Betaine

Catalog No.S3755 Synonyms: trimethylglycine, glycine betaine, lycine, oxyneurine

For research use only.

Betaine (trimethylglycine, glycine betaine, lycine, oxyneurine), a methyl derivative of glycine first isolated from sugar beets, has been shown to have potential benefits for fighting heart disease, improving body composition, and helping promote muscle gain and fat loss because of its abilities to promote protein synthesis in the body.

Betaine Chemical Structure

CAS No. 107-43-7

Purity & Quality Control

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Biological Activity

Description Betaine (trimethylglycine, glycine betaine, lycine, oxyneurine), a methyl derivative of glycine first isolated from sugar beets, has been shown to have potential benefits for fighting heart disease, improving body composition, and helping promote muscle gain and fat loss because of its abilities to promote protein synthesis in the body.
In vitro

Betaine shows negligible cytotoxicity even after long-term exposure of cells. It is rich in abundant microorganisms, plants, and animals. In human serum, the resting concentration of betaine ranges from ~2.3 to 8.2 mg/L. As a well-known osmoprotectant, betaine is able to protect cells against osmotically induced inactivation. Betaine could work as a nontoxic CPA (Cryoprotectants) and enable cells to survive ultrarapid cryopreservation to achieve superior cell survival efficiency. It is found that cellular uptake of betaine is ultra-rapid for intracellular protection during the freezing process[1]. Betaine stabilizes corneal epithelial cell volume under hyperosmotic stress and limits hyperosmotic stress-induced HCLE apoptosis[3].

In vivo Betaine (glycine betaine or trimethylglycine) plays important roles as an osmolyte and a methyl donor in animals. In humans, betaine is obtained from the diet or from its metabolic precursor choline. Betaine is utilized as a methyl donor in a reaction that converts homocysteine into methionine via betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase. Betaine also plays a role in osmotic regulation in the kidneys, which are routinely exposed to high extracellular osmolarity during normal operation of the urinary concentrating mechanism. Furthermore, dietary betaine suppresses the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) with oxidative stress, and the protein expression of proinflammatory molecules such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in aged rat kidneys. Betaine has protective effects against LPS-induced memory impairment that are mediated through unique mechanisms involving betaine actions on GAT2, which is involved in the development of memory impairment, without affecting proinflammatory molecules or glial markers[2].

Protocol (from reference)

Cell Research:[3]
  • Cell lines: Human corneal limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells
  • Concentrations: 5 or 10 mM
  • Incubation Time: 16 h
  • Method: Human corneal limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells exposed to culture medium for 16 h at 300 mOsm (isotonic) or 500 mOsm (hyperosmotic) in the presence or absence of betaine (5 or 10 mM) are evaluated for cell volume changes; cell viability; and apoptosis.
  • (Only for Reference)
Animal Research:[2]
  • Animal Models: Male ddY strain mice
  • Dosages: 0.081, 0.163, or 0.326 mmol/kg
  • Administration: s.c.
  • (Only for Reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro

DMSO 23 mg/mL
(196.32 mM)


* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 117.15
Formula

C5H11NO2

CAS No. 107-43-7
Storage 3 years -20°C powder
2 years -80°C in solvent
Smiles C[N+](C)(C)CC(=O)[O-]

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

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Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300, mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80, mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O, mix and clarify.

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next add μL Corn oil, mix and clarify.

Note: 1. Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2. Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such
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Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT04633044 Recruiting Dietary Supplement: Betaine|Dietary Supplement: Placebo Overweight and Obesity Fundació Sant Joan de Déu February 11 2021 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT04694235 Recruiting Dietary Supplement: Egg intervention Weight Gain|Anemia Iron Deficiency|Birth Weight|Birth Length|Child Development|Zinc Deficiency|Folate Deficiency|B12 Deficiency Vitamin|Amino Acid Deficiency|Mineral Deficiency|Vitamin A Deficiency|Fatty Acid Deficiency|Parasite Infestation|E. Coli Infection|Salmonella Infections|Shigella Infection|Protozoan Infections SEAMEO Regional Centre for Food and Nutrition|London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine|University of Aberdeen|University of Brighton|University College London|Royal Veterinary College|Birkbeck University of London|The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI)|Cheikh Anta Diop University Senegal|National Institute of Nutrition India|International Centre for Research in Agroforestry|Science Made Simple|Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine|International Initiative for Impact Evaluation|Digital Green Foundation|SOAS University of London|University of Sheffield February 12 2021 Not Applicable

(data from https://clinicaltrials.gov, updated on 2021-09-06)

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

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