Ginsenoside Rd

For research use only.

Catalog No.S3931 Synonyms: Panaxoside Rd, Sanchinoside Rd

Ginsenoside Rd Chemical Structure

CAS No. 52705-93-8

Ginsenoside Rd, a minor ginseng saponin, has several pharmacological activities such as immunosuppressive activity, anti-inflammatory activity, immunological adjuvant, anti-cancer activity and wound-healing activity. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits TNFα-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity with an IC50 of 12.05±0.82 μM in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits expression of COX-2 and iNOS mRNA. Ginsenoside Rd also inhibits Ca2+ influx. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9, with IC50s of 58.0±4.5 μM, 78.4±5.3 μM, 81.7±2.6 μM, and 85.1±9.1 μM, respectively.

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Biological Activity

Description Ginsenoside Rd, a minor ginseng saponin, has several pharmacological activities such as immunosuppressive activity, anti-inflammatory activity, immunological adjuvant, anti-cancer activity and wound-healing activity. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits TNFα-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity with an IC50 of 12.05±0.82 μM in HepG2 cells. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits expression of COX-2 and iNOS mRNA. Ginsenoside Rd also inhibits Ca2+ influx. Ginsenoside Rd inhibits CYP2D6, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9, with IC50s of 58.0±4.5 μM, 78.4±5.3 μM, 81.7±2.6 μM, and 85.1±9.1 μM, respectively.
In vitro

Ginsenoside Rd is a selective and competitive Ca2+ receptor antagonist and herefore, can suppress calcium influx after cytotoxic injuries. Ginsenoside Rd administration dose-dependently suppresses glutamate-induced DNA laddering and apoptosis through the suppression of glutamate-induced caspase-3 activation and Ca2+ entry. Exposure to ginsenoside Rd can also protect mitochondria against calcium-induced damages through downregulation of reactive oxygen species generation, suppression of mitochondrial membrane potential hyperpolarization, and amelioration of mitochondrial swelling[1]. Ginsenoside Rd is a potent in vitro inhibitor on the chymotrypsin-like activity of 26S proteasome[2].

In vivo Ginsenoside Rd treatment prior to and/or following an ischemic stroke can reduce infarct volume, increase neuronal survival, and enhance cognitive and neurological functions. Ginsenoside Rd administration to a Sprague-Dawley rat has been shown to downregulate ischemic stroke-induced tau protein phosphorylation at Ser199/202 and PHF-1 sites through the downregulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and to enhance ischemia-induced cognitive impairment. Ginsenoside Rd administration has also been shown to upregulate the protein kinase B/AKT pathway and, from this, suppress glycogen synthase kinase-3β activity. Ginsenoside Rd administration after tMCAO upregulates glial glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) expression and promotes glutamate clearance in rats. Pretreatment with ginsenoside Rd (10 mg/kg) inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and consequently downregulates apoptosis-inducing factor translocation and nuclear factor-kappa B p65 subunit nuclear accumulation in Dawley rats suffering from right middle cerebral artery occlusion[1].

Protocol

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 90 mg/mL (95.02 mM)

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Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 947.15
Formula

C48H82O18

CAS No. 52705-93-8
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms Panaxoside Rd, Sanchinoside Rd
Smiles CC(C)=CCCC(C)(OC1OC(CO)C(O)C(O)C1O)C2CCC3(C)C2C(O)CC4C5(C)CCC(OC6OC(CO)C(O)C(O)C6OC7OC(CO)C(O)C(O)C7O)C(C)(C)C5CCC34C

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID