Shikonin

For research use only.

Catalog No.S8279 Synonyms: Anchusin, Anchusa acid, Alkanna Red, C.I. 75535, Isoarnebin 4, NSC 252844

10 publications

Shikonin Chemical Structure

CAS No. 54952-43-1

Shikonin (nchusin, Anchusa acid, Alkanna Red, C.I. 75535, Isoarnebin 4, NSC 252844), a potent and specific Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) inhibitor, is a major component of zicao (purple gromwell, the dried root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon), a Chinese herbal medicine with various biological activities. It is also an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. Shikonin exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prevents activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway via proteasome inhibition.

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Selleck's Shikonin has been cited by 10 publications

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Biological Activity

Description Shikonin (nchusin, Anchusa acid, Alkanna Red, C.I. 75535, Isoarnebin 4, NSC 252844), a potent and specific Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) inhibitor, is a major component of zicao (purple gromwell, the dried root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon), a Chinese herbal medicine with various biological activities. It is also an inhibitor of TMEM16A chloride channel activity using cell-based fluorescent-quenching assay. Shikonin exerts an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prevents activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway via proteasome inhibition.
Targets
chemokine receptor [1]
()
TNF-α [4]
()
Proteasome [4]
()
NF-κB [1]
()
PKM2 [3]
(FBP absence)
0.3 μM
In vitro

At nanomolar concentrations, shikonin inhibits monocyte chemotaxis and calcium flux in response to a variety of CC chemokines (CCL2 [monocyte chemoattractant protein 1], CCL3 [macrophage inflammatory protein 1α], and CCL5 [regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted protein]), the CXC chemokine (CXCL12 [stromal cell-derived factor 1α]), and classic chemoattractants (formylmethionyl-leucine-phenylalanine and complement fraction C5a). Shikonin down-regulates surface expression of CCR5, a primary HIV-1 coreceptor, on macrophages. The anti-HIV and anti-inflammatory activities of shikonin may be related to its interference with chemokine receptor expression and function[1]. Shikonin inhibits enterocyte calcium-activated chloride channels, the inhibitory effect is partially through inhibition of basolateral K+ channel activity[2].

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
A101D cell MVjHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MXzJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGEyODGGIHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;MD63NVIhdk1? MmTtV2FPT0WU
TE-441-T cell M3Tvbmdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NWrYPVV4UW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCWRT20OFEuXCClZXzsJIdzd3e2aDDpckBiKGOnbHygeoli[mmuaYT5JIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTJwMkSgcm0> MnLOV2FPT0WU
NALM-6 cell MmPZS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? MW\Jcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJG5CVE1vNjDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUKuPEBvVQ>? NXn5ZoZyW0GQR1XS
SW1710 cell NX;jfY17T3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= M1zSb2lvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hW1dzN{GwJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9Nk46OSCwTR?= MUnTRW5ITVJ?
ST486 cell NHXaVVJIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= NGPhSolKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKFOWNEi2JINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9Ok4yQCCwTR?= M{\1U3NCVkeHUh?=
SK-UT-1 cell growth MVLHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MnrXTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBUUy2XVD2xJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9O{41PCCwTR?= MkC3V2FPT0WU
A253 cell M3f2e2dzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MlLaTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBCOjV|IHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;Nz60PUBvVQ>? MlKzV2FPT0WU
KU812 cell NHXJ[mVIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= NYjIZllJUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCNVUixNkBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVgvOzFibl2= NX\rfpU5W0GQR1XS
A427 cell NH:1bmRIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= MojnTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBCPDJ5IHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;MUeuPVkhdk1? Mn2wV2FPT0WU
MZ1-PC cell MVjHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? Mlj6TY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBOYjFvUFOgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME2xPU4zQCCwTR?= NX\YcVNKW0GQR1XS
NCI-H2009 cell MYPHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M{PPeWlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hVkOLLViyNFA6KGOnbHyg[5Jwf3SqIHnuJIEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgZZN{[XluIFnDOVA:OjBwNUSgcm0> MmjzV2FPT0WU
CAL-51 cell MVnHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M3;5UmlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hS0GOLUWxJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9NlAvQDVibl2= NXuzT4NGW0GQR1XS
GCIY cell NWHy[YRrT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= M{[wcmlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hT0OLWTDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUO1Mlk5KG6P NHTTVGlUSU6JRWK=
SK-PN-DW cell MofWS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? MkjpTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBUUy2STj3EW{Bk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVM3NjV3IH7N NXO2cFBzW0GQR1XS
MES-SA cell NWDDTVFyT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= NE\sO3pKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKE2HUz3TRUBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVQyNjN{IH7N Mn3nV2FPT0WU
KS-1 cell NEDSZXlIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= NXu2UYlvUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCNUz2xJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9OFEvPSCwTR?= MXTTRW5ITVJ?
IGROV-1 cell NEHpNpBIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= MYPJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGlIWk:YLUGgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME21OU43OSCwTR?= MofTV2FPT0WU
HMV-II cell MX\Hdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NFHhXHlKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKEiPVj3JTUBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVU3NjRibl2= NVz1b3FvW0GQR1XS
SW982 cell M4HLPWdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M3fHRmlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hW1d7OEKgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME22NE4zOyCwTR?= M2nwUXNCVkeHUh?=
NCI-H2052 cell NXH6PJNNT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= MY\Jcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJG5EUS2KMkC1NkBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVYyNjF|IH7N NXTqSWxiW0GQR1XS
RT-112 cell NET0[ohIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= NHv1OmFKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKFKWLUGxNkBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVcxNjN5IH7N NHX3dJhUSU6JRWK=
AN3-CA cell NY\xSWtkT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= NYWy[|N{UW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCDTkOtR2Eh[2WubDDndo94fGhiaX6gZUBk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTDhd5NigSxiSVO1NF04QS54NTDuUS=> M4T1SXNCVkeHUh?=
A498 cell MVPHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MULJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGE1QThiY3XscEBoem:5dHigbY4h[SClZXzsJJZq[WKrbHn0fUBie3OjeTygTWM2OD16MT65JI5O MlnLV2FPT0WU
8-MG-BA cell MYjHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MlPXTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckA5NU2JLVLBJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9PFUvPTZibl2= NVTWTZVxW0GQR1XS
HLE cell MWXHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NXXpbIczUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCKTFWgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME24PE4{OSCwTR?= NXjFW2l5W0GQR1XS
AM-38 cell MnHCS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? M1rpdWlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hSU1vM{igZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME25Ok4{OSCwTR?= MWfTRW5ITVJ?
NCI-H1963 cell MkXZS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? MU\Jcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJG5EUS2KMUm2N{Bk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVAvOTByMUGg{txO Mle3V2FPT0WU
NKM-1 cell M1GyNmdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MWPJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJG5MVS1zIHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;MD6xNFEzKM7:TR?= M2KyPXNCVkeHUh?=
MRK-nu-1 cell M2DYXmdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MmrrTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBOWktvboWtNUBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVAvOTBzOUOg{txO MlWyV2FPT0WU
GR-ST cell MlS4S5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? MV;Jcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGdTNVOWIHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;MD6xNFIyQCEQvF2= MlHNV2FPT0WU
A431 cell MXTHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NUfMN3Y{UW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCDNEOxJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9NE4yODZ7NzFOwG0> NInuWIFUSU6JRWK=
SK-LMS-1 cell NXjINpViT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= NVXWWIxsUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCVSz3MUXMuOSClZXzsJIdzd3e2aDDpckBiKGOnbHygeoli[mmuaYT5JIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTBwMUC4OFEh|ryP NX;IN5RyW0GQR1XS
MZ7-mel cell NXS2dG9uT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= M1j3eGlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hVVp5LX3lcEBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVAvOTF|N{Kg{txO MYjTRW5ITVJ?
KASUMI-1 cell M4j2U2dzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MkHmTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBMSVOXTVmtNUBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVAvOTJ|N{Gg{txO M{\RcXNCVkeHUh?=
A204 cell NUDmbWR5T3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= NY\SNlJLUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCDMkC0JINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9NE4yOjZ3NDFOwG0> MW\TRW5ITVJ?
M059J cell Mlj5S5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? MWfJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJG0xPTmMIHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;MD6xN|QyQSEQvF2= MVzTRW5ITVJ?
NCI-H2342 cell MWLHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MYHJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJG5EUS2KMkO0NkBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVAvOTN2NEWg{txO NEnhRZpUSU6JRWK=
KYSE-450 cell M4jETGdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NInRO2tKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKEu\U1WtOFUxKGOnbHyg[5Jwf3SqIHnuJIEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgZZN{[XluIFnDOVA:OC5zM{ixOUDPxE1? NXfvUnpIW0GQR1XS
SR cell NXLOOVUxT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= NV\TZphZUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCVUjDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUCuNVQxPzNizszN MkewV2FPT0WU
J82 cell MUDHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MYDJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGo5OiClZXzsJIdzd3e2aDDpckBiKGOnbHygeoli[mmuaYT5JIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTBwMUSyOVUh|ryP NF7IR4tUSU6JRWK=
NTERA-S-cl-D1 cell NHTSPIZIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= M4G0eWlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hVlSHUlGtV{1kdC2GMTDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUCuNVQ{PTdizszN NHOwT4dUSU6JRWK=
ACHN cell MnL0S5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? M3W2dWlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hSUOKTjDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUCuNVQ3OzhizszN M2HuV3NCVkeHUh?=
REH cell NHK0UIpIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= NXi3PWpZUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCURVigZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME2wMlE1Pjl4IN88US=> M4rhN3NCVkeHUh?=
MEL-HO cell MX;Hdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M3vyXmlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hVUWOLVjPJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKGmwIHGgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9NE4yPDh6MjFOwG0> NImwRnlUSU6JRWK=
DEL cell NIHleZNIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= MVPJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGRGVCClZXzsJIdzd3e2aDDpckBiKGOnbHygeoli[mmuaYT5JIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTBwMUWzPFEh|ryP NGP4dmdUSU6JRWK=
IGR-1 cell NEDnendIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= M4rPVGlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hUUeULUGgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME2wMlE2Ozl6IN88US=> MYfTRW5ITVJ?
RPMI-7951 cell MnvhS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? NGnyPZBKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKFKSTVmtO|k2OSClZXzsJIdzd3e2aDDpckBiKGOnbHygeoli[mmuaYT5JIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTBwMUW2NFnPxE1? NWPmeGpWW0GQR1XS
Daoy cell MmHWS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? M17ZdmlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hTGGxeTDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUCuNVU5PzdizszN MlroV2FPT0WU
CAL-85-1 cell NYfacI9wT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= MlfmTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBESUxvOEWtNUBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVAvOTZyN{Og{txO NXrqcYtwW0GQR1XS
SNU-423 cell NYG3SpdUT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= NVPwVHVnUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCVTmWtOFI{KGOnbHyg[5Jwf3SqIHnuJIEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgZZN{[XluIFnDOVA:OC5zNkOwO{DPxE1? Mor6V2FPT0WU
PANC-03-27 cell M1\xeGdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M2f2XGlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hWEGQQz2wN{0zPyClZXzsJIdzd3e2aDDpckBiKGOnbHygeoli[mmuaYT5JIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTBwMU[3OEDPxE1? MY\TRW5ITVJ?
CHL-1 cell NXniToxmT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= MlXnTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBEUExvMTDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUCuNVY4QCEQvF2= NHHrWWlUSU6JRWK=
SIG-M5 cell NVfRdlVET3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= NEjBXXVKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKFOLRz3NOUBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVAvOTZ7OE[g{txO NFryeFNUSU6JRWK=
DU-4475 cell NUXabFdRT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= MWjJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGi3bXHuJGRWNTR2N{WgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME2wMlE4QTh2IN88US=> NWDrUIxCW0GQR1XS
QIMR-WIL cell M2jWfmdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NX\TXoZIUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCTSV3SMXdKVCClZXzsJIdzd3e2aDDpckBiKGOnbHygeoli[mmuaYT5JIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTBwMUixPFkh|ryP M1rvNHNCVkeHUh?=
COLO-679 cell MnvVS5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? M1rJPGlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hS0:OTz22O|kh[2WubDDndo94fGhiaX6gZUBk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTDhd5NigSxiSVO1NF0xNjF6NECxJO69VQ>? MnTFV2FPT0WU
HOS cell MXjHdo94fGhiaX7obYJqfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M4HVT2lvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hUE:VIHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;MD6xPFYxQCEQvF2= MkDKV2FPT0WU
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PA-1 cell M1nQemdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 Mn;qTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBRSS1zIHPlcIwh\3Kxd4ToJIlvKGFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJkh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;MD6yNFEzQCEQvF2= M4LtXHNCVkeHUh?=
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SBC-5 cell NH;BO3FIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= NU\QXHlYUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCVQlOtOUBk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVAvOjF3NE[g{txO NGK2cohUSU6JRWK=
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HSC-2 cell NFfOXmpIem:5dHigbY5pcWKrdHnvckBie3OjeR?= MnnSTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBJW0NvMjDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiCjIHPlcIwhfmmjYnnsbZR6KGG|c3H5MEBKSzVyPUCuNlI{OThizszN MYjTRW5ITVJ?
HGC-27 cell M{Ti[Wdzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NFjS[XVKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKEiJQz2yO{Bk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCCrbjDhJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVAvOjJ6M{Sg{txO NIG0Z3VUSU6JRWK=
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COR-L105 cell Mkn5S5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gZZN{[Xl? NEfVdGhKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKEORUj3MNVA2KGOnbHyg[5Jwf3SqIHnuJIEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgZZN{[XluIFnDOVA:OC5{M{CzOEDPxE1? NIX2fotUSU6JRWK=
LB647-SCLC cell NUHHcm5JT3Kxd4ToJIlvcGmkaYTpc44h[XO|YYm= NFuwfGhKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIHj1cYFvKEyENkS3MXNEVENiY3XscEBoem:5dHigbY4h[SClZXzsJJZq[WKrbHn0fUBie3OjeTygTWM2OD1yLkKzNlc5KM7:TR?= NIPWTm5USU6JRWK=
G-401 cell M{XTN2dzd3e2aDDpcohq[mm2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M{n3TGlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hTy12MEGgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5iYTDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjc4PhfUwhUUN3ME2wMlI{PDl{IN88US=> Mom4V2FPT0WU
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HepG2 cell NVq3OWNPS3m2b4TvfIlkcXS7IHHzd4F6 NYroU3psOjRiaB?= MoXyR5l1d3SxeHnjbZR6KGGpYXnud5QhVUSUMTDQ[5Ahd3[ncnX4dJJme3OrbnegbJVu[W5iSHXwS|Ih[2WubIOgZYZ1\XJiMkSgbJJ{KGK7IF3UWEBie3OjeTygTWM2OD1yLkK0JO69VQ>? M1vENFE4QTR7OEW4
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mouse L929 cells MVrDfZRwfG:6aXPpeJkh[XO|YYm= NYD4VId7OjRiaB?= MWjDfZRwfG:6aXPpeJkh[WejaX7zeEBud3W|ZTDMPVI6KGOnbHzzJIFnfGW{IEK0JIhzeyCkeTDNWHQh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;Mz6yJO69VQ>? NXnqcIRMOjF4MkC1N|A>
MDA-MB-231 cells NUXrdZZlTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NEKzSpYzPCCq M13wcWFvfGm2dX3vdkBi[3Srdnn0fUBi\2GrboP0JIh2dWGwIF3ERU1OSi1{M{GgZ4VtdHNiYX\0[ZIhOjRiaILzJIJ6KE2WVDDhd5NigSxiSVO1NF03NjZizszN MUOyNVYzODV|MB?=
HCT15 cells NITkVmlHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NX\QTmJSOjRiaB?= M{Xjd2FvfGm2dX3vdkBi[3Srdnn0fUBi\2GrboP0JIh2dWGwIFjDWFE2KGOnbHzzJIFnfGW{IEK0JIhzeyCkeTDNWHQh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;Nz6zJO69VQ>? MmjGNlE3OjB3M{C=

... Click to View More Cell Line Experimental Data

Assay
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot
Bcl2 / Bax / CytC / Apaf1 / AIF / Caspase-9 / Caspase-3 / Caspase-7 ; 

PubMed: 25879420     


Shikonin treatment alters expression of mitochondrial proteins in DU-145 and PC-3 cells. Cells were treated with Shikonin for 0-24 h, expression of indicated mitochondrial proteins were performed as described in Methods. Experiments were repeated minimum two-four times.

p-PERK / PERK / p-eIF2α / eIF2α / GRP78 / CHOP ; 

PubMed: 25879420     


Shikonin treatment induces ER stress associated protein expression. Western blot experiments in prostate cancer cells treated with 2.5 μM of Shikonin increased the phosphorylation of PERK, and its substrate eIF2α, increased expression of GRP78/Bip and CHOP/GADD135 in a time-dependent manner.

MMP-2 / MMP-9 ; 

PubMed: 26473829     


Shikonin inhibited the expression and activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. U87 and U251 cells were treated with shikonin at 2.5, 5, and 7.5 μmol/L for 48 h. Serum free DMEM served as a negative control. Expressions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were checked with Western Blot. (A) Effects of shikonin on the expression of MMP-2 in U87 cells; (B) Effects of shikonin on the expression of MMP-9 in U87 cells; (C) The changing pattern of MMP-2 in U251 cells; (D) The changing pattern of MMP-9 in U251 cells; (E) Effects of shikonin on the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in U87 cells; (F) Effects of shikonin on the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in U251 cells. Statistical analysis showed that shikonin significantly reduced the expression levels and activity of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 proteins compared with the control group in a dose-dependent manner. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 (compared with control group); # p < 0.05 (compared with 2.5 μmol/L groups) (n = 5).

p-β-catenin / β-catenin ; 

PubMed: 26473829     


(A) Western blot assay results of β-catenin and p-β-catenin Y333 in U87 cells. (D) Western blot assay results of β-catenin and p-β-catenin Ser45 in U87 cells.

25879420 26473829
Growth inhibition assay
Cell viability; 

PubMed: 25879420     


Shikonin treatment inhibits prostate cancer cell viability without affecting normal prostate epithelial cells. DU-145, PC-3 and PrEC cells were treated with various doses (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 and 10 μM) of Shikonin for 24 h and CCK-8 assay was used for the measurement of cell viability.

25879420
In vivo

Shikonin significantly delays intestinal motility in mice and reduces stool water content in a neonatal mice model of rotaviral diarrhea without affecting the viral infection process in vivo. Shikonin has been reported to have antioxidant, antibacterial, antiparasitic, antiviral and wound-healing activities. Shikonin inhibits allergic action as well as tracheal hyperresponsiveness in vivo. Intraperitonal injection of shikonin has been demonstrated to result in some toxicity, with an LD50 of 20 mg/kg. Shikonin absorption is fast if given by oral gavage and muscle injection, as it is barely detected in the plasma after 1 min, with a oral gavage yielding a bioavailability of about 34%[2].

Protocol

Cell Research:

[1]

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  • Cell lines: Human monocytes
  • Concentrations: 10, 1, 0.1, 0.01 μM
  • Incubation Time: 12 and 24 hours
  • Method:

    Freshly isolated human monocytes are plated in a 96-microwell plate (Costar) at 105 cells per well with shikonin at a final concentration of 10, 1, 0.1, 0.01 μM. The numbers of viable cells, as detected by MTS test and the trypan blue exclusion assay, were measured 12 and 24 h after incubation at 37°C in humidified air with 5% CO2.


    (Only for Reference)
Animal Research:

[2]

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  • Animal Models: Neonatal ICR mice
  • Dosages: 0.4 and 1.7 μg in 30 μL PBS
  • Administration: oral administration
    (Only for Reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 57 mg/mL (197.71 mM)
Ethanol 23 mg/mL (79.77 mM)
Water Insoluble
In vivo Add solvents to the product individually and in order(Data is from Selleck tests instead of citations):
2% DMSO+30% PEG 300+2% Tween 80+ddH2O
For best results, use promptly after mixing.
3mg/mL

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 288.30
Formula

C16H16O5

CAS No. 54952-43-1
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms Anchusin, Anchusa acid, Alkanna Red, C.I. 75535, Isoarnebin 4, NSC 252844
Smiles CC(=CCC(C1=CC(=O)C2=C(C=CC(=C2C1=O)O)O)O)C

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

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Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID