4-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)
For research use only.
Catalog No.S4700 Synonyms: 4-Aminobutanoic acid, GABA, Gamma-aminobutyric acid, Piperidic acid
CAS No. 56-12-2
4-Aminobutyric acid (4-Aminobutanoic acid, GABA, Gamma-aminobutyric acid, Piperidic acid) is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter with central nervous system (CNS) inhibitory activity.
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|Description||4-Aminobutyric acid (4-Aminobutanoic acid, GABA, Gamma-aminobutyric acid, Piperidic acid) is a naturally occurring neurotransmitter with central nervous system (CNS) inhibitory activity.|
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions primarily as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature central nervous system. The addition of GABA into the cell culture medium promoted the proliferation of GABRP-expressing PDAC cells, but not GABRP-negative cells, and GABAA receptor antagonists inhibited this growth-promoting effect by GABA. The HEK293 cells constitutively expressing exogenous GABRP revealed the growth-promoting effect of GABA treatment. GABA treatment in GABRP-positive cells increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/Erk) cascade. GABA exerts antidiabetic effects by acting on both the islet β-cells and immune system. Unlike in adult brain or islet α-cells in which GABA exerts hyperpolarizing effects, in islet β-cells, GABA produces membrane depolarization and Ca2+ influx, leading to the activation of PI3K/Akt-dependent growth and survival pathways.
|In vivo||GABA is the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain that has a parallel inhibitory role in the immune system. GABAergic medications are used to treat anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, epilepsy, and to induce sedation, and anesthesia. GABA is neuroprotective in animal models of stroke. GABA treatment decreases inflammatory cytokine production in peripheral macrophages. It decreases T cell autoimmunity and the development of inflammatory responses in the nonobese diabetic mouse model of type 1 diabetes. In the adult brain, GABA induces a fast inhibition in neurons mainly through the GABAA receptor (GABAAR). GABA is produced by pancreatic β-cells. GABA released from β-cells can act on GABAAR in the α-cells, causing membrane hyperpolarization and hence suppressing glucagon secretion. GABA-treated mice showed higher circulating insulin, lower glucagon, nearly normal glycemia, improved metabolic conditions, and maintained close to normal glucose tolerance during a period of 53 d after STZ injections.|
|In vitro||Water||20 mg/mL (193.94 mM)|
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.
|Synonyms||4-Aminobutanoic acid, GABA, Gamma-aminobutyric acid, Piperidic acid|
In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)
|Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)|
|Dosage||mg/kg||Average weight of animals||g||Dosing volume per animal||ul||Number of animals|
|Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation ()|
|% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O|
Working concentration： mg/ml；
Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: ： mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO (Master liquid concentration mg/mL，)
Method for preparing in vivo formulation：Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300， mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80，mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O，mix and clarify.
1.Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2.Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.
Calculate the mass, volume or concentration required for a solution. The Selleck molarity calculator is based on the following equation:
Mass (mg) = Concentration (mM) × Volume (mL) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)
*When preparing stock solutions, please always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the via label and SDS / COA (available on product pages).
Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution. The Selleck dilution calculator is based on the following equation:
Concentration (start) x Volume (start) = Concentration (final) x Volume (final)
This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2 ( Input Output )
* When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and SDS / COA (available online).
Molecular Weight Calculator
Enter the chemical formula of a compound to calculate its molar mass and elemental composition:
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Definitions of molecular mass, molecular weight, molar mass and molar weight:
Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u). (1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12)
Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/mol.
Clinical Trial Information
|NCT Number||Recruitment||interventions||Conditions||Sponsor/Collaborators||Start Date||Phases|
|NCT04671836||Not yet recruiting||Drug: Lorazepam 1Mg Tablet|Drug: Placebo||Lorazepam|Neuroimaging||Northwell Health||January 2022||Early Phase 1|
|NCT04794335||Not yet recruiting||--||Inflammatory Bowel Diseases||University of Pittsburgh|National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)||October 1 2021||--|
|NCT04831684||Not yet recruiting||Drug: Placebo|Drug: GET73||Alcohol Use Disorder||Medical University of South Carolina|National Institutes of Health (NIH)|National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)||September 15 2021||Phase 1|Phase 2|
|NCT04735172||Not yet recruiting||Other: specific MRI Acquisition (NMR spectroscopy) at 7T||Parkinson''s Disease||University Hospital Clermont-Ferrand||September 2021||Not Applicable|
|NCT04532190||Not yet recruiting||Device: rTMS||Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)||University of Calgary||August 31 2021||Not Applicable|
|NCT04450550||Recruiting||Device: VeNS device|Device: Sham VeNS device||Parkinson Disease||Neurovalens Ltd.|R D Gardi Medical College Ujjain||July 26 2021||Not Applicable|
Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.
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