Shikonin

For research use only.

Catalog No.S8279 Synonyms: Anchusin, Anchusa acid, Alkanna Red, C.I. 75535, Isoarnebin 4, NSC 252844

5 publications

Shikonin Chemical Structure

Molecular Weight(MW): 288.30

Shikonin, a potent and specific Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) inhibitor, is a major component of zicao (purple gromwell, the dried root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon), a Chinese herbal medicine with various biological activities. It is also an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay.

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Purity & Quality Control

Choose Selective Anti-infection Inhibitors

Biological Activity

Description Shikonin, a potent and specific Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) inhibitor, is a major component of zicao (purple gromwell, the dried root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon), a Chinese herbal medicine with various biological activities. It is also an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay.
Targets
chemokine receptor [1] PKM2 [3]
(FBP absence)
PKM2 [3]
(FBP presence)
TMEM16A chloride channel [2]
()
0.3 μM 0.8 μM 6.5 μM
In vitro

At nanomolar concentrations, shikonin inhibits monocyte chemotaxis and calcium flux in response to a variety of CC chemokines (CCL2 [monocyte chemoattractant protein 1], CCL3 [macrophage inflammatory protein 1α], and CCL5 [regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted protein]), the CXC chemokine (CXCL12 [stromal cell-derived factor 1α]), and classic chemoattractants (formylmethionyl-leucine-phenylalanine and complement fraction C5a). Shikonin down-regulates surface expression of CCR5, a primary HIV-1 coreceptor, on macrophages. The anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory activities of shikonin may be related to its interference with chemokine receptor expression and function[1]. Shikonin inhibits enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect is partially through inhibition of basolateral K+ channel activity[2].

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
A101D cell MV;Hdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M4Dj[mlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hSTFyMVSgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME2wMlcyOiCwTR?= NFTQNnlUSU6JRWK=
TE-441-T cell NFfI[mtIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= M3fkZ2lvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hXEVvNESxMXQh[2WubDDndo94fGhiaX6gZUBk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTDhd5NigSxiSVO1NF0zNjJ2IH7N NUHLNIFFW0GQR1XS
NALM-6 cell MV\Hdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NIHPOY5KdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKE6DTF2tOkBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVIvQCCwTR?= Mn;BV2FPT0WU
SW1710 cell MXXHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M3X5TmlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hW1dzN{GwJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9Nk46OSCwTR?= NXrqXFVkW0GQR1XS
ST486 cell MYjHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M{e1NGlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hW1R2OE[gZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME22MlE5KG6P MXHTRW5ITVJ?
SK-UT-1 cell growth NWPTcGJLT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= MnHKTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBUUy2XVD2xJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9O{41PCCwTR?= M3XvUnNCVkeHUh?=
A253 cell NHW0RpRIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= NWrze482UW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCDMkWzJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9O{41QSCwTR?= NE\Md2NUSU6JRWK=
KU812 cell NFXBcpJIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= NVvlZY9bUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCNVUixNkBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVgvOzFibl2= MXTTRW5ITVJ?
A427 cell NIS1NGFIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= MWXJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGE1OjdiY3XscEBoem:5dHigbY4h[SClZXzsJJZq[WKrbHn0fUBie3OjeTygTWM2OD1zNz65PUBvVQ>? M2H3dnNCVkeHUh?=
MZ1-PC cell NEi4RlBIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= M1foTGlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hVVpzLWDDJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9NVkvOjhibl2= M{X6[XNCVkeHUh?=
NCI-H2009 cell MlexS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? NUT5[YlxUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCQQ1mtTFIxODliY3XscEBoem:5dHigbY4h[SClZXzsJJZq[WKrbHn0fUBie3OjeTygTWM2OD1{MD61OEBvVQ>? NUDlSHViW0GQR1XS
CAL-51 cell NFvXO3RIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= MYrJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGNCVC13MTDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUKwMlg2KG6P MYTTRW5ITVJ?
GCIY cell MnS2S5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? NVPNXphIUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCJQ1nZJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9N|UvQThibl2= NXfHUIhnW0GQR1XS
SK-PN-DW cell MnTxS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? MYXJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJHNMNVCQLVTXJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9N|YvPTVibl2= Ml;2V2FPT0WU
MES-SA cell MV3Hdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M3W1U2lvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hVUWVLWPBJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9OFEvOzJibl2= NH\DW4dUSU6JRWK=
KS-1 cell MlX0S5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? M1Pl[2lvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hU1NvMTDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUSxMlUhdk1? MkLhV2FPT0WU
IGROV-1 cell MnLHS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? MWfJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGlIWk:YLUGgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME21OU43OSCwTR?= M1\uXXNCVkeHUh?=
HMV-II cell M2Pw[Wdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MYXJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGhOXi2LSTDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUW2MlQhdk1? MWXTRW5ITVJ?
SW982 cell MXTHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? Mm[2TY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBUXzl6MjDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPU[wMlI{KG6P MUfTRW5ITVJ?
NCI-H2052 cell Mkm4S5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? MWXJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJG5EUS2KMkC1NkBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVYyNjF|IH7N MmfjV2FPT0WU
RT-112 cell NYDafFBoT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= NX7URplHUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCUVD2xNVIh[2WubDDndo94fGhiaX6gZUBk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTDhd5NigSxiSVO1NF04OC5|NzDuUS=> NH2yXoRUSU6JRWK=
AN3-CA cell NYLDbJV7T3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= NYSyS3FNUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCDTkOtR2Eh[2WubDDndo94fGhiaX6gZUBk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTDhd5NigSxiSVO1NF04QS54NTDuUS=> NWXRVlhPW0GQR1XS
A498 cell MXPHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MofLTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBCPDl6IHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;OEGuPUBvVQ>? NGHwO2FUSU6JRWK=
8-MG-BA cell M1i3SWdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NUXUeJdHUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiB6LV3HMWJCKGOnbHyg[5Jwf3SqIHnuJIEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgZZN{[XluIFnDOVA:QDVwNU[gcm0> NGjCVFZUSU6JRWK=
HLE cell MmrUS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? NUTxNFFiUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCKTFWgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME24PE4{OSCwTR?= MWDTRW5ITVJ?
AM-38 cell NHzETHRIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= MUTJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGFONTN6IHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;OU[uN|Ehdk1? NGTpNmpUSU6JRWK=
NCI-H1963 cell Mn;JS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? M{LmVWlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hVkOLLVixPVY{KGOnbHyg[5Jwf3SqIHnuJIEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgZZN{[XluIFnDOVA:OC5zMECxNUDPxE1? MnjTV2FPT0WU
NKM-1 cell NUjzUVRWT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= NXnHemdzUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCQS12tNUBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVAvOTBzMjFOwG0> M13IbnNCVkeHUh?=
MRK-nu-1 cell M{W3VWdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MnOzTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBOWktvboWtNUBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVAvOTBzOUOg{txO M3fv[HNCVkeHUh?=
GR-ST cell Mn7MS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? MnjZTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBIWi2VVDDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUCuNVAzOThizszN M1L1bXNCVkeHUh?=
A431 cell M37O[Wdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NEK2eo1KdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKEF2M{GgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME2wMlExPjl5IN88US=> MkL4V2FPT0WU
SK-LMS-1 cell MoPXS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? M3rUR2lvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hW0tvTF3TMVEh[2WubDDndo94fGhiaX6gZUBk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTDhd5NigSxiSVO1NF0xNjFyOESxJO69VQ>? MU\TRW5ITVJ?
MZ7-mel cell Mm\1S5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? MnjsTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBOYjdvbXXsJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9NE4yOTN5MjFOwG0> MmWyV2FPT0WU
KASUMI-1 cell NIPEc2tIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= MorQTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBMSVOXTVmtNUBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVAvOTJ|N{Gg{txO NG\xT|NUSU6JRWK=
A204 cell NHX5RmtIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= MnHNTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBCOjB2IHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;MD6xNlY2PCEQvF2= NEj6fG1USU6JRWK=
M059J cell NHXBW|JIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= NEfaW29KdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKE1yNUnKJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9NE4yOzRzOTFOwG0> NUHoVZJoW0GQR1XS
NCI-H2342 cell NGPmV2pIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= NGTEeIVKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKE6FST3INlM1OiClZXzsJIdzd3e2aDDpckBiKGOnbHygeoli[mmuaYT5JIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTBwMUO0OFUh|ryP NUX3XlY4W0GQR1XS
KYSE-450 cell NYizNoRGT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= M4HkZWlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hU1mVRT20OVAh[2WubDDndo94fGhiaX6gZUBk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTDhd5NigSxiSVO1NF0xNjF|OEG1JO69VQ>? NXn1R|d6W0GQR1XS
SR cell NITEd21Iem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= M2PhcWlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hW1JiY3XscEBoem:5dHigbY4h[SClZXzsJJZq[WKrbHn0fUBie3OjeTygTWM2OD1yLkG0NFc{KM7:TR?= M{XHNXNCVkeHUh?=
J82 cell NHXyRolIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= MmnJTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBLQDJiY3XscEBoem:5dHigbY4h[SClZXzsJJZq[WKrbHn0fUBie3OjeTygTWM2OD1yLkG0NlU2KM7:TR?= M1jYZXNCVkeHUh?=
NTERA-S-cl-D1 cell M17vfmdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 Ml7mTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBPXEWUQT3TMYNtNURzIHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;MD6xOFM2PyEQvF2= M1;WTHNCVkeHUh?=
ACHN cell NELn[mpIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= MkXCTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBCS0iQIHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;MD6xOFY{QCEQvF2= MoL5V2FPT0WU
REH cell MnzOS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? NFPHRndKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKFKHSDDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUCuNVQ3QTZizszN NHTENmhUSU6JRWK=
MEL-HO cell M2rydmdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M1i2dmlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hVUWOLVjPJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9NE4yPDh6MjFOwG0> MXnTRW5ITVJ?
DEL cell NYK2dXo{T3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= MVjJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGRGVCClZXzsJIdzd3e2aDDpckBiKGOnbHygeoli[mmuaYT5JIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTBwMUWzPFEh|ryP MXjTRW5ITVJ?
IGR-1 cell MlrZS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? M1;HNWlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hUUeULUGgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME2wMlE2Ozl6IN88US=> NFnTU3lUSU6JRWK=
RPMI-7951 cell MmP5S5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? NEC5SVlKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKFKSTVmtO|k2OSClZXzsJIdzd3e2aDDpckBiKGOnbHygeoli[mmuaYT5JIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTBwMUW2NFnPxE1? M4H0[XNCVkeHUh?=
Daoy cell NYrqZ49LT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= MlnNTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBF[W:7IHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;MD6xOVg4PyEQvF2= MVrTRW5ITVJ?
CAL-85-1 cell MWDHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M{LM[WlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hS0GOLUi1MVEh[2WubDDndo94fGhiaX6gZUBk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTDhd5NigSxiSVO1NF0xNjF4MEezJO69VQ>? NUjWWJhDW0GQR1XS
SNU-423 cell NEDuNHNIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= MVvJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJHNPXS12MkOgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME2wMlE3OzB5IN88US=> NY\mPHNPW0GQR1XS
PANC-03-27 cell MnrMS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? MVPJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJHBCVkNvMEOtNlch[2WubDDndo94fGhiaX6gZUBk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTDhd5NigSxiSVO1NF0xNjF4N{Sg{txO M3\yZXNCVkeHUh?=
CHL-1 cell M37lXGdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NH7ocVFKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKEOKTD2xJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9NE4yPjd6IN88US=> NH;uN2pUSU6JRWK=
SIG-M5 cell NWjpXplST3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= M3\UWGlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hW0mJLV21JINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9NE4yPjl6NjFOwG0> NYXPTmc2W0GQR1XS
DU-4475 cell MmTBS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? NVL1fXJDUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCGVT20OFc2KGOnbHyg[5Jwf3SqIHnuJIEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgZZN{[XluIFnDOVA:OC5zN{m4OEDPxE1? NXLNV|hWW0GQR1XS
QIMR-WIL cell NXG0TJcyT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= NHG0Z4FKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKFGLTWKtW2lNKGOnbHyg[5Jwf3SqIHnuJIEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgZZN{[XluIFnDOVA:OC5zOEG4PUDPxE1? M2nFPXNCVkeHUh?=
COLO-679 cell M{HoNGdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NWHzd2RCUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCFT1zPMVY4QSClZXzsJIdzd3e2aDDpckBiKGOnbHygeoli[mmuaYT5JIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTBwMUi0NFEh|ryP NGi2S2FUSU6JRWK=
HOS cell M2WwUGdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M2rWTmlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hUE:VIHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;MD6xPFYxQCEQvF2= NEXaSItUSU6JRWK=
CA46 cell NITHR5VIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= M2XuTGlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hS0F2NjDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUCuNVkyQDVizszN MWTTRW5ITVJ?
DU-145 cell NEjNdVBIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= MVzJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGRWNTF2NTDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUCuNVk{ODlizszN MleyV2FPT0WU
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SBC-5 cell M3TtUGdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MnW1TY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBUSkNvNTDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUCuNlE2PDZizszN NWq5SZF5W0GQR1XS
KYSE-270 cell M1HUOWdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NH32O5RKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKEu\U1WtNlcxKGOnbHyg[5Jwf3SqIHnuJIEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgZZN{[XluIFnDOVA:OC5{MU[5NkDPxE1? NF3RdXRUSU6JRWK=
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T47D cell M{nhOGdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NInSSppKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKFR2N1SgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME2wMlIzOzB4IN88US=> NVHGbGtkW0GQR1XS
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HGC-27 cell MWTHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? Mn3YTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBJT0NvMkegZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME2wMlIzQDN2IN88US=> NWS0fZBoW0GQR1XS
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COR-L105 cell MlT0S5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? NHLVTIZKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKEORUj3MNVA2KGOnbHyg[5Jwf3SqIHnuJIEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgZZN{[XluIFnDOVA:OC5{M{CzOEDPxE1? NV3NTlh4W0GQR1XS
LB647-SCLC cell M37aPWdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NEPwU49KdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKEyENkS3MXNEVENiY3XscEBoem:5dHigbY4h[SClZXzsJJZq[WKrbHn0fUBie3OjeTygTWM2OD1yLkKzNlc5KM7:TR?= MmnlV2FPT0WU
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mouse L929 cells NV;Q[FFNS3m2b4TvfIlkcXS7IHHzd4F6 NYewfGZLOjRiaB?= MVzDfZRwfG:6aXPpeJkh[WejaX7zeEBud3W|ZTDMPVI6KGOnbHzzJIFnfGW{IEK0JIhzeyCkeTDNWHQh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;Mz6yJO69VQ>? M4LYWFIyPjJyNUOw
MDA-MB-231 cells M2npZ2Z2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M1foUlI1KGh? NUHRPFVzSW62aYT1cY9zKGGldHn2bZR6KGGpYXnud5QhcHWvYX6gUWRCNU2ELUKzNUBk\WyuczDh[pRmeiB{NDDodpMh[nliTWTUJIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTZwNjFOwG0> MVmyNVYzODV|MB?=
HCT15 cells M1XTUWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MmfzNlQhcA>? MoHZRY51cXS3bX;yJIFkfGm4aYT5JIFo[Wmwc4SgbJVu[W5iSFPUNVUh[2WubIOgZYZ1\XJiMkSgbJJ{KGK7IF3UWEBie3OjeTygTWM2OD15LkOg{txO NGi5WXozOTZ{MEWzNC=>

... Click to View More Cell Line Experimental Data

Assay
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot
Bcl2 / Bax / CytC / Apaf1 / AIF / Caspase-9 / Caspase-3 / Caspase-7 ; 

PubMed: 25879420     


Shikonin treatment alters expression of mitochondrial proteins in DU-145 and PC-3 cells. Cells were treated with Shikonin for 0-24 h, expression of indicated mitochondrial proteins were performed as described in Methods. Experiments were repeated minimum two-four times.

p-PERK / PERK / p-eIF2α / eIF2α / GRP78 / CHOP ; 

PubMed: 25879420     


Shikonin treatment induces ER stress associated protein expression. Western blot experiments in prostate cancer cells treated with 2.5 μM of Shikonin increased the phosphorylation of PERK, and its substrate eIF2α, increased expression of GRP78/Bip and CHOP/GADD135 in a time-dependent manner.

MMP-2 / MMP-9 ; 

PubMed: 26473829     


Shikonin inhibited the expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. U87 and U251 cells were treated with shikonin at 2.5, 5, and 7.5 μmol/L for 48 h. Serum free DMEM served as a negative control. Expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were checked with Western Blot. (A) Effects of shikonin on the expression of MMP-2 in U87 cells; (B) Effects of shikonin on the expression of MMP-9 in U87 cells; (C) The changing pattern of MMP-2 in U251 cells; (D) The changing pattern of MMP-9 in U251 cells; (E) Effects of shikonin on the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in U87 cells; (F) Effects of shikonin on the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in U251 cells. Statistical analysis showed that shikonin significantly reduced the expression levels and activity of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 (compared with control group); # p < 0.05 (compared with 2.5 μmol/L groups) (n = 5).

p-β-catenin / β-catenin ; 

PubMed: 26473829     


(A) Western blot assay results of β-catenin and p-β-catenin Y333 in U87 cells. (D) Western blot assay results of β-catenin and p-β-catenin Ser45 in U87 cells.

25879420 26473829
Growth inhibition assay
Cell viability; 

PubMed: 25879420     


Shikonin treatment inhibits prostate cancer cell viability without affecting normal prostate epithelial cells. DU-145, PC-3 and PrEC cells were treated with various doses (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 μM) of Shikonin for 24 h and CCK-8 assay was used for the measurement of cell viability.

25879420
In vivo Shikonin significantly delays intestinal motility in mice and reduces stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Shikonin has been reported to have antioxidant, antibacterial, antiparasitic, antiviral and wound-healing activities. Shikonin inhibits allergic action as well as tracheal hyperresponsiveness in vivo. Intraperitonal injection of shikonin has been demonstrated to result in some toxicity, with an LD50 of 20 mg/kg. Shikonin absorption is fast if given by oral gavage and muscle injection, as it is barely detected in the plasma after 1 min, with a oral gavage yielding a bioavailability of about 34%[2].

Protocol

Cell Research:

[1]

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  • Cell lines: Human monocytes
  • Concentrations: 10, 1, 0.1, 0.01 μM
  • Incubation Time: 12 and 24 hours
  • Method:

    Freshly isolated human monocytes are plated in a 96-microwell plate (Costar) at 105 cells per well with shikonin at a final concentration of 10, 1, 0.1, 0.01 μM. The numbers of viable cells, as detected by MTS test and the trypan blue exclusion assay, were measured 12 and 24 h after incubation at 37°C in humidified air with 5% CO2.


    (Only for Reference)
Animal Research:

[2]

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  • Animal Models: Neonatal ICR mice
  • Dosages: 0.4 and 1.7 μg in 30 μL PBS
  • Administration: oral administration
    (Only for Reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 57 mg/mL (197.71 mM)
Ethanol 23 mg/mL (79.77 mM)
Water Insoluble
In vivo Add solvents to the product individually and in order(Data is from Selleck tests instead of citations):
2% DMSO+30% PEG 300+2% Tween 80+ddH2O
For best results, use promptly after mixing.
3mg/mL

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 288.30
Formula

C16H16O5

CAS No. 517-89-5
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms Anchusin, Anchusa acid, Alkanna Red, C.I. 75535, Isoarnebin 4, NSC 252844
Smiles CC(C)=CCC(O)C1=CC(=O)C2=C(O)C=CC(=C2C1=O)O

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)
Dosage mg/kg Average weight of animals g Dosing volume per animal ul Number of animals
Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation (Different batches have different solubility ratios, please contact Selleck to provide you with the correct ratio)
% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O
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Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID