against free radicals and prevents the peroxidation of body fats as an in-vivo antioxidant.
S3853 Perillyl alcohol Perillyl alcohol is a monoterpene isolated from the essential oils of lavendin, peppermint, spearmint, cherries, celery seeds, and several other plants.
S3871 Muscone Muscone, a flavouring ingredient, is an organic compound that is the primary contributor to the odor of musk and also a potent anti-inflammatory agent.
S3762 Methylnonylketone Methylnonylketone, also known as 2-Undecanone and IBI-246, is a natural non-toxic insect repellant compound.
S3789 Tiglic acid Tiglic acid is a monocarboxylic unsaturated organic acid found in croton oil and in several other natural products. It is used in making perfumes and flavoring agents.
S3791 Succinic acid Succinic acid is a crystalline organic acid which occurs in living tissue as an intermediate in glucose metabolism.
S3793 Phytic acid Phytic acid is the principal storage form of phosphorus in many plant tissues, especially bran and seeds. It can act as a cofactor in DNA repair by nonhomologous end-joining. Phytic acid inhibits the enzymatic superoxide source xanthine oxidase (XO), and has antioxidative, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory effects.
S3794 Palmitic acid Palmitic acid is the most common saturated fatty acid found in animals, plants and microorganisms with anti-tumor activity.
S3795 Phloretic acid Phloretic acid is a naturally occurring phenolic compound which can be produced by the hydrogenation of p-coumaric acid or synthesized from phloretin, a by-product of apple tree leaves.
S3796 Rebaudioside A Rebaudioside A (Stevia Extract), an natural sweetening ingredient extracted from the stevia leaf, is used in powder or liquid form to heighten sweetening intensity and improve taste. Rebaudioside A is a steviol glycoside, α-glucosidase inhibitor with IC50 of 35.01 μg/ml.can inhibit ATP-sensitive K+-channels.
S3797 Helicide Helicide (4-formylphenyl-O-β-d-allopyranoside), a main active constituent from seeds of the Chinese herb Helicia nilagirica, has been reported to exert a sedative, analgesic and hypnotic effect, and is used clinically to treat neurasthenic syndrome, vascular headaches and trigeminal neuralgia.
S3799 Gentisic acid Gentisic acid, an active metabolite of salicylic acid degradation, has a broad spectrum of biological activity, such as anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic and antioxidant properties.
S3717 Testosterone Enanthate Testosterone Enanthate is an androgen and anabolic steroid used in androgen replacement therapy.
S3802 Trigonelline Hydrochloride Trigonelline, a major alkaloid component of fenugreek, has hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, antimigraine, sedative, memory-improving, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-tumor activities, and also has been shown to reduce diabetic auditory neuropathy and platelet aggregation.
S3803 Angelic acid Angelic acid is a monocarboxylic unsaturated organic acid that is mostly found in the plants of the family Apiaceae.
S3812 Monocrotaline Monocrotaline (MCT) is an 11-membered macrocyclic pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) that causes a pulmonary vascular syndrome in rats characterized by proliferative pulmonary vasculitis, pulmonary hypertension, and cor pulmonale.
S3886 Quinic acid Quinic acid is a crystalline acid obtained from cinchona bark, coffee beans, and other plant products and made synthetically by hydrolysis of chlorogenic acid.
S3887 L-Rhamnose monohydrate L-Rhamnose monohydrate is used as a starting material for the production of furanones. It is an important material involved in the reaction of flavors developed during the preparation of various foods like bread, grilled meats, etc.
S3742 Cholic acid Cholic acid is a naturally occurring bile acid that is insoluble in water and is used to treat patients with genetic deficiencies in the synthesis of bile acids.
S3679 Flavanone Flavanones show strong antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, and appear to be associated with a reduced risk of certain chronic diseases, the prevention of some cardiovascular disorders, and certain kinds of cancer. Flavanones also exhibit antiviral, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities, beneficial effects on capillary fragility, and an ability to inhibit human platelet aggregation, anti-ulcer, and anti-allergenic properties.
S4808 L-Cystine L-Cystine is the oxidized dimer form of the amino acid L-cysteine which is a non-essential amino acid of the human body. It is required for wound healing and formation of epithelial tissue.
S4811 VitaMin U Vitamin U (Methylmethionine chloride) is a vitamin found in green vegetables. It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, colitis, and gastritis and has an effect on secretory, acid-forming, and enzymatic functions of the intestinal tract.
S5107 Flavin mononucleotide Flavin mononucleotide is a biomolecule produced from riboflavin (vitamin B2) by the enzyme riboflavin kinase and functions as prosthetic group of various oxidoreductases including NADH dehydrogenase as well as cofactor in biological blue-light photo receptors.
S5108 Tylosin Tylosin is a macrolide-class broad spectrum antibiotic that's used in veterinary medicine to treat felines, canines and livestock.
S3626 Sesamol Sesamol, a natural organic compound, is regarded as a major antioxidant component in the oil with chemoprevention, antimutagenic, and antihepatotoxic activities. It induces apoptosis of cancer and cardiovascular cells.
S3625 Tyramine Tyramine is a naturally occurring trace amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine and acts as a catecholamine releasing agent.
S3624 Quinolinic acid Quinolinic Acid, a neuroactive metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, is an agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.
S3629 Syringic acid Syringic acid (SYRA) is a potential antioxidant used in traditional Chinese medicine and is an emerging nutraceutical. It has potential anti-angiogenic, anti-glycating, anti-hyperglycaemic, neuroprotective, and memory-enhancing properties.
S3630 Methyl Vanillate Methyl Vanillate, one of the ingredients in Hovenia dulcis Thunb, activates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and induces osteoblast differentiation in vitro.
S5362 Citicholine Citicholine is a naturally occurring compound that acts as nutrient with a broad spectrum of benefits for conditions associated with symptoms of neurological dysfunction. As an endogenous compound, it is also an essential intermediate in the synthesis of cell membrane phospholipids and its formation is the rate-limiting step in phosphatidylcholine synthesis.
S5368 Lactitol Lactitol is a versatile, reduced calorie sweetener derived from natural milk sugar, used in a wide variety of sweetening applications.
S4955 Acetosyringone Acetosyringone is a phenolic natural product with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions.
S5571 L-Asparagine L-Asparagine is a non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue.
S5594 α-Terpineol α-Terpineol, a natural monoterpene, is the major component of essential oils of several species of aromatic plants such as Origanium vulgare L. and Ocimum canum Sims which are widely used for medicinal purposes. It is widely used in the manufacturing of cosmetics, soaps, perfumes, antiseptic agents and is considered one of the most frequently used fragrance compounds. α-TPN has anticholinergic action and can block the interaction between PGE2 and GM1 receptors and cholera toxin.
S5576 Benzyl acetate Benzyl acetate, usually found in alcoholic beverages, is a flavouring agent.
S5585 Citronellal Citronellal, a monoterpenoid found in oil of citronella, lemon, and lemon grass, has insect repellent properties and is used in perfumes.
S5598 p-Cymene p-Cymene is a naturally occurring aromatic organic compound produced by high purity separate technique which is applied in distilling of gum turpentine oil.
S3675 Umbelliferone Umbelliferone is a 7-hydroxycoumarin that is a pharmacologically active agent. It is a fluorescing compound used as a sunscreen agent and shows good inhibitions of DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide anion and ABTS radicals with anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperglycaemic, molluscicidal and anti-tumor activities.
S3677 Cinnamic acid Cinnamic acid, a naturally occurring aromatic fatty acid of low toxicity, induces cytostasis and a reversal of malignant properties of human tumor cells in vitro.
S3661 2-Methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone 2-Methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, isolated from the leaves of Impatiens glandulifera, specifically suppressed the expression of PKC βI, δ, and ζ in a concentration-dependent manner in Raji cells.
S3652 3-Nitropropionic acid 3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is an irreversible inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory Complex II succinate dehydrogenase, resulting in energy depletion through disruption of the electron transport chain.
S5513 Calcium D-saccharate tetrahydrate Calcium Saccharate is the calcium salt form of glucaric acid, a natural substance found in many fruits and vegetables, with potential anti-cancer property.
S5518 D-Glucose 6-phosphate disodium salt D-Glucose 6-phosphate disodium salt is the disodium salt form of D-Glucose 6-phosphate, a common form of glucose within the cell, participating in two major metabolic pathways: glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. It can be coverted to glycogen or starch for storage.
S2416 Chondroitin sulfate Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of many connective tissues, including cartilage, bone, skin, ligaments and tendons. It reduces the IL-1β-induced nuclear factor-kB (NF-κB) translocation in chondrocytes in vitro.
S5327 Meisoindigo Meisoindigo, a derivative of Indigo naturalis, is an active compound of a Chinese anti-leukemia medicine that has been effectively used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). In vitro cell line studies have shown that this agent might induce apoptosis and myeloid differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
S5599 Sodium cholate Sodium cholate (NaCh) is the sodium salt of the naturally occurring cholic acid, a bile salt produced by the liver, with strong solubilization capacity of water-insoluble substances.
S5575 2-Benzoxazolinone 2-Benzoxazolinone (BOA), a well-known allelochemical with strong phytotoxicity, is a potential herbicidal candidate and probably functions via interfering with auxins or disrupting membrane integrity.
S5579 Chelidonic acid Chelidonic acid is a secondary metabolite found in several plants with therapeutic potential in allergic disorders in experimental animals.
S5588 Creatine Creatine is a nitrogenous organic acid that occurs naturally in vertebrates. It facilitates the recycling of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) primarily in muscle and brain tissue.Creatine can inhibits the JAK-STAT1 signal transmission by inhibiting the interaction of IFN-γ receptors with JAK2 in an ATP-independent manner, thereby inhibiting downstream pro-inflammatory gene expression.
S5614 (+)-Longifolene (+)-Longifolene is a naturally occurring, oily liquid hydrocarbon found primarily in the high-boiling fraction of certain pine resins
S3619 Citicoline sodium Citicoline is an essential intermediate in the synthesis of the major phospholipid of the cell membranes, phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). It increases plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels and potentiates serum thyrotrophin (TSH) levels by activating the central cholinergic system.
S5595 3-Carene 3-Carene is a bicyclic monoterpene in essential oils extracted from pine trees. 3-Carene have potent pharmacological effects on COX-2 overexpression and LPS-induced migration of Raw264.7 macrophages. 3‐carene is shown to significantly stimulate the activity and expression of alkaline phosphatase, an early phase marker of osteoblastic differentiation.
S5376 Decyl aldehyde Decanal is a naturally occuring organic compound that is used in fragrances and flavoring.
S5551 6-Paradol 6-Paradol is a minor constituent of ginger, mainly formed from 6-gingerol via 6-shogaol, and exhibits a variety of biological activities including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative activities. Paradol is an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2.
S5379 Fenchyl Alcohol Fenchyl Alcohol is used as a flavoring agent to provide a pine, herbal, lemon, or floral taste to food and drink.
S5530 Geraniol Geraniol is a terpene alcohol occurring in the essential oils of several aromatic plants used in the flavour and fragrance industries. It also exhibits insecticidal and repellent properties and used as a natural pest control agent exhibiting low toxicity.
S5237 Dihydroartemisinic acid Dihydroartemisinic acid is a natural product from Artemisia annua and the main direct precursor of artemisinin, which is a medicinal herb that is widely used to treat Malaria.
S5516 Ellagic Acid hydrate Ellagic acid is a potent inhibitor of protein kinase CK2 with IC50s of 0.04, 2.9 and 3.5 μM for CK2, Lyn and PKA respectively. It shows potent antioxidant, anti-mutagenic and antidepressant properties.
S3612 Rosmarinic acid Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a naturally occurring hydroxylated compound. It has the ability to block complement fixation, inhibit lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase activity and inhibit the expression of CCL11 and CCR3 by suppressing the IKK-β activity in NF-κB activation signaling.
S3609 Berbamine (dihydrochloride) Berbamine (BBM) is a natural bisbenzylisoquinoline product isolated from traditional Chinese herbal medicine Berberis amurensis. It is a novel inhibitor of bcr/abl fusion gene with potent anti-leukemia activity and also an inhibitor of NF-κB.
S5459 Aucubin Aucubin, an iridoid glycoside existing in medicinal plants, has been reported to show an anti-inflammatory activity by suppression of TNF-α production in murine macrophages.
S5471 Monotropein Monotropein, an iridoids glycoside isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis How, has been demonstrated to exhibit anti-inflammatory activity.
S5452 Sanguinarine chloride Sanguinarine, a plant alkaloid, is a potent and specific protein phosphatase (PP) 2C inhibitor. Sanguinarine chloride can stimulate apoptosis via activating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sanguinarine-induced apoptosis is associated with the activation of JNK and NF-κB.
S5458 Verbascoside Verbascoside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside from lemon verbena, has several biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antitumor, and antioxidant.
S5467 Asarinin Asarinin, isolated as a racemate from the shrub Zanthoxylum alatum, is usually used as a dietary fat-reduction supplement.
S5455 Akebia saponin D Akebia saponin D, the most abundant constituent of the rhizome of Dipsacus asper, has been used for the treatment of lower back pain, traumatic hematoma and bone fractures.
S5553 Kasugamycin hydrochloride Kasugamycin is an aminoglycosidic antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces kasugaensis, showing broad-spectrum anti-fungal activity against yeast and various fungus species.
S5529 Galangin Galangin, a naturally occuring flavonoid found in herbs, is a well-known antioxidant and also an inhibitor of CYP1A1 activity and an agonist/antagonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.
S5453 Hyperoside Hyperoside, a naturally occuring flavonoid compound, exerts multiple bioactivities, including myocardial protection, anti-redox, and anti-inflammatory activities.Hyperoside can inhibit activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.
S5460 Vitexin-2-O-rhaMnoside Vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside is one of the main components of flavonoid of the leaves of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var major N. E. Br. It has many biological and pharmacological activities, such as antioxidation and treating heart disease.
S5468 Kaempferol-3-O-glucorhamnoside Kaempferol 3-neohesperidoside, isolated from the herbs of Delphinium grandiflorum L., has insulin-like properties in terms of glucose lowering.
S5465 Morroniside Morroniside, an iridoid glycoside, is the main active ingredient from Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. and Sambucus williamsii Hance. It has therapeutic effects on diabetic angiopathies, renal damage, lipid metabolism and inflammation and bone resorption. Morroniside has neuroprotective effect by inhibiting neuron apoptosis and MMP2/9 expression.
S5463 Curcurbitacin IIA Cucurbitacin IIa (CuIIa) is the major active component of the Helmseya amabilis root and is known to have antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects.
S5469 Bavachin Bavachin is a phytoestrogen purified from natural herbal plants such as Psoralea corylifolia. It acts as a weak phytoestrogen by binding and activating the ER.
S5462 5-O-Methylvisammioside 5-O-Methylvisammioside is a naturally occuring product isolated from Saposhnikovia Divaricata and has analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-platelet aggregation effects.
S5451 Ferulic acid methyl ester Methyl ferulate is a lipophilic derivative of ferulic acid, which is a hydroxycinnamic acid that is abundant in plants. It shows the strongest antioxidant activity and can protect against inflammation and cancer.
S5456 Isobavachalcone Isobavachalcone, a naturally occurring chalcone compound derived from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L., has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine as anthelmintic, antibacterial, aphrodisiac, astringent and antiplatelet agent.
S5512 Juglone Juglone, a natural naphthoquinone found in the black walnut and other plants, has moderate antifungal activity and growth-stimulating effects to many types of plants. It sometimes can be used as an herbicide, as a dye for cloth and inks, and as a coloring agent for foods and cosmetics.
S3880 Schisantherin A Schisantherin A, also known as Gomisin C, is a dibenzocyclooctadiene that exhibits anti-tussive, sedative, anti-inflammatory, anti-osteoporotic, neuroprotective, cognition enhancing, and cardioprotective activities. Schisantherin A inhibits p65-NF-κB translocation into the nucleus by IκBα degradation.
S3882 Brassinolide Brassinolide, a plant steroid isolated from Brassica napus pollen, promotes cell elongation and cell devision and thus regulates plant growth and development.
S2291 Diosgenin Diosgenin is a steroid sapogenin and the precursor for the semisynthesis of progesterone which in turn was used in early combined oral contraceptive pills; A weak PDE inhibitor.
S3776 Sophoricoside Sophoricoside (SOPH) is an isoflavone isolated from Sophora japonica (Leguminosae) with numerous pharmacological effects, including anti- inflammatory, anti-cancer and immunosuppressive effects.
S5249 Coptisine chloride Coptisine is an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Coptidis Rhizoma with anti-diabetic, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-hepatoma, and anti-leukemia effects. Coptisine chloride is an efficient uncompetitive IDO inhibitor with IC50 value of 6.3 μM and Ki value of 5.8 μM.
S3879 kaempferide kaempferide, a natural compound derived from the roots of kaempferia galanga, has a variety of effects including anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties.
S5049 Thiocolchicoside Thiocolchicoside is a natural occuring glycoside originated from the flower seeds of superba gloriosa with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties as well as pronounced convulsant activity. It is also an antagonist of GABAA receptor.
S8279 Shikonin Shikonin, a potent and specific Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) inhibitor, is a major component of zicao (purple gromwell, the dried root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon), a Chinese herbal medicine with various biological activities. It is also an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay.
S3822 Schisandrin A Schisandrin A (Sch A) is an active component of Schisandrae Fructus with liver-protective, antitumor, and antioxidant activities. It is an agonist of the adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) with the IC50 value of 3.5 μM.
S4738 Arctiin Arctiin acts on an agonists of the adiponectin receptor 1 with anti-cancer effects.
S3807 Dehydroandrographolide Dehydroandrographolide, isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees (Chuan-xin-lian), is a novel TMEM16A inhibitor and possesses multiple pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-virus and anti-hepatitis activity.
S8132 Deguelin Deguelin, a natural product isolated from plants in the Mundulea sericea family, is an PI3K/AKT Inhibitor.
S3824 Quercitrin Quercitrin (3-rhamnosyl quercetin), a glycoside of quercetin, has been found as a main bioactive constituent in T. sinensis leaves and has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities.
S2383 Gastrodin Gastrodin, an anti-inflammatory polyphenol extracted from Chinese natural herbal Gastrodia elata Blume., benefits neurodegenerative diseases.
S2387 Lappaconite HBr Lappaconite Hydrobromide is a kind of alkaloid extracted from Aconitum sinomontanum Nakai and has anti-inflammatory effects.
S3910 4',7-Dimethoxyisoflavone 4',7-Dimethoxyisoflavone, isolated from the leaves of Albizzia lebbeck, shows antifungal activity in vitro.
S3832 Euphorbiasteroid Euphorbiasteroid, a component of Euphorbia lathyris L., inhibits adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells through activation of the AMPK pathway and induces HL-60 cells to apoptosis via promoting Bcl-2/Bax apoptotic signaling pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Euphorbiasteroid is a tricyclic diperpene of Euphorbia lathyris L., inhibits tyrosinase, and increases the phosphorylation of AMPK, with anti-cancer, anti-virus, anti-obesity and multidrug resistance-modulating effect.
S4884 Trans-Zeatin Trans-Zeatina is the member of the plant growth hormone family known as cytokinins, which regulate cell division, development, and nutrient processing. Trans-Zeatin inhibits UVB-induced MMP-1 expression, c-Jun activation and phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and p38 MAP kinases (MAPKs) dose-dependently.
S2250 (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate(EGCG) is the main catechin extraction of green tea that inhibits telomerase and DNA methyltransferase. EGCG blocks the activation of EGF receptors and HER-2 receptors. ECGG inhibits fatty acid synthase and glutamate dehydrogenase activity.
S2290 Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin and isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua.
S2295 Emodin Emodin is a purgative resin, 6-methyl-1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone, from rhubarb, the buckthorn and Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica).
S2320 Luteolin Luteolin is a flavonoid found in Terminalia chebula, which is a non-selective phisphodiesterase PDE inhibitor for PDE1-5 with Ki of 15.0 μM, 6.4 μM, 13.9 μM, 11.1 μM and 9.5 μM, respectively. Phase 2.
S3818 Tectoridin Tectoridin, an isoflavone isolated from flowers of Pueraria thunbergiana, has several pharmacological effects including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotectivy.
S2302 Glycyrrhizin (Glycyrrhizic Acid) Glycyrrhizin (Glycyrrhizic Acid) is a direct HMGB1(high mobility group box 1) inhibitor that inhibits HMGB1-dependent inflammatory molecule expression and oxidative stress; modulates P38 and P-JNK but not p-ERK signalling; Also inhibits 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and monoamine oxidase (MAO).
S4603 Gallic acid Gallic acid, known as powerful antioxidants, is an organic acid found in a variety of foods and herbs.
S3841 Eleutheroside B Eleutheroside B (syringin) is a phenylpropanoid glycoside first isolated from A. senticosus and has neuroprotective, tonic, adaptogenic, and immune-modulating properties.
S3845 Panaxadiol Panaxadiol is a triterpene sapogenin originally found in species of Panax (ginseng) and exhibits anticancer, cardioprotective, anti-arrhythmic, and antioxidative activities. It inhibits Ca2+ channels, decreasing channel open time and open state probability in vitro and displaying anti-arrhythmic potential.
S3847 Panaxatriol Panaxatriol is a triterpene sapogenin originally found in species of Panax (ginseng) and exhibits anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anti-arrhythmic, and antioxidative activities.
S3848 Hydroxytyrosol Acetate Hydroxytyrosol acetate (HTy-Ac), an extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenol, exhibits antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
S3778 Patchouli alcohol Patchouli alcohol, an ingredient in pogostemonis herba, has various pharmacological activities and acts as an inhibitor of asexual fungal propagation, inflammation, the influenza virus, and tumorigenesis.
S3912 Cephalotaxine Cephalotaxine is a naturally occurring alkaloid which is the structural motif of a number of compounds and has shown promising anti-cancer properties.
S3930 Liquiritin Liquiritin (LIQ) is a main component among the licorice flavonoids, and possesses anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer abilities.
S4758 Crocin Crocin is a water-soluble carotenoid pigment of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). It has been used as a spice for flavoring and coloring food preparations, and in Chinese traditional medicine as an anodyne or tranquilizer.
S3874 Curcumenol Curcumenol, a sesquiterpene isolated from Curcuma zedoaria, is known to possess a variety of health and medicinal values which includes neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and hepatoprotective activities. It inhibits NF-κB activation by suppressing the nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and blocking IκBα phosphorylation and degradation.
S3877 Lysionotin Lysionotin is a natural flavonoid predominantly found in fewflower lysionotus herbs and possesses many pharmacological properties, such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antihypertensive, and free radical scavenging activities.
S3809 Imperatorin Imperatorin, a naturally occurring psoralen-type furanocoumarin, is a potent myorelaxant agent and acts as a calcium antagonist on vascular smooth muscle.
S3892 Isopsoralen Isopsoralen, also known as angelicin, is a constituent of roots and leaves of angelica with anti-inflammatory activity and regulates LPS-induced inflammation via inhibiting MAPK/NF-κB pathways. It also shows antiviral activity against gammaherpesviruses.
S3908 4'-Demethylpodophyllotoxin 4'-Demethylpodophyllotoxin is isolated from the herb of Dysosma pleiantha (Hance) Woodson with remarkable cytotoxic potential in diverse cancer cell lines.
S3938 Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) Bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) is a natural demethoxy derivative of curcumin and possesses several biological activities, such as anti-inflammation and anti-cancer activities.
S3890 Leonurine Leonurine, an active alkaloid extracted from Traditional Chinese Medicine Herba leonuri, exerts several biological effects, such as antidiabetic, cardiovascular, and bovine mastitis protection.
S3816 Dehydroevodiamine Dehydroevodiamine, a constituent of Evodia rutaecarpa, has various biological effects such as hypotensive, negative chronotropic, ion channel depressant, inhibition of nitric oxide production and cerebral blood flow enhancing activities. Dehydroevodiamine inhibits LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression in murine macrophage cells.
S5144 Neferine Neferine, a natural component of Nelumbo nucifera, has antitumor efficiency in cancer. Neferine((-)-Neferine) is a unique bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid that possesses a number of therapeutic effects such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-aging, anti-microbial, anti-thrombotic, anti-arrhythmic, anti-inflammatory and even anti-HIV.
S4761 Thymoquinone Thymoquinone (TQ) is the bioactive phytochemical constituent of the seeds oil of Nigella sativa with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects.
S3906 Astragalus polyphenols Astragalus is a wonderful immune enhancing herb that has strong anti-viral activity and produces extra interferon in the body. It contains rich polyphenol with various effects including antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions.
S3907 Bulleyaconi cine A Bulleyaconitine A (BLA) is an active ingredient of Aconitum bulleyanum plants and classified as an "aconitine-like" alkaloid. It is a potent use-dependent blocker for both Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 Na+ currents.
S3909 Catalpol Catalpol, an iridoid glucoside contained richly in the roots of the small flowering plant species Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, has been shown to have antioxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis and other neuroprotective properties and plays a role in neuroprotection against hypoxic/ischemic injury, AD and PD in both in vivo and in vitro models.
S3922 (-)-epigallocatechin (-)-Epigallocatechin, widespread in plants, has been shown to exhibit anti-tumor, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory functions.
S3923 Ginsenoside Rg1 Ginsenoside Rg1, one of the major active components of ginseng, is identified as a protopanaxatriol-type and has pharmacological actions such as neuroprotective and anti-tumor effects on various cancer types. Ginsenoside Rg1 reduces cerebral Aβ levels and NF-κB nuclear translocation.
S3924 Ginsenoside Rb1 Ginsenoside Rb1 is a protopanaxadiol that has diverse in vitro and in vivo effects, including neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity actions. Ginsenoside Rb1, a main constituent of the root of Panax ginseng, inhibits Na+, K+-ATPase activity with an IC50 of 6.3±1.0 μM. Ginsenoside also inhibits IRAK-1 activation and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65.
S3925 (-)-Epicatechin gallate Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), also known as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, is the ester of epigallocatechin and gallic acid, and is a type of catechin with anti-inflammatory effects. (-)-Epicatechin gallate (Epicatechin gallate) inhibits cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) with an IC50 of 7.5 μM.
S3926 Forsythin Forsythin (FOR) is an active ingredient extracted from the fruit of the medicinal plant Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl and has been shown to have antioxidant, antibacterial and antiinflammatory properties.
S2317 L-(+)-Rhamnose Monohydrate L(+)-Rhamnose (Rham) is a naturally-occurring deoxy sugar that is found primarily in plants and some bacteria.
S3901 Astragaloside IV Astragaloside IV is a bioactive saponin first isolated from the dried plant roots of the genus Astragalus, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine. It has various effect on the cardiovascular, immune, digestive, and nervous systems. Astragaloside IV, an active component isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, suppresses the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and downregulates matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-2, (MMP)-9 in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
S3915 Gracillin Gracillin, a kind of steroidal saponin isolated from the root bark of wild yam Dioscorea nipponica, has been reported to exert antitumor activity.
S3916 Macranthoidin B Macranthoidin B is a major bioactive saponin in rat plasma after oral administration of extraction of saponins from Flos Lonicerae.
S3920 7β-Hydroxylathyrol 7β-Hydroxylathyrol is natural occuring product extracted from the seeds of Euphorbia lathyris L.
S3921 Lathyrol Lathyrol is a natural product that is used for cancer treatment.
S3931 Ginsenoside Rd Ginsenoside Rd, a minor ginseng saponin, has several pharmacological activities such as immunosuppressive activity, anti-inflammatory activity, immunological adjuvant, anti-cancer activity and wound-healing activity. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits TNFα-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity with an IC50 of 12.05±0.82 μM in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits expression of COX-2 and iNOS mRNA. Ginsenoside Rd also inhibits Ca2+ influx. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9, with IC50s of 58.0±4.5 μM, 78.4±5.3 μM, 81.7±2.6 μM, and 85.1±9.1 μM, respectively.
S3765 Picroside II Picroside II is the main active ingredient in iridoid glycosides, which is the principal component of Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle. It has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immune regulatory, anti-virus and other pharmacological activities.
S3875 Alpinetin Alpinetin, a composition of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been reported to have a number of biological properties, such as antibacterial, antitumor and other important therapeutic activities. Alpinetin is a flavonoid isolated from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, activates activates PPAR-γ, with potent anti-inflammatory activity.
S3878 Bavachinin Bavachinin is a novel natural pan-PPAR agonist from the fruit of the traditional Chinese glucose-lowering herb malaytea scurfpea. It shows stronger activities with PPAR-γ than with PPAR-α and PPAR-β/δ (EC50 = 0.74 μmol/l, 4.00 μmol/l and 8.07 μmol/l in 293T cells, respectively).
S3881 Scopoletin Scopoletin is the main bioactive constituent of flower buds from Magnolia fargesii with anti-inflammatory, hypouricemic, and antioxidant activities.
S3883 Protopine Protopine, an alkaloid present in different plants, has been shown to exhibit a number of activities, such as inhibition of calcium influx through both voltage and receptor-operated channels and inhibition of rabbit blood platelet aggregation. It also possesses anti-cholinergic and anti-histaminic as well as anti-bacterial activities.
S3884 Jatrorrhizine Jatrorrhizine, one of the active constituents of Coptis chinensis Franch, has multiple bioactivities, such as hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activities. It is an inhibitor of AChE with IC50 of 872 nM and demonstrates >115-fold selectivity for AChE over BuChE.
S3800 Lycorine hydrochloride Lycorine, a natural alkaloid extracted from the Amaryllidaceae plant family, has been reported to exhibit a wide range of physiological effects, including the potential effect against cancer. It is an HCV inhibitor with strong activity.
S3801 Sodium Houttuyfonate Sodium Houttuyfonate, the active compound of the Houttuynia plant, is mainly used for treating purulent skin infections, respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia in elderly patients, and chronic bronchitis.
S3804 Alpha-Mangostin Alpha-mangostin is the main xanthone purified from mangosteen and has health promoting benefits including anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and cardioprotective activities. alpha-Mangostin (α-Mangostin) is a dietary xanthone with broad biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-allergic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. It is an inhibitor of mutant IDH1 (IDH1-R132H) with a Ki of 2.85 μM. Alpha-mangostin is also an agonist of human STING.
S3808 Mangiferin Mangiferin is a bioactive compound that demonstrates many health perspectives and has been used to prepare medicinal and food supplements. Mangiferin is a Nrf2 activator. Mangiferin suppresses nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunits p65 and p50.
S3810 Scutellarin Scutellarin, the major active principal flavonoids extracted from the Chinese herbal medicines Scutellaria baicalensis and Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz, has many pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant, antitumor, antiviral, and antiinflammatory activities. Scutellarin, an active flavone isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis, can down-regulates the STAT3/Girdin/Akt signaling in HCC cells, and inhibits RANKL-mediated MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway in osteoclasts.
S3811 Ginsenoside Re Ginsenoside Re (Ginsenoside B2), an extract from Panax notoginseng, is a major ginsenoside in ginseng and belongs to 20(S)-protopanaxatriol group. It has diverse in vitro and in vivo effects, including vasorelaxant, antioxidant, antihyperlipidemic, and angiogenic actions. Ginsenoside Re decreases the β-amyloid protein (Aβ). Ginsenoside Re plays a role in antiinflammation through inhibition of JNK and NF-κB.
S3891 Vincamine Vincamine, an indole alkaloid found in the leaves of V. minor and C. roseus, is a peripheral vasodilator that increases blood flow to the brain.
S3813 Bakuchiol Bakuchiol is a meroterpene phenol abundant in seeds and leaves of the plant Psoralea corylifolia. It has anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.
S3919 Hederacoside C Hederacoside C (HDC) is one of the active ingredients in Hedera helix leaf extract (Ivy Ex.) and used to treat respiratory disorders.
S3837 Echinocystic acid Echinocystic acid (EA), a natural triterpone enriched in various herbs, displays a range of pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.
S3844 Rosavin Rosavin, a cinnamyl alcohol glycoside found in the plant Rhodiola rosea, possesses antidepressant and anxiolytic activities.
S3846 Eupatilin Eupatilin, a major flavonoid from Artemisia plants, possesses various beneficial biological effects including anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-allergy, and anti-oxidation activity. Eupatilin, a lipophilic flavonoid isolated from Artemisia species, is a PPARα agonist, and possesses anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities.
S3779 cis-Anethole Anethole has two isomers, the cis(Z) isomer being 15-38 times more toxic to animal than the trans(E) isomer. cis-Anethole is found in anise and Only a low level is permitted in flavours.
S3782 Neomangiferin Neomangiferin, a natural xanthone C-glycoside mainly obtained from the well-known traditional Chinese medicine rhizoma of Anemarrhena asphodeloides, exhibits antidiabetic activity and antiosteoporotic action.
S3783 Echinacoside Echinacoside, a natural polyphenolic compound, has various biological activities, such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, nitric oxide radical-scavenging and vasodilative actions. Echinacoside, one of the phenylethanoids isolated from the stems of Cistanche salsa, elicits neuroprotection by activating Trk receptors and their downstream signal pathways. Echinacoside also has a remarkable antiosteoporotic activity.
S3777 Gentiopicroside Gentiopicroside (GE), a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside, inhibits CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 with IC50 values of 21.8μg/ml and 594μg/ml, respectively in human liver microsomes, and dose not inhibit CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP1A2 or CYP3A4 activities.
S3784 Obacunone Obacunone, a natural compound present in citrus fruits, has been demonstrated for various biological activities including anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. It significantly inhibits aromatase activity in an in vitro enzyme assay with an IC50 value of 28.04 μM; also a novel activator of Nrf2.
S3786 Glabridin Glabridin, one of the active phytochemicals in licorice extract, binds to and activates the ligand binding domain of PPARγ, as well as the full length receptor. It is also a GABAA receptor positive modulator promoting fatty acid oxidation and improving learning and memory.
S3787 Picroside I Picroside I, an iridoid glycoside, is a hepatoprotective agent which is reported to be antimicrobial and used against hepatitis B.
S3780 Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a plant lignan isolated from flaxseed, has strong antioxidant activity, cardioprotective effects, reduces the blood levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and reduces the risk of hormone related cancer.
S3914 α-Hederin α-hederin is a water-soluble pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin which has shown hemolytic and apoptotic properties.
S3929 Liquiritigenin Liquiritigenin, the most active estrogenic compound from the root of Glycyrrhizae uralensis Fisch, selectively binds to ERβ with an IC50 value of 7.5 μM and activates multiple ER regulatory elements and native target genes with Erβ but not ERα.
S3932 Astilbin Astilbin, a flavonoid compound isolated from the rhizome of Smilax glabra Roxb, displays anticancer, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunosuppressive activities.
S3760 Stachydrine hydrochloride Stachydrine is isolated from seed husk and the pulp of the fruit of C. Leonurus, and many other Asian plants and fruits. It has potent anti-metastatic activity and cardioprotective effects. Stachydrine hydrochloride is the major active constituent of Herba Leonuri, which is a potential therapy for cardiovascular diseases. Stachydrine can inhibit the NF-κB signal pathway. Anti-hypertrophic activities.
S3764 Isoferulic Acid Isoferulic acid, a major active ingredient of Cimicifuga heracleifolia, shows anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and antidiabetic properties. Isoferulic acid (3-Hydroxy-4-methoxycinnamic acid) is a cinnamic acid derivative that has antidiabetic activity. Isoferulic acid binds to and activates α1-adrenergic receptors (IC50=1.4 µM) to enhance secretion of β-endorphin (EC50=52.2 nM) and increase glucose use.
S3766 Tanshinone IIA sulfonate (sodium) Sodium tanshinone IIA sulfonate (STS) is a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA isolated as the main pharmacologically active natural compound from a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, the dried root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge known as Danshen; a potent negative allosteric modulator of the human purinergic receptor P2X7.
S3771 Stachydrine Stachydrine, also known as N,N-dimethylproline or proline betaine, is a quaternary ammonium derivative of proline that occurs widely in Medicago species. It is an osmoprotective compound found in urine. Stachydrine is a major constituent of Chinese herb leonurus heterophyllus sweet used to promote blood circulation and dispel blood stasis. Stachydrine can inhibit the NF-κB signal pathway.
S3773 Tyrosol Tyrosol is an antioxidant that is naturally present in several foods such as wines and green tea and is present most abundantly in olives. Tyrosol is a derivative of phenethyl alcohol. Tyrosol attenuates pro-inflammatory cytokines from cultured astrocytes and NF-κB activation. Anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects.
S3775 Ligustrazine hydrochloride Tetramethylpyrazine, also known as ligustrazine, is a chemical compound found in natto and in fermented cocoa beans with anti-inflammation, antioxidant, antiplatelet, and antiapoptosis activities.
S5101 Tabersonine hydrochloride Tabersonine, an ingredient extracted from the bean of Voacanga africana, is a potent inhibitor against Aβ(1−42) aggregation and toxicity.
S2318 Lappaconitine Lappaconitine (LC) is a natural diterpenoid alkaloid (DTA), acting as a human heart sodium channel blocker and possessing a wide range of biological activities, including anti-arrhythmic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, anticancer, epileptiform etc.
S3815 Mogroside V Mogroside V is a natural cucurbitane glycoside which has a sweetening strength of 250 times that of sucrose and is derived from mature fruit of luo-han-guo (Siraitia grosvenorii, monk fruit).
S3819 Decursinol angelate Decursinol angelate is a cytotoxic and protein kinase C activating agent from the root of Angelica gigas.
S3820 Dehydroevodiamine hydrochloride Dehydroevodiamine (DHE), a major phytochemical in fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa, can inhibit AChE. It has hypotensive and neuroprotective effects and modulates nitric oxide production.
S3825 Glycitin Glycitin, a natural isoflavone isolated from legumes, has antibacterial, antiviral and estrogenic activities and may exerts preventative effects on alcoholism, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and some types of cancer.
S3826 Hydroxytyrosol Hydroxytyrosol is one of the main phenolic components of olive oil with excellent antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic activities.
S3827 Royal jelly acid Royal jelly acid is the principal lipid component in royal jelly which is the food for queen and larvae honeybees. It is involved in several treatment processes of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated macrophage responses, inhibition of T-cell proliferation and anti-rheumatoid activity.
S3828 Orcinol glucoside Orcinol glucoside (OG) is an active constituent isolated from the rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. It shows potent antioxidative and anxiolytic activities without sedative effects.
S3829 Isoalantolactone Isoalantolactone, one of the major sesquiterpene lactone compounds, is isolated from the roots of Anula helenium and possesses multiple biological activities including antifungal, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitrypanosomal activities and antiproliferative effects on several cancer cell lines, such as colon, melanoma, ovary, prostate, lung, and leukemia. Isoalantolactone is an apoptosis inducer, which also acts as an alkylating agent.
S3834 Astaxanthin Astaxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, is a nutrient with unique cell membrane actions and diverse clinical benefits with excellent safety and tolerability. Astaxanthin, a red dietary carotenoid isolated from Haematococcus pluvialis, is a modulator of PPARγ and a potent antioxidant with antiproliferative, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activity.
S3835 Loganin Loganin is an iridoid glycoside first isolated from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica, a member of the Loganiaceae family. It is a non-competitive inhibitor of BACE1 with IC50 of 47.97 μM an also inhibits AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 3.95 μM and 33.02 μM, respectively.
S3836 6-Gingerol 6-Gingerol is the active constituent of fresh ginger known to exhibit a variety of biological activities including anticancer, anti-inflammation, and anti-oxidation.
S3838 Carnosic acid Carnosic acid is a phenolic diterpene, endowed with antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. It is increasingly used within food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries.
S3840 Baohuoside I Baohuoside I (also known as Icariside II) is a flavonoid isolated from Epimedium koreanum Nakai with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. It may exert cytotoxic effect via the ROS/MAPK pathway.
S3842 Isoquercitrin Isoquercitrin, a flavonoid compound with anticancer activity isolated from Bidens bipinnata L, is an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin that acts downstream of the β-catenin nuclear translocation.
S3833 Amentoflavone Amentoflavone is a biflavonoid originally isolated from Selaginella with antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral, antidiabetic, and neuroprotective activities.
S5103 lutein Lutein is a vitamin-like carotenoid produced by plants, which contributes to the colour of some fruit and vegetables. It is a lipid-soluble antioxidant that can circulate in the plasma and confer cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-angiogenic effects.
S3943 Lycopene Lycopene is a linear, unsaturated hydrocarbon carotenoid, the major red pigment in fruits such as tomatoes, pink grapefruit, apricots, red oranges, watermelon, rosehips, and guava. It is a natural antioxidant.
S3960 Higenamine hydrochloride Higenamine, also known as Norcoclaurine HCl, is a non-selective β2 adrenoceptor agonist which is a chemical compound naturally occurring in a number of plants.
S3941 Pinocembrin Pinocembrin is a major flavonoid molecule incorporated as multifunctional in the pharmaceutical industry. Its vast range of pharmacological activities has been well researched including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.
S5104 Tea polyphenol Tea polyphenols are chemical compounds such as flavanoids and tannins found naturally in tea. Several biological properties have been associated to tea polyphenols (TP), including antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic and antimicrobial activities.
S3939 4'-Methoxyresveratrol 4-Methoxyresveratrol is a stibenoid found in the Chinese herb Gnetum cleistostachyum. 4'-Methoxyresveratrol alleviates AGE-induced inflammation through suppressing RAGE-mediated MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
S3940 3'-Hydroxypterostilbene 3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (3'-HPT) is one of the active constituents of Sphaerophysa salsula and Pterocarpus marsupium which may be useful in treating different types of haematological malignancies. 3'-Hydroxypterostilbene, a natural pterostilbene analogue, effectively inhibits the growth of human colon cancer cells (IC50s of 9.0, 40.2, and 70.9 µM for COLO 205, HCT-116, and HT-29 cells, respectively) by inducing apoptosis and autophagy. 3'-Hydroxypterostilbene inhibits the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K, and p38MAPK pathways and activates the ERK1/2, JNK1/2 MAPK pathways.
S3614 Lupeol Lupeol is a significant lupane-type triterpene represented in the plant, fungi and animal kingdoms with anticancer, antiprotozoal, chemopreventive and anti-inflammatory properties.
S3747 Levothyroxine sodium Levothyroxine is the major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. It is the agonist of Thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta.
S3668 Thymopentin Thymopentin has immuno-regulatory activities. The immuno-regulatory actions of thymopentin on peripheral T cells are mediated by intracellular cyclic GMP elevations in contrast to the intracellular cyclic AMP elevations induced in precursor T cells that trigger their further differentiation to T cells.
S3608 Demethylzeylasteral (T-96) Demethylzeylasteral (T-96), the active component isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., inhibits UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms UGT1A6 and UGT2B7 with immunosuppressive effects.
S3610 Cordycepin Cordycepin is an adenosine analogue, which is readily phosphorylated to its mono-, di-, and triphosphate intracellularly. It has a very potent anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.
S3613 Scoparone Scoparone is a natural organic compound discovered from Chinese herb Artemisia scoparia with anticoagulant, hypolipidemic, vasorelaxant, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory actions.
S3615 Dehydrocostus Lactone Dehydrocostus lactone (DHE), a natural sesquiterpene lactone, inhibits IKKβ activity, IκBα phosphorylation and degradation, coactivators p300 recruitments and p50/p65 NF-κB nuclear translocation, and their DNA binding activity on COX-2 promoter. It has anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, immunomodulatory and anti-tumor properties.
S3616 Asiaticoside Asiaticoside, the major active principle of Centella asiatica, prevents ultraviolet A-dependent photoaging by suppressing ultraviolet A-induced reactive oxygen species production. It also decreases DNA binding by MITF.
S3606 Fangchinoline Fangchinoline, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, is a novel HIV-1 inhibitor with pain-relieving, blood pressure-depressing, and antibiotic activities.
S4757 Dihydrotestosterone(DHT) Dihydrotestosterone is an endogenous androgen sex steroid and hormone and a potent agonist of the androgen receptor with 2-3-fold greater androgen receptor affinity than testosterone and 10-fold higher potency of inducing androgen receptor signaling.
S4752 Corticosterone Corticosterone, the major stress hormone, is an adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid.
S8291 Atractylenolide I Atractylenolide I is the major sesquiterpenoid of the rhizome of A. macrocephala and shows a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities such as antiinflammatory, digestion promoting, and antioxidant effects.
S4742 Rebaudioside C Rebaudioside C belongs to the family of Steviol Glycosides. It is a natural constituent of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni and used as natural sweeteners to diabetics and others on carbohydrate-controlled diets.
S4743 Wogonin Wogonin, a natural and biologically-active flavonoid found in plants, is an inhibitor of CDK9 and does not inhibit CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 at doses that inhibit CDK9 activity; Also inhibits N-acetyltransferase.
S4741 Danshensu Danshensu, a herbal preparation used in traditional Chinese medicine, possesses potential antitumor and anti‑angiogenesis effects.
S4739 Oxyresveratrol Oxyresveratrol, a naturally occurring compound particularly found in Morus alba L., exhibits a potent inhibitory effect on dopa oxidase activity of tyrosinase which catalyzes rate-limiting steps of melanin biosynthesis.
S4746 (20S)-Protopanaxadiol 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), the main intestinal metabolite of ginsenosides, is one of the active ingredients in ginseng.
S4735 Salvianolic acid B Salvianolic acid B (Sal B), an antioxidant and free radical scavenging compound, is the most abundant bioactive compound extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.
S8318 Alantolactone Alantolactone, a naturally occurring eudesmane-type sesquiterpene lactone (SL), could induce activin/SMAD3 signaling and disrupt Cripto-1/activin receptor type II A interaction.
S4707 Oleic Acid Oleic acid is a fatty acid that occurs naturally in various animal and vegetable fats and oils. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. Oleic acid is an abundant monounsaturated fatty acid. Oleic acid is a Na+/K+ ATPase activator.
S4722 (+)-Catechin Cianidanol is an antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.
S4723 (-)Epicatechin (−)Epicatechin is a flavonoid present in cocoa, green tea and red wine. It is a strong antioxidant, has insulin mimic action and improves heart health.
S4726 Lauric Acid Lauric Acid is a saturated medium-chain fatty acid with a 12-carbon backbone. Lauric acid is found naturally in various plant and animal fats and oils, and is a major component of coconut oil and palm kernel oil.
S4719 Kynurenic acid Kynurenic acid, a natural metabolite of tryptophan via the kynurenine pathway, is a broad-spectrum excitatory amino acid antagonist; It proved to be an antagonist at NMDA, kainate and AMPA receptors.
S4711 Esculetin Esculetin is a coumarin derivative found in various natural plant products with various biological and pharmaceutical properties including anti-edema, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumour effects. It inhibits lipoxygenases (LOs).
S4728 3,3'-Diindolylmethane 3,3'-Diindolylmethane(DIM) is a major digestive product of indole-3-carbinol, a potential anticancer component of cruciferous vegetables. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane is a strong, pure androgen receptor (AR) antagonist.
S4708 Palmitoylethanolamide Palmitoylethanolamide(PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide and selectively activates PPAR-α in vitro with an EC50 value of 3.1±0.4 μM.
S4690 Escin Escin is a mixture of saponins with anti-inflammatory, vasoconstrictor and vasoprotective effects found in Aesculus hippocastanum(the horse chestnut).
S4686 Vitamin E Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin with potent antioxidant properties. It is a potent peroxyl radical scavenger and inhibits noncompetitively cyclooxygenase activity in many tissues, also inhibits angiogenesis and tumor dormancy through suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transcription.
S4706 Eugenol Eugenol is a naturally occuring scent chemical found in clove oil and other plants. The physiologic effect of eugenol is by means of increased Histamine Release, and cell-mediated Immunity.
S4539 Salicylic acid Salicylic acid is a beta hydroxy acid that occurs as a natural compound in plants which is an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis and cyclooxygenase activity.
S4507 17-Hydroxyprogesterone 17-Hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) is an endogenous progestogen as well as chemical intermediate in the biosynthesis of other steroid hormones, including the corticosteroids and the androgens and the estrogens.
S7867 Oleuropein Oleuropein is an antioxidant polyphenol isolated from olive leaf. Phase 2.
S7594 Abscisic Acid (Dormin) Abscisic Acid is a plant hormone, which is involved in many plant developmental processes, modulates ion homeostasis and metabolism, and inhibits germination and seedling growth.
S7582 Anacardic Acid Anacardic Acid is a potent inhibitor of p300 and p300/CBP-associated factor histone acetyltranferases, which also has antibacterial activity, antimicrobial activity, prostaglandin synthase inhibition, and tyrosinase and lipoxygenase inhibition.
S8036 Butein Butein, a plant polyphenol isolated from Rhus verniciflua, is able to inhibit the activation of protein tyrosine kinase, NF-κB and STAT3, also inhibits EGFR.
S7025 Embelin Embelin, a quinone isolated from the Japanese Ardisia herb, is an inhibitor of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) with IC50 of 4.1 μM in a cell-free assay.
S4033 Sennoside A Sennoside A, a kind of irritant laxative isolated from rhei rhizome, causes purgative actions in the intestine.
S4018 Sennoside B Sennoside B, a kind of irritant laxative isolated from rhei rhizome, inhibits PDGF-stimulated cell proliferation.
S2252 (+)-Usniacin (+)-Usniacin is a naturally occurring dibenzofuran derivative found in several lichen species.
S2253 3-Indolebutyric acid (IBA) 3-Indolebutyric acid(IBA) is a plant hormone in the auxin family and is an ingredient in many commercial plant rooting horticultural products.
S2424 Hypoxanthine Hypoxanthine, a naturally occurring purine derivative, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis, formed from adenylic acid and itself a precursor of xanthine.
S2374 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) 5-Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), also known as oxitriptan (INN), is a naturally occurring amino acid and chemical precursor for the treatment of depression.
S2256 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) 4-Methylumbelliferone is a hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis inhibitor with an IC50 of 0.4 mM.
S2375 Aloin Aloin, a natural anthracycline from Aloe vera, is a tyrosinase inhibitor.
S2258 Esculin Esculin is a glucoside found in horse chestnuts.
S2377 Biochanin A Biochanin A, an O-methylated isoflavone from Trifolium pratense, inhibits protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) of epidermal growth factor receptor with IC50 values of 91.5 μM.
S2259 Aloe-emodin Aloe-emodin is an interferon-inducing agent with IC50 of about 1 μg/mL for JEV and of about 0.33 μg/mL for EV71.
S3071 Vanillin Vanillin, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, is a food additive.
S2260 Amygdalin Amygdalin is a glycoside initially isolated from the seeds of the tree Prunus dulcis, also known as bitter almonds.
S2379 Dioscin Dioscin is a saponin extracted and isolated from Polygonatum Zanlanscianense Pamp, showing antitumor activities.
S2261 Andrographolide Andrographolide is a labdane diterpenoid that is the main bioactive component of the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata.
S2380 Diosmetin Diosmetin is a bioflavonoid found in spearmint, oregano, and many other plants.
S2262 Apigenin Apigenin is a potent P450 inhibitor for CYP2C9 with Ki of 2 μM.
S2263 Arbutin Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor with an IC50 of 1.09 mM.
S2382 Evodiamine Evodiamine (Isoevodiamine), an alkaloid extract from the fruit of Evodiae Fructus exhibits antitumor activities against the human tumor cells. It is shown to inhibit NF-kB activation through suppression of IkB kinase activity.
S2384 Hematoxylin Hematoxylin (Hydroxybrazilin) is a compound that forms strongly colored complexes with certain metal ions, notably Fe(III) and Al(III) salts and a kind of stain in histology.
S2266 Asiatic Acid Asiatic acid is the aglycone of asiaticoside isolated from the plant Centella asiatica, commonly used in wound healing.
S2386 Indirubin Indirubin is a potent cyclin-dependent kinases and GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of about 5 μM and 0.6 μM.
S2267 Azomycin Azomycin is an antimicrobial antibiotic produced by a strain of Nocardia mesenterica.
S2268 Baicalein Baicalein is a CYP2C9 and prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor.
S2269 Baicalin Baicalin is a known prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor and affects the GABA receptors.
S2389 Naringin Dihydrochalcone Naringin Dihydrochalcone(Naringin DC) is a new-style sweetening agent and an artificial sweetener derived from naringin and also an inhibitor of CYP enzymes.
S2270 Bergenin Bergenin is trihydroxybenzoic acid glycoside and the C-glycoside of 4-O-methyl gallic acid.
S2390 Polydatin Polydatin is a crystal component extracted from the root stem of perennial herbage Polygonum Cuspidatum Zucc.
S2271 Berberine chloride Berberine chloride is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of isoquinoline alkaloids.
S2391 Quercetin Quercetin, a natural flavonoid present in vegetables, fruit and wine, is a stimulator of recombinant SIRT1 and also a PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 2.4-5.4 μM. Phase 4.
S3600 Schisandrin B (Sch B) Schisandrin B is the most abundant dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan present in the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. It is a kind of ATR and P-gp inhibitor with high safety.
S2273 β-Sitosterol β-Sitosterol is one of several phytosterols (plant sterols) with chemical structures similar to that of cholesterol.
S2392 Sesamin Sesamin, a lignan isolated from the bark of Fagara plants and from sesame oil, exhibits various health benefits.
S2448 Gambogic Acid Gambogic Acid activates caspases with EC50 of 0.78-1.64 μM and competitively inhibits Bcl-XL, Bcl-2, Bcl-W, Bcl-B, Bfl-1 and Mcl-1 with IC50 of 1.47, 1.21, 2.02, 0.66, 1.06 and 0.79 μM, respectively.
S2276 Bilobalide Bilobalide is a biologically active terpenic trilactone present in Ginkgo biloba.
S2277 Caffeic Acid Caffeic acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid, a naturally occurring organic compound. Caffeic acid is an inhibitor of both TRPV1 ion channel and 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO).
S2281 Chrysin Chrysin is a naturally occurring flavone chemically extracted from the blue passion flower (Passiflora caerulea).
S2282 Cinchonidine Cinchonidine is an alkaloid used in asymmetric synthesis in organic chemistry.
S2422 Ipriflavone (Osteofix) Ipriflavone (7-Isopropoxyisoflavon) is used to inhibit bone resorption.
S2285 Cryptotanshinone Cryptotanshinone is a STAT3 inhibitor with IC50 of 4.6 μM in a cell-free assay, strongly inhibits phosphorylation of STAT3 Tyr705, with a small effect on STAT3 Ser727, but none against STAT1 nor STAT5.
S2423 (S)-10-Hydroxycamptothecin 10-Hydroxycamptothecin is a DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor with potent anti-tumor activity.
S2437 Rotundine Rotundine (L-tetrahydropalmatine, L-THP) is a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist with IC50 of 166 nM.
S2287 Cytisine Cytisine is a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist.
S2289 Daidzin Daidzin, a natural organic compound in the class of phytochemicals known as isoflavones, is a potent and selective inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and inhibits ALDH-I selectively (Ki=20 nM); at least 500 times less effective against ALDH-Ⅱ, the cytosolic isozyme (Ki=10 μM).
S2385 Hordenine Hordenine (N,N-dimethyl-4-hydroxyphenylethylamine) is a phenylethylamine alkaloid with antibacterial and antibiotic properties.
S2394 Naringenin Naringenin is a natural predominant flavanone derived from plant food, which is considered to have a bioactive effect on human health as antioxidant, free radical scavenger, anti-inflammatory, carbohydrate metabolism promoter, and immune system modulator.
S2292 Diosmin Diosmin is an agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Diosmin is a semisynthetic phlebotropic agent and a flavonoid found in a variety of citrus fruits.
S1973 Cyclocytidine HCl Cyclocytidine is the prodrug of cytarabine, which is a pyrimidine nucleoside analog that inhibits the DNA synthesis and used mainly in the treatment of leukemia.
S2296 Enoxolone Enoxolone is a pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative of the beta-amyrin type obtained from the hydrolysis of glycyrrhizic acid, which was obtained from the herb liquorice.
S2395 Rheochrysidin Physcion is an anthraquinone from roots of Rheum officinale Baill.
S2297 Ergosterol Ergosterol is a sterol and a biological precursor (a provitamin) to vitamin D2.
S2396 Salidroside Salidroside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside isolated from Rhodiola rosea, has been reported to have a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties. Salidroside is a prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor. Salidroside alleviates cachexia symptoms in mouse models of cancer cachexia via activating mTOR signalling. Salidroside protects dopaminergic neurons by enhancing PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy.
S2298 Fisetin Fisetin (Fustel) is a potent sirtuin activating compound (STAC) and an agent that modulates sirtuins.
S2397 Palmatine chloride Palmatine hydrochloride (Palmatine chloride (6CI,7CI); Fibrauretin) is a hydrochloride salt of palmatine which is a protoberberine alkaloid.
S2299 Formononetin Formononetin is a phytoestrogen from the root of Astragalus membranaceus and an O-methylated isoflavone.
S2398 Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q) is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration.
S2300 Ferulic Acid Ferulic Acid is a hydroxycinnamic acid and a type of organic compound found in the Ferula assafoetida L. or Ligusticum chuanxiong. Ferulic acid is a novel fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) inhibitor with IC50s of 3.78 and 12.5 μM for FGFR1 and FGFR2, respectively.
S2399 Dihydromyricetin Dihydromyricetin (Ampelopsin, Ampeloptin) is a natural antioxidant flavonoid from Ampelopsis grossedentata.
S2301 Genistin (Genistoside) Genistin(Genistoside) is an isoflavone found in a number of dietary plants like soy and kudzu.
S2400 Rheic Acid Rhein (Monorhein; NSC 38629; Rheic acid; Rheinic acid) is an anthraquinone compound enriched in the fresh rhizome of Rheum coreanum Nakai, showing anti-inflammation and antitumor activities. Rhein is an FTO (mRNA N6-methyladenine demethylase) inhibitor and also inhibits AlkB repair enzymes.
S2401 Sodium Danshensu Sodium Danshensu is a mono sodium of danshensu, which is a natural phenolic acid of caffeic acid derivatives isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza.
S2303 gossypol-Acetic acid Gossypol Acetate is a polyphenolic aldehyde that permeates cells and acts as an inhibitor for several dehydrogenase enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase, NAD-linked enzymes.
S2402 Cyclovirobuxin D Cyclovirobuxine D is an active compound extracted from Buxus microphylla, which has been used for treating acute myocardial ischemia.
S2304 Gramine Gramine (Donaxine) is a natural indole alkaloid isolated from giant reed, acts as an active adiponectin receptor (AdipoR) agonist, with IC50 of 3.2 µM and 4.2 µM for AdipoR2 and AdipoR1, respectively. Gramine is also a human and mouse β2-Adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) agonist.
S2403 Tetrandrine Tetrandrine, a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid derived from Stephania tetrandra, is a calcium channel blocker.
S2306 Gynostemma Extract Gynostemma Extract is a saponins extract derived from the Gynostemma pentaphyllum.
S2308 Hesperetin Hesperetin is a bioflavonoid and, to be more specific, a flavanone.
S2309 Hesperidin Hesperidin is a flavanone glycoside found abundantly in citrus fruits.
S2404 Isoliquiritigenin Isoliquiritigenin, an anti-tumor flavonoid from the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, inhibits aldose reductase with an IC50 of 320 nM.
S2405 Sophocarpine Sophocarpine, a major ingredient of Sophora alopecuroides, has a wide range of pharmacological effects.
S2311 Hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) Hyodeoxycholic(HDCA) acid is a secondary bile acid, one of the metabolic byproducts of intestinal bacteria.
S2406 Chrysophanic Acid Chrysophanic acid (Chrysophanol), a natural anthraquinone isolated from Dianella longifolia, is a EGFR/mTOR pathway inhibitor.
S2312 Icariin Icariin is a cGMP-specific PDE5 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.432 μM, 167-fold more selective for PDE5 than PDE4.
S2407 Curcumol Curcumol is a pure monomer isolated from Rhizoma Curcumaeis with antitumor activities.
S2313 Indole-3-carbinol Indole-3-carbinol is produced by the breakdown of the glucosinolate glucobrassicin, which can be found at relatively high levels in cruciferous vegetables. Indole-3-carbinol suppresses NF-κB and IκBα kinase activation.
S2314 Kaempferol Kaempferol, a natural flavonol, functions as an ERRα and ERRγ inverse agonist. It inhibits topoisomerase I catalyzed DNA religation and may also inhibit the activity of fatty acid synthase.
S1450 Nanchangmycin Nanchangmycin is a polyether antibiotic with similar structure to dianemycin and is very active against a broad spectrum of harmful nematodes and insects but not for mammals and plants.
S2316 Kinetin Kinetin is a type of cytokinin, a class of plant hormone that promotes cell division.
S2319 Limonin Limonin is a triterpenoid enriched in citrus fruits, which has antivirus and antitumor ability.
S2415 Astragaloside A Astragaloside A (Astragaloside IV) is the primary pure saponin isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, which has been widely used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
S2321 Magnolol Magnolol is a bioactive lignin found in the bark of the Houpu magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) which shows antifungal properties. It can block TNF-α-induced NF-KB activation.
S2322 (+)-Matrine Matrine((+)-Matrine) is an alkaloid found in plants from the Sophora family, which has a variety of pharmacological effects, including anti-cancer effects, and action as a kappa opioid receptor agonist.
S3032 Bindarit Bindarit exhibits selective inhibition against monocyte chemotactic proteins MCP-1/CCL2, MCP-3/CCL7 and MCP-2/CCL8.
S2326 Myricetin Myricetin, a natural flavonoid with antioxidant and anti tumor properties, is a novel inhibitor of MEK1 activity and transformation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells. It also inhibits PI3Kγ with Kd of 0.17 μM.
S2327 Myricitrin Myricitrin, a flavonoid compound isolated from the root bark of Myrica cerifera, which exerts antinociceptive effects.
S2439 Guanosine Guanosine is a purine nucleoside comprising guanine attached to a ribose (ribofuranose) ring via a β-N9-glycosidic bond.
S2329 Naringin Naringin is a flavanone glycoside, which exerts a variety of pharmacological effects such as antioxidant activity, blood lipid lowering, anticancer activity, and inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes.
S2333 Nobiletin Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid isolated from citrus peels like in tangerine, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities.
S2334 Oleanolic Acid Oleanolic Acid is a non-toxic, hepatoprotective triterpenoid found in Phytolacca Americana, which exerts antitumor and antiviral properties.
S2335 Oridonin Oridonin, a diterpenoid purified from Rabdosia rubescens, is an antitumor agent.
S2336 Orotic acid (6-Carboxyuracil) Orotic acid(6-Carboxyuracil) is a heterocyclic compound and an acid.
S2337 Osthole Osthol is an O-methylated coumarin, which is found in the plants such as Cnidium monnieri, Angelica archangelica and Angelica pubescens.
S2338 Oxymatrine Oxymatrine is a quinolizidine alkaloid extracted from the root of Sophora flavescens with anti-inflammatory, antifibrosis, and antitumor effects, inhibits the iNOS expression and TGF-β/Smad pathway. It is used for the treatment of viral hepatitis, cancer, viral myocarditis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and skin diseases.
S2339 Paeonol Paeonol (Peonol), a phenolic compound extracted from Chinese herbs Paeonia suffruticosa (moutan cortex) and Cynanchum paniculatum, inhibits MAO with an IC50 of about 50 μM.
S3603 Betulinic acid Betulinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid from Syzigium claviflorum, is a inhibitor of HIV-1 with EC50 of 1.4 μ M. Betulinic acid acts as a new activator of NF-kB.Phase 1/2.
S2341 (-)-Parthenolide (-)-Parthenolide, an inhibitor of the Nuclear Factor-κB Pathway, specifically depletes HDAC1 protein without affecting other class I/II HDACs; Also promotes the ubiquitination of MDM2 and activates p53 cellular functions.
S2343 Phlorizin Phlorizin is a dihydrochalcone found in the bark of pear (Pyrus communis), apple, cherry and other fruit trees.
S3604 Triptolide (PG490) Triptolide is a diterpene triepoxide, immunosuppresive agent extracted from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii. It functions as a NF-κB inhibitor with dual actions by disruption of p65/CBP interaction and by reduction of p65 protein.
S2344 Piperine Piperine (1-Piperoylpiperidine) is the alkaloid responsible for the pungency of black pepper and long pepper, which has also been used in some forms of traditional medicine and as an insecticide.
S2346 Puerarin Puerarin (Kakonein), an isoflavones found in the root of Radix puerariae, is a 5-HT2C receptor and benzodiazepine site antagonist.
S2347 Quercetin Dihydrate Quercetin, a polyphenolic flavonoid found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, such as apples, onions, berries, and red wine, is utilized in many different cultures for their nervous system and anticancer effects. Quercetin (dihydrate), a natural flavonoid, is a stimulator of recombinant SIRT1 and a PI3K inhibitor with IC50s of 2.4 μM, 3.0 μM and 5.4 μM for PI3K γ, PI3K δ and PI3K β, respectively.
S2349 Rutaecarpine Rutaecarpine is an indolopyridoquinazolinone alkaloid isolated from Evodia rutaecarpa and related herbs; a new class of COX-2 inhibitor.
S2350 Rutin Rutin, a flavonol glycoside found in many plants including buckwheat; tobacco; forsythia; hydrangea; viola, etc., which possesses healthy effects for human.
S2351 Salicin Salicin is a phenol β-glycosid produced from willow bark that shows anti-inflammatory effects. It is a natural, non-selective COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor.
S2354 Sclareol Sclareol, a labdane-type diterpene isolated from clary sage (Salvia sclarea), exerts growth inhibition and cytotoxic activity against a variety of human cancer cell lines.
S2355 Sclareolide Sclareolide(Norambreinolide) is a sesquiterpene lactone natural product derived from various plant sources including Salvia sclarea, Salvia yosgadensis, and cigar tobacco.
S2356 Shikimic Acid Shikimic acid(Shikimate), more commonly known as its anionic form shikimate, is an important biochemical intermediate in plants and microorganisms.
S2357 Silibinin Silibinin, the main flavonoid extracted from the milk thistle Silybum marianum, displays hepatoprotective properties in acute and chronic liver injury.
S2358 Silymarin Silymarin (Silybin B), a polyphenolic flavonoid extracted from the seeds of Silybum marianum or milk thistle, is used in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases and primary liver cancer.
S2359 Sinomenine Sinomenine, a pure alkaloid extracted from the chinese medical plant Sinomenium acutum, is used for the treatment of rheumatism and arthritis.
S2362 Synephrine Synephrine, a natural protoalkaloid in the extract of bitter orange and other citrus species, is commonly used for weight loss.
S2363 Tangeretin Tangeretin, a natural polymethoxylated flavone concentrated in the peel of citrus fruits, is known to have antiproliferative, antiinvasive, antimetastatic and antioxidant activities.
S2364 Tanshinone I Tanshinone I, an active principle isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), is structurally similar to tanshinone IIA and may possess similar cytotoxic effects on tumor cells.
S2365 Tanshinone IIA Tanshinone IIA(Tanshinone B) is the most abundant diterpene quinone in Danshen, Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix, a widely prescribed traditional herbal medicine that is used to treat cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases; A natural monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor.
S2366 Taxifolin (Dihydroquercetin) Taxifolin, type I inhibitor for VEGFR-2 kinase, is a flavonoid in many plants such as Taxus chinensis, Siberian larch, Cedrus deodara and so on.
S2368 Theobromine Theobromine is a xanthine alkaloid widely consumed as stimulants and snacks in coffee and cocoa based foods and most often as part of ingredients in drugs.
S2371 Vanillylacetone Vanillylacetone is similar in chemical structure to other flavor chemicals such as vanillin and eugenol and is used as a flavor additive in spice oils and in perfumery to introduce spicy aromas. Vanillylacetone (Zingerone) alleviates oxidative stress and inflammation, down-regulates NF-κB mediated signaling pathways. Zingerone acts as an anti-mitotic agent, and inhibits the growth of neuroblastoma cells.
S2372 Xanthone Xanthone is an organic compound, which can be prepared by the heating of phenyl salicylate.
S2373 Yohimbine HCl Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of impotence. It is also alleged to be an aphrodisiac.
S7904 2',3'-cGAMP 2',3'-cGAMP is produced in response to DNA in the cytoplasm in mammalian cells and binds STING with high affinity and is an effective inducer of interferon-β (IFNβ). The binding affinity of 2 ’, 3’-cGAMP to STING is 3.79 nM (Kd value).