Protocatechuic acid

Catalog No.S3975 Synonyms: 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, Protocatechuate

For research use only.

Protocatechuic acid (PCA, 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, Protocatechuate), a dihydroxybenzoic acid, is a type of widely distributed naturally occurring phenolic acid.

Protocatechuic acid Chemical Structure

CAS No. 99-50-3

Selleck's Protocatechuic acid has been cited by 1 Publication

Purity & Quality Control

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Biological Activity

Description Protocatechuic acid (PCA, 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, Protocatechuate), a dihydroxybenzoic acid, is a type of widely distributed naturally occurring phenolic acid.
In vitro

Protocatechuic acid (PCA) inhibits cell migration and invasion at non-cytotoxic concentrations. It down-regulates the Ras/Akt/NF-κB pathway by targeting RhoB activation, which in turn leads to a reduction of MMP-mediated cellular events in cancer cells. In some cancer cells, PCA treatment suppresses cell adhesion and the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1, which would further attenuate angiogenic and metastatic actions[1]. PCA will lower the expression of cleaved caspase-3 and decrease the rate of cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. PCA is proven to have the neuroprotective effects in PC12 cells[2].

In vivo Protocatechuic acid (PCA) inhibits metastasis of B16/F10 melanoma cells to the liver in mice[1]. PCA is seen to enhance learning and memory ability, and alleviate oxidative stress, apoptosis and glial proliferation following CIH exposure in rats. In addition, PCA administration also decreases the level of IL-1β in brain and increases the expression of BDNF and SYN. Its administration inhibits apoptosis by decreasing JNK/P38 phosphoryltion and the downstream target including c-fos, Bax and Cleaved Caspase-3 in the hippocampal and prefrontal cortex areas. PCA exerts significant neuroprotective effects in CIH rats[2].

Protocol (from reference)

Cell Research:


  • Cell lines: human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells
  • Concentrations: 1 mM
  • Incubation Time: 24, 48 and 72 h
  • Method:

    Cells (1 × 104 cells/mL) are seeded in 12 well plates and treated with PCA (1.0 mM) or dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) as control for 24, 48 and 72 h. The number of cells is measured by the Trypan blue dye exclusion assay.

  • (Only for Reference)
Animal Research:


  • Animal Models: 6-week-old C57/BL6 mice with B16/F10 melanoma
  • Dosages: 200 and 400 mg/kg
  • Administration: oral administration
  • (Only for Reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro

DMSO 30 mg/mL
(194.65 mM)

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 154.12


CAS No. 99-50-3
Storage 3 years -20°C powder
2 years -80°C in solvent
Smiles C1=CC(=C(C=C1C(=O)O)O)O

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)

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Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO ( Master liquid concentration mg/mL, Please contact us first if the concentration exceeds the DMSO solubility of the batch of drug. )

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300, mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80, mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O, mix and clarify.

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next add μL Corn oil, mix and clarify.

Note: 1. Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2. Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such
as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.

Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT03915639 Not yet recruiting Procedure: Peri-incisional injection Pain Postoperative Beijing Tiantan Hospital April 2022 Not Applicable
NCT04291599 Not yet recruiting Drug: Ketorolac|Drug: Opioid Acute Pancreatitis Boston Children''s Hospital|The National Pancreas Foundation February 1 2022 Phase 2
NCT05080686 Not yet recruiting Device: Posthorax Thoraxbelt Rib Fractures|Pain|Thorax; Fracture National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch January 1 2022 Not Applicable
NCT05189704 Recruiting Drug: NSAID|Drug: Opioid Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting Seoul National University Hospital December 20 2021 Not Applicable
NCT04141319 Not yet recruiting Drug: Ketorolac|Drug: Ropivacaine|Drug: Epinephrine Pain|Supratentorial Brain Tumor Beijing Tiantan Hospital December 2021 Phase 4

(data from, updated on 2022-01-17)

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

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