For research use only.
Catalog No.S2425 Synonyms: Acetovanillone
CAS No. 498-02-2
Apocynin (Acetovanillone) is a selective NADPH-oxidase inhibitor with IC50 of 10 μM.
Selleck's Apocynin has been cited by 15 publications
4 Customer Reviews
NOX inhibition attenuated thyroid morphologic changes of rats. (a) A representative figure from control group; (b) a representative figure from PCB group; (c) a representative figure from PCB + APO group; (d) a representative figure from APO group; (e) histological scores of thyroid tissue. ∗P < 0.05 versus control group. #P < 0.05 versus PCB group (original magnification ×200).
Int J Endocrinol, 2016, 2016:8354745.. Apocynin purchased from Selleck.
(A) Fluorescent images of the cytoskeleton (red) and vinculin (green, a protein in focal adhesion plaques) show the cell adhesion and morphology. The actin filaments (red) of VEC were stained with Rhodamine-phalloidin and cell nuclei (blue) were stained with DAPI. Arrowheads indicate the twisted cytoskeleton and arrows indicate the intracellular vacuoles. The image in white box is an enlarged view of three cells with twisted cytoskeleton. Scale bar: 50 μm in the above and 20 μm in the below.
Acta Biomater, 2018, 73:470-487. Apocynin purchased from Selleck.
RAW264.7 cells were pretreated with apocynin (500 μM) for 2 h and then exposed to LPS (100 ng/ml) for 5 min. After treatment, cells were washed with PBS and the fluorescence intensity was measured by flow cytometry (c). RAW264.7 cells were incubated with apocynin (500 μM) for 2 h and then stimulated with 100 ng/ml LPS for 16 h (d). Cells were harvested, and equal amounts of whole cell lysates were analyzed by western blotting with anti-iNOS or anti-COX-2 antibody. Data were mean ± SD values of three independent experiments. ∗P < 0.05 and ∗∗P < 0.01 versus LPS-treated group.
Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2017, 2017:9738745. Apocynin purchased from Selleck.
Treatment of rats with apocynin attenuated pancreatic morphological alterations. Representative images from the (A) sham operation (SO) group; (B) severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) group; (C) drug control (APO-CON) group; and (D) apocynin (APO) group (original magnification, ×200). (E) Pancreatic histological scores. Results are presented as the mean ± standard deviation. *P<0.05 vs. SO group; #P<0.05 vs. SAP group.
Mol Med Rep, 2016, 14(4):3525-34.. Apocynin purchased from Selleck.
Purity & Quality Control
Choose Selective NADPH-oxidase Inhibitors
|Description||Apocynin (Acetovanillone) is a selective NADPH-oxidase inhibitor with IC50 of 10 μM.|
Apocynin is a naturally occurring methoxy-substituted catechol used as an inhibitor of NADPH-oxidase. Apocynin prevents serine phosphorylation of p47phox and blocks its association with gp91phox, thus blunting NADPH oxidase activation.  Apocynin can decrease the production of superoxide (O(2)(-)) from activated neutrophils and macrophages. Apocynin, after metabolic conversion, inhibits the assembly of NADPH-oxidase that is responsible for reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. 
|In vivo||Apocynin has anti-inflammatory activity in a variety of cell and animal models of inflammation. Apocynin attenuates the TNF-α and IL-1β production and iNOS expression in the lung of carrageenan-treated mice.  Apocynin exerts beneficial effects in a mice model of spinal cord injury. Apocynin reduces (1) the degree of spinal cord damage, (2) neutrophils infiltration, (3) ICAM-1 and P-selectin expression, (4) PAR and nitrotyrosine formation, (5) IκB-α degradation, (6) NF-κB activation, (7) pro-inflammatory cytokines production (TNF-α and IL-1β), (8) apoptosis (TUNEL staining, FAS ligand expression, Bax and Bcl-2 expression) and (9) MAPK activation (P-38 and phospho-JNK).  LD50: Mice 9g/kg (i.g.). |
-  Stolk J,et al. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol, 1994, 11(1), 95-102.
-  Simons JM, et al. Free Radic Biol Med, 1990, 8(3), 251-258.
-  Stefanska J, et al. Mediators Inflamm, 2008, 106507.
|In vitro||DMSO||33 mg/mL (198.59 mM)|
|Ethanol||33 mg/mL (198.59 mM)|
|In vivo||Add solvents to the product individually and in order(Data is from Selleck tests instead of citations):
2% DMSO+30% PEG 300+ddH2O
For best results, use promptly after mixing.
* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.
In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)
|Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)|
|Dosage||mg/kg||Average weight of animals||g||Dosing volume per animal||ul||Number of animals|
|Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation ()|
|% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O|
Working concentration： mg/ml；
Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: ： mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO (Master liquid concentration mg/mL，)
Method for preparing in vivo formulation：Take DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300， mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80，mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O，mix and clarify.
1.Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2.Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.
Calculate the mass, volume or concentration required for a solution. The Selleck molarity calculator is based on the following equation:
Mass (mg) = Concentration (mM) × Volume (mL) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)
*When preparing stock solutions, please always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the via label and MSDS / COA (available on product pages).
Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution. The Selleck dilution calculator is based on the following equation:
Concentration (start) x Volume (start) = Concentration (final) x Volume (final)
This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2 ( Input Output )
* When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and MSDS / COA (available online).
Molecular Weight Calculator
Enter the chemical formula of a compound to calculate its molar mass and elemental composition:
Tip: Chemical formula is case sensitive. C10H16N2O2 c10h16n2o2
Instructions to calculate molar mass (molecular weight) of a chemical compound:
To calculate molar mass of a chemical compound, please enter its chemical formula and click 'Calculate'.
Definitions of molecular mass, molecular weight, molar mass and molar weight:
Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u). (1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12)
Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/mol.
Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.
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