For research use only.
Catalog No.S3624 Synonyms: pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, QUIN
Molecular Weight(MW): 167.12
Quinolinic Acid, a neuroactive metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, is an agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.
Purity & Quality Control
Choose Selective NMDAR Inhibitors
|Description||Quinolinic Acid, a neuroactive metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, is an agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor.|
QUIN is an agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and it has a high in vivo potency as an excitotoxin. Although QUIN has an uptake system, its neuronal degradation enzyme is rapidly saturated, and the rest of extracellular QUIN can continue stimulating the NMDA receptor. QUIN (10 μM) prevents of glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule neurons, nevertheless mature organotypic cultures of rat corticostriatal system or caudate nucleus chronically exposed to 100 nM QUIN for up to 7 weeks show focal degeneration characterized by the presence of vacuoles in neuropil, swollen dendrites, occasional swollen post-synaptic elements, and degenerated neurons. In vitro QUIN treatment of human primary foetal neurons leads to a substantial increase of tau phosphorylation at multiple positions. The increase in QUIN-induced phosphorylation of tau is attributed to a decrease in the expression and activity of the major tau phosphatases. QUIN can inhibit B monoamine oxidase (MAO-B) in human brain synaptosomal mitochondria and also can be a potent inhibitor of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (EC 184.108.40.206) from rat liver cytoplasm, an important enzyme in the gluconeogenesis pathway that converts oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate. QUIN can increase free radical production by inducing NOS activity in astrocytes and neurons, leading to oxidative stress, increasing both poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity and extracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity.
|In vivo||Quinolinic acid (QUIN), a neuroactive metabolite of the kynurenine pathway, is normally presented in nanomolar concentrations in human brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and is often implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of human neurological diseases. The concentration of QUIN varies among different brain regions, with the cerebral cortex containing approximately 1.8 nmol/g wet weight; almost 2-fold than that found in the hippocampus (1 nmol/g wet weight). Intraarterial administration of either micromolar or millimolar concentrations of QUIN results in only negligible accumulations of this metabolite in the brain, suggesting that the central nervous system (CNS) appears to be well protected by the blood brain barrier (BBB) from peripheral QUIN. QUIN can also increase glutamate release and inhibit its reuptake by astrocytes, thus increasing its concentration in the microenvironments, causing neurotoxicity and also limiting glutamate to glutamine recycling in astrocytes by decreasing glutamine synthetase activity. Intrastriatal injection of QUIN provokes a decrease of cellular respiration and ATP levels.|
|In vitro||DMSO||25 mg/mL (149.59 mM)|
|Water||3 mg/mL (17.95 mM)|
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.
|Synonyms||pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, QUIN|
In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)
|Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)|
|Dosage||mg/kg||Average weight of animals||g||Dosing volume per animal||ul||Number of animals|
|Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation ()|
|% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O|
Working concentration： mg/ml；
Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: ： mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO (Master liquid concentration mg/mL，)
Method for preparing in vivo formulation：Take DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300， mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80，mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O，mix and clarify.
1.Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2.Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.
Calculate the mass, volume or concentration required for a solution. The Selleck molarity calculator is based on the following equation:
Mass (mg) = Concentration (mM) × Volume (mL) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)
*When preparing stock solutions, please always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the via label and MSDS / COA (available on product pages).
Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution. The Selleck dilution calculator is based on the following equation:
Concentration (start) x Volume (start) = Concentration (final) x Volume (final)
This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2 ( Input Output )
* When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and MSDS / COA (available online).
Molecular Weight Calculator
Enter the chemical formula of a compound to calculate its molar mass and elemental composition:
Tip: Chemical formula is case sensitive. C10H16N2O2 c10h16n2o2
Instructions to calculate molar mass (molecular weight) of a chemical compound:
To calculate molar mass of a chemical compound, please enter its chemical formula and click 'Calculate'.
Definitions of molecular mass, molecular weight, molar mass and molar weight:
Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u). (1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12)
Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/mol.
Clinical Trial Information
|NCT Number||Recruitment||interventions||Conditions||Sponsor/Collaborators||Start Date||Phases|
|NCT04342975||Recruiting||Drug: Nicotinamide Riboside + Pterostilbene|Drug: Placebo||AKI||Mayo Clinic|Elysium Health||July 2020||Phase 2|
|NCT04005781||Not yet recruiting||Drug: Hydroxychloroquine sulphate|Drug: Placebo||Obesity||Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven||October 1 2019||Phase 4|
|NCT04005768||Not yet recruiting||Drug: Hydroxychloroquine Sulphate|Drug: Placebo||Obesity||Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven||August 1 2019||Phase 4|
|NCT02817919||Completed||--||Malaria||African Collaborating Centre for Pharmacovigilance|Kintampo Health Research Centre Ghana|University of Health and Allied Sciences||May 2016||--|
Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.
Tel: +1-832-582-8158 Ext:3
If you have any other enquiries, please leave a message.