Autophagy

Signaling Pathway Map

Research Area

Inhibitory Selectivity

Autophagy Products

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1013

Bortezomib (PS-341)

Bortezomib (PS-341, LDP-341, MLM341) is a potent 20S proteasome inhibitor with Ki of 0.6 nM. It exhibits favorable selectivity towards tumor cells over normal cells. Bortezomib (PS-341) inhibits NF-κB and induces ERK phosphorylation to suppress cathepsin B and inhibit the catalytic process of autophagy in ovarian cancer and other solid tumors.

S6847New

ML-9 HCl

ML-9 HCl (ML-9 hydrochloride) is a selective and potent inhibitor of Akt kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). ML-9 HCl is also a potent inhibitor of Ca2+-permeable channels. ML-9 HCl is a lysosomotropic agent targeting autophagy and cell death.

S6851New

RA-190

RA190, a bis-benzylidine piperidon, is a potent, selective and oral effective inhibitor of proteasome ubiquitin receptor RPN13/ADRM1 with anticancer activity. RA190 triggers ER stress response, p53/p21 signaling axis and autophagy in multiple myeloma cells.

S8943New

VLX600

VLX600 is a novel iron-chelating inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), potentiates the effect of radiation in tumor spheroids in a synergistic manner. VLX600 shows enhanced cytotoxic activity under conditions of nutrient starvation. VLX600 induces autophagy and mitochondrial inhibition with antitumor activity.

S6716New

NSC 185058

NSC185058 inhibits ATG4B, the lipidation of LC3B, and autophagy without affecting the MTOR or PtdIns3K pathways.

S7455New

Resatorvid (TAK-242)

Resatorvid (TAK-242) is a small-molecule-specific inhibitor of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling, blocking LPS-induced production of NO, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in macrophages with IC50 values of 1-11 nM. Resatorvid inhibits autophagy.

S1109

BI 2536

BI-2536 is a potent Plk1 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.83 nM in a cell-free assay. BI-2536 inhibits Bromodomain 4 (BRD4) with Kd of 37 nM and potently suppresses c-Myc expression. BI-2536 induces apoptosis and attenuates autophagy. Phase 2.

S1105

LY294002

LY294002 (SF 1101, NSC 697286) is the first synthetic molecule known to inhibit PI3Kα/δ/β with IC50 of 0.5 μM/0.57 μM/0.97 μM, respectively; more stable in solution than Wortmannin, and also blocks autophagosome formation. It not only binds to class I PI3Ks and other PI3K-related kinases, but also to novel targets seemingly unrelated to the PI3K family. LY294002 also inhibits CK2 with IC50 of 98 nM. LY294002 is a non-specific DNA-PKcs inhibitor and activates autophagy and apoptosis.

S1092

KU-55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor)

KU-55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor) is a potent and specific ATM inhibitor with IC50/Ki of 12.9 nM/2.2 nM in cell-free assays, and is highly selective for ATM as compared to DNA-PK, PI3K/PI4K, ATR and mTOR. KU‑55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor) inhibits the activation of autophagy‑initiating kinase ULK1 and results in a significant decrease of autophagy.

S1102

U0126-EtOH

U0126-EtOH is a highly selective inhibitor of MEK1/2 with IC50 of 0.07 μM/0.06 μM in cell-free assays, 100-fold higher affinity for ΔN3-S218E/S222D MEK than PD98059. U0126 inhibits autophagy and mitophagy with antiviral activity.

S1150

Paclitaxel

Paclitaxel (NSC 125973, PTX, Taxol, Onxal) is a microtubule polymer stabilizer with IC50 of 0.1 pM in human endothelial cells.

S1460

SP600125

SP600125 (Nsc75890) is a broad-spectrum JNK inhibitor for JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 with IC50 of 40 nM, 40 nM and 90 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; 10-fold greater selectivity against MKK4, 25-fold greater selectivity against MKK3, MKK6, PKB, and PKCα, and 100-fold selectivity against ERK2, p38, Chk1, EGFR etc. SP600125 is also a broad‐spectrum inhibitor of serine/threonine kinases including Aurora kinase AFLT3 and TRKA with of IC50 of 60 nM, 90 nM and 70 nM. SP600125 inhibits autophagy and activates apoptosis.

S1490

Ponatinib (AP24534)

Ponatinib (AP24534) is a novel, potent multi-target inhibitor of Abl, PDGFRα, VEGFR2, FGFR1 and Src with IC50 of 0.37 nM, 1.1 nM, 1.5 nM, 2.2 nM and 5.4 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Ponatinib (AP24534) inhibits autophagy.

S1113

GSK690693

GSK690693 is a pan-Akt inhibitor targeting Akt1/2/3 with IC50 of 2 nM/13 nM/9 nM in cell-free assays, also sensitive to the AGC kinase family: PKA, PrkX and PKC isozymes. GSK690693 also potently inhibits AMPK and DAPK3 from the CAMK family with IC50 of 50 nM and 81 nM, respectively. GSK690693 affects Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) activity, robustly inhibits STING-dependent IRF3 activation. Phase 1.

S2758

Wortmannin

Wortmannin is the first described PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 3 nM in a cell-free assay, with little selectivity within the PI3K family. Wortmannin blocks autophagosome formation and potently inhibits DNA-PK/ATM with IC50 of 16 nM and 150 nM in cell-free assays. Wortmannin also inhibits PLK1 activity.

S2704

LY2109761

LY2109761 is a novel selective TGF-β receptor type I/II (TβRI/II) dual inhibitor with Ki of 38 nM and 300 nM in a cell-free assay, respectively; shown to negatively affect the phosphorylation of Smad2. LY2109761 blocks autophagy and induces apoptosis.

S2767

3-Methyladenine (3-MA)

3-Methyladenine (3-MA, NSC 66389) is a selective PI3K inhibitor for Vps34 and PI3Kγ with IC50 of 25 μM and 60 μM in HeLa cells; blocks class I PI3K consistently, whereas suppression of class III PI3K is transient, and also blocks autophagosome formation. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is successfully used to suppress mitophagy. Solutions of 3-MA are best fresh-prepared by heating.

S2243

Degrasyn (WP1130)

Degrasyn (WP1130) is a selective deubiquitinase (DUB: USP5, UCH-L1, USP9x, USP14, and UCH37) inhibitor and also suppresses Bcr/Abl, also a JAK2 transducer (without affecting 20S proteasome) and activator of transcription (STAT). Degrasyn (WP1130) induces apoptosis and blocks autophagy.

S1786

Verteporfin

Verteporfin (CL 318952, Visudyne) is a small molecule that inhibits TEAD–YAP association and YAP-induced liver overgrowth. It is also a potent second-generation photosensitizing agent derived from porphyrin. Verteporfin is an autophagy inhibitor. Verteporfin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis.

S7046

Brefeldin A

Brefeldin A is a lactone antibiotic and ATPase inhibitor for protein transport with IC50 of 0.2 μM in HCT 116 cells, induces cancer cell differentiation and apoptosis. It could also improve the HDR(homology-directed repair) efficiency and be an enhancer of CRISPR-mediated HDR. Brefeldin A is also an inhibitor of autophagy and mitophagy.

S8037

Necrostatin-1

Necrostatin-1 is a specific RIP1 (RIPK1) inhibitor and inhibits TNF-α-induced necroptosis with EC50 of 490 nM in 293T cells. Necrostatin-1 also blocks IDO and suppresses autophagy and apoptosis.

S2775

Nocodazole

Nocodazole is a rapidly-reversible inhibitor of microtubule polymerization, also inhibits Abl, Abl(E255K) and Abl(T315I) with IC50 of 0.21 μM, 0.53 μM and 0.64 μM in cell-free assays, respectively. Nocodazole induces apoptosis.

S3042

Purmorphamine

Purmorphamine, which directly binds and activates Smoothened, blocks BODIPY-cyclopamine binding to Smo with IC50 of ~ 1.5 μM in HEK293T cell and also is an inducer of osteoblast differentiation with EC50 of 1 μM. Purmorphamine can reduce both basal and induced autophagy.

S1346

Heparin sodium

Heparin sodium, a sulfated polysaccharide belonging to the family of glycosaminoglycans, has numerous important biological activities associated with its interaction with diverse proteins. Heparin is used as an anticoagulant primarily through its interaction with AT III by enhancing AT-IIImediated inhibition of blood coagulation factors, including thrombin and factor Xa. Heparin prevents the induction of autophagy.

S4157

Chloroquine diphosphate

Chloroquine diphosphate is a 4-aminoquinoline anti-malarial and anti-rheumatoid agent, also acting as an ATM activator. Chloroquine is also an inhibitor of toll-like receptors (TLRs).

S7033

GSK2656157

GSK2656157 is an ATP-competitive and highly selective inhibitor of PERK with IC50 of 0.9 nM in a cell-free assay, 500-fold greater against a panel of 300 kinases. GSK2656157 decreases apoptosis and inhibits excessive autophagy.

S1733

Methylprednisolone

Methylprednisolone (NSC-19987) is a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, used to achieve prompt suppression of inflammation. Methylprednisolone activates ACE2 and reduces IL-6 levels, thus improves severe or critical COVID-19. Methylprednisolone markedly reduces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1413

Bafilomycin A1(Baf-A1)

Bafilomycin A1 is a vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitor with IC50 of 0.44 nM. Bafilomycin A1 is found to inhibit autophagy while induces apoptosis.

S1835

Azithromycin

Azithromycin is an antibiotic by inhibiting protein synthesis, used for the treatment of bacterial infections.

S2930

Pifithrin-μ

Pifithrin-μ (NSC 303580, PFTμ) is a specific p53 inhibitor by reducing its affinity to Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, and also inhibits HSP70 function and autophagy.

S8808

DC661

DC661 is capable of deacidifying the lysosome and inhibiting autophagy significantly better than hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). DC661 induces apoptosis.

S7289

PFK15

PFK15 (PFK-015) is a potent and selective 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3) inhibitor with IC50 of 207 nM.

S7885

SBI-0206965

SBI-0206965 is a highly selective autophagy kinase ULK1 inhibitor with IC50 of 108 nM, about 7-fold selectivity over ULK2. SBI-0206965 inhibits autophagy and enhances apoptosis in human glioblastoma and lung cancer cells.

S8576

EAD1

EAD1 is a potent autophagy inhibitor with an IC50 of 5.8 μM in the BxPC3 cells. It has antiproliferative activities in lung and pancreatic cancer cells.

S8274

STO-609

STO-609 is a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase(CaM-KK) that inhibits the activities of recombinant CaM-KKα and CaM-KKβ isoforms, with Ki values of 80 and 15 ng/ml, respectively, and also inhibits their autophosphorylation activities. STO-609 inhibits AMPKK activity and inhibits autophagy.

S8764

IITZ-01

IITZ-01 is a potent autophagy inhibitor, enhancing autophagosome accumulation but inhibiting autophagosomal degradation by impairing lysosomal function.

S7888

Spautin-1

Spautin-1 is a potent and specific autophagy inhibitor, and inhibits the deubiquitinating activity of USP10 and USP13 with IC50 of ∼0.6-0.7 μM. Spautin-1 enhances apoptosis.

S8317

3BDO

3BDO, a butyrolactone derivative, could target FKBP1A and activate the mTOR signaling pathway. It inhibits autophagy in HUVECs. 3BDO inhibits oxLDL-induced apoptosis.

S7811

MHY1485

MHY1485 is a potent, and cell-permeable mTOR activator, and also potently inhibits autophagy.

S8596

Autophinib

Autophinib is a potent autophagy inhibitor with a novel chemotype with IC50 values of 90 and 40 nM for autophagy in starvation induced autophagy assay and rapamycin induced autophagy assay. The IC50 value for Vps34 is 19 nM in vitro.

S7423

KN-93 Phosphate

KN-93 Phosphate is a potent and specific inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) with Ki of 0.37 μM, no remarkable inhibitory effects on APK, PKC, MLCK or Ca2+-PDE activities. KN-93 attenuates CaMKII-induced autophagy.

S8807

PFK158

PFK158 is a potent and selective inhibitor of PFKFB3. It has improved PK properties and causes ~80% growth inhibition in several mouse models of human-derived tumors.

S3758

Sinomenine hydrochloride

Sinomenine (SN, Cucoline, Kukoline, Sabianine A), extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant, sinomenium acutum, is a potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent.

S7948

MRT67307 HCl

MRT67307 is a potent and dual IKKϵ and TBK1 inhibitor with IC50 of 160 and 19 nM, respectively. MRT67307 potently inhibits ULK1 and ULK2 and blocks autophagy.

S8369

Lys05

Lys05 is a new lysosomal autophagy inhibitor which potently accumulates within and deacidifies the lysosome of both cells and tumors, resulting in sustained inhibition of autophagy and tumor growth.

S7660

Obeticholic Acid

Obeticholic Acid is a potent and selective farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist with EC50 of 99 nM. Obeticholic Acid inhibits autophagy. Phase 3.

S7146

DMH1

DMH1 is a selective BMP receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 107.9 nM for ALK2, exhibiting no inhibition on AMPK, ALK5, KDR (VEGFR-2) or PDGFR. DMH1 inhibits autophagy.

S4430

Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate

Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate (HCQ) is an antimalarial agent used for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune, inflammatory and dermatologic conditions. Also acts as an inhibitor of autophagy and toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/9.

S7949

MRT68921 HCl

MRT68921 is a potent and dual autophagy kinase ULK1/2 inhibitor with IC50 of 2.9 nM and 1.1 nM, respectively.

S8744

PHY34

PHY34 is a late-stage autophagy inhibitor with nanomolar potency and significant antitumor efficacy as a single agent against HGSOC in vivo.

S5920

CA-5f

CA-5f is a potent late-stage macroautophagy/autophagy inhibitor via inhibiting autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

S8222

AS1842856

AS1842856 is a cell-permeable inhibitor that blocks the transcription activity of Foxo1 with IC50 of 33 nM. It could directly bind to the active Foxo1, but not the Ser256-phosphorylated form. AS1842856 suppresses autophagy.

S7682

SAR405

SAR405 is a low-molecular-mass kinase inhibitor of PIK3C3/Vps34 (KD 1.5 nM) showing high selectivity and not be active up to 10 μM on class I and class II PI3Ks as well as on mTOR. SAR405 prevents autophagy and synergizes with MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibition in tumor cells.

S7683

PIK-III

PIK-III (VPS34-IN2), which is a selective inhibitor of ​VPS34 enzymatic activity, inhibits autophagy and de novo lipidation of LC3 and leads to the stabilization of autophagy substrates. The IC50 values for VPS34 and PI(3)Kδ are 0.018 μM and 1.2 μM respectively.

S8793

ULK-101

ULK-101 is a potent and selective ULK1 inhibitor with IC50 values of 8.3 nM and 30 nM for ULK1 and ULK2, respectively.

S8527

ROC-325

ROC-325 is an orally available novel inhibitor of lysosomal-mediated autophagy which diminishes AML cell viability with the IC50 range of 0.7-2.2 μM.

S9424

Liensinine diperchlorate

Liensinine, a major isoquinoline alkaloid, inhibits late-stage autophagy/mitophagy through blocking autophagosome-lysosome fusion. It is a novel autophagy/mitophagy inhibitor.

S6471

Lucanthone

Lucanthone is a novel autophagic inhibitor and also an orally available thioxanthone-based DNA intercalator and inhibitor of the DNA repair enzyme apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1.

S7751

VER155008

VER-155008 is a potent Hsp70 family inhibitor with IC50 of 0.5 μM, 2.6 μM, and 2.6 μM in cell-free assays for HSP70, HSC70, and GRP78, respectively, >100-fold selectivity over HSP90. VER155008 inhibits autophagy and causes reduced levels of HSP90 client proteins.

S9150

Daurisoline

Daurisoline, a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the rhizomes of Menispermum dauricum, is a potent autophagy blockers with antiarrhythmic effects.

S7381

Pepstatin A

Pepstatin A (Pepstatin) is a potent aspartic protease inhibitor, and also inhibits HIV replication. Pepstatin A is also an inhibitor of cathepsins D and cathepsins E. Pepstatin A inhibits autophagy by suppressing lysosomal proteases.

S1078

MK-2206 2HCl

MK-2206 2HCl is a highly selective inhibitor of Akt1/2/3 with IC50 of 8 nM/12 nM/65 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; no inhibitory activities against 250 other protein kinases observed. MK-2206 2HCl induces autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells. Phase 2.

S1060

Olaparib (AZD2281)

Olaparib (AZD2281, KU0059436) is a selective inhibitor of PARP1/2 with IC50 of 5 nM/1 nM in cell-free assays, 300-times less effective against tankyrase-1. Olaparib induces significant autophagy that is associated with mitophagy in cells with BRCA mutations.

S1267

Vemurafenib (PLX4032)

Vemurafenib (PLX4032, RG7204) is a novel and potent inhibitor of B-RafV600E with IC50 of 31 nM in cell-free assay. 10-fold selective for B-RafV600E over wild-type B-Raf in enzymatic assays and the cellular selectivity can exceed 100-fold. Vemurafenib (PLX4032, RG7204) induces autophagy.

S1047

Vorinostat (SAHA)

Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA, MK0683) is an HDAC inhibitor with IC50 of ~10 nM in a cell-free assay. Vorinostat abrogates productive HPV-18 DNA amplification.

S6797New

QX77

QX77 is a novel activator of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). QX77 induces the up-regulation of Rab11 expression and up-regulates LAMP2A expression.

S6650New

EN6

EN6 is a novel covalent autophagy activator and targets cysteine 277 in the ATP6V1A subunit of the lysosomal v-ATPase with an IC50 of 1.7 μM for recombinant human ATP6V1A protein.

S1002

ABT-737

ABT-737 is a BH3 mimetic inhibitor of Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w with EC50 of 78.7 nM, 30.3 nM and 197.8 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; no inhibition observed against Mcl-1, Bcl-B or Bfl-1. ABT-737 induces mitochondrial pathway apoptosis and mitophagy. Phase 2.

S1049

Y-27632 2HCl

Y-27632 2HCl is a selective ROCK1 (p160ROCK) inhibitor with Ki of 140 nM in a cell-free assay, exhibits >200-fold selectivity over other kinases, including PKC, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, MLCK and PAK.

S2619

MG-132

MG132 is a potent cell-permeable proteasome and calpain inhibitor with IC50s of 0.1 μM and 1.2 μM for the inhibition of proteasome and calpain, respectively. MG132 activates autophagy and induces apoptosis in tumor cells.

S1009

Dactolisib (BEZ235)

Dactolisib (BEZ235, NVP-BEZ235) is a dual ATP-competitive PI3K and mTOR inhibitor for p110α/γ/δ/β and mTOR(p70S6K) with IC50 of 4 nM /5 nM /7 nM /75 nM /6 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Inhibits ATR with IC50 of 21 nM in 3T3TopBP1-ER cell. Dactolisib induces autophagy and suppresses HIV-1 replication. Phase 2.

S1040

Sorafenib Tosylate

Sorafenib Tosylate (Bay 43-9006) is a multikinase inhibitor of Raf-1 and B-Raf with IC50 of 6 nM and 22 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Sorafenib Tosylate inhibits VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, PDGFR-β, Flt-3 and c-KIT with IC50 of 90 nM, 20 nM, 57 nM, 59 nM and 68 nM, respectively. Sorafenib Tosylate induces autophagy and apoptosis and activates ferroptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S1021

Dasatinib

Dasatinib (BMS-354825) is a novel, potent and multi-targeted inhibitor that targets Abl, Src and c-Kit, with IC50 of <1 nM, 0.8 nM and 79 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Dasatinib induces autophagy and apoptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S1039

Rapamycin (Sirolimus)

Rapamycin (Sirolimus, AY 22989, NSC-2260804) is a specific mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of ~0.1 nM HEK293 cells.

S1068

Crizotinib (PF-02341066)

Crizotinib (PF-02341066) is a potent inhibitor of c-Met and ALK with IC50 of 11 nM and 24 nM in cell-based assays, respectively. It is also a potent ROS1 inhibitor with Ki value less than 0.025 nM. Crizotinib induces autophagy through inhibition of the STAT3 pathway in multiple lung cancer cell lines.

S1023

Erlotinib HCl (OSI-744)

Erlotinib HCl (OSI-744, CP358774, NSC 718781) is an EGFR inhibitor with IC50 of 2 nM in cell-free assays, >1000-fold more sensitive for EGFR than human c-Src or v-Abl.

S1120

Everolimus (RAD001)

Everolimus (RAD001) is an mTOR inhibitor of FKBP12 with IC50 of 1.6-2.4 nM in a cell-free assay. Everolimus induces cell apoptosis and autophagy and inhibits tumor cells proliferation.

S1025

Gefitinib (ZD1839)

Gefitinib (ZD-1839) is an EGFR inhibitor for Tyr1173, Tyr992, Tyr1173 and Tyr992 in the NR6wtEGFR and NR6W cells with IC50 of 37 nM, 37nM, 26 nM and 57 nM, respectively. Gefitinib promotes autophagy and apoptosis of lung cancer cells via blockade of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.

S1004

Veliparib (ABT-888)

Veliparib (ABT-888, NSC 737664) is a potent inhibitor of PARP1 and PARP2 with Ki of 5.2 nM and 2.9 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. It is inactive to SIRT2. Veliparib increases autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 3.

S1053

Entinostat (MS-275)

Entinostat (MS-275, SNDX-275) strongly inhibits HDAC1 and HDAC3 with IC50 of 0.51 μM and 1.7 μM in cell-free assays, compared with HDACs 4, 6, 8, and 10. Entinostat induces autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 3.

S1065

Pictilisib (GDC-0941)

Pictilisib (GDC-0941, RG7321) is a potent inhibitor of PI3Kα/δ with IC50 of 3 nM in cell-free assays, with modest selectivity against p110β (11-fold) and p110γ (25-fold). Pictilisib (GDC-0941) induces autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 2.

S2673

Trametinib (GSK1120212)

Trametinib (GSK1120212) is a highly specific and potent MEK1/2 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.92 nM/1.8 nM in cell-free assays, no inhibition of the kinase activities of c-Raf, B-Raf, ERK1/2. Trametinib activates autophagy and induces apoptosis.

S1378

Ruxolitinib (INCB018424)

Ruxolitinib (INCB018424) is the first potent, selective, JAK1/2 inhibitor to enter the clinic with IC50 of 3.3 nM/2.8 nM in cell-free assays, >130-fold selectivity for JAK1/2 versus JAK3. Ruxolitinib kills tumor cells through toxic mitophagy. Ruxolitinib induces autophagy and enhances apoptosis.

S1030

Panobinostat (LBH589)

Panobinostat (LBH589, NVP-LBH589) is a novel broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitor with IC50 of 5 nM in a cell-free assay. Panobinostat (LBH589) induces autophagy and apoptosis. Panobinostat effectively disrupts HIV latency in vivo. Phase 3.

S1026

Imatinib Mesylate (STI571)

Imatinib Mesylate (STI571, CGP-57148B) is an orally bioavailability mesylate salt of Imatinib, which is a multi-target inhibitor of v-Abl, c-Kit and PDGFR with IC50 of 0.6 μM, 0.1 μM and 0.1 μM in cell-free or cell-based assays, respectively. Imatinib Mesylate (STI571) induces autophagy.

S1250

Enzalutamide (MDV3100)

Enzalutamide (MDV3100) is an androgen-receptor (AR) antagonist with IC50 of 36 nM in LNCaP cells. Enzalutamide is shown to increase autophagy.

S1133

Alisertib (MLN8237)

Alisertib (MLN8237) is a selective Aurora A inhibitor with IC50 of 1.2 nM in a cell-free assay. It has >200-fold higher selectivity for Aurora A than Aurora B. Alisertib induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 3.

S1011

Afatinib (BIBW2992)

Afatinib (BIBW2992) inhibits EGFR/ErbB irreversibly in vitro with IC50 of 0.5, 0.4, 10, 14, 1 nM for EGFRwt, EGFR L858R , EGFR L858R/T790M ErbB2 (HER2) and ErbB4 (HER4), respectively. Afatinib induces autophagy.

S2226

Idelalisib (CAL-101, GS-1101)

Idelalisib (CAL-101, GS-1101) is a selective p110δ inhibitor with IC50 of 2.5 nM in cell-free assays; shown to have 40- to 300-fold greater selectivity for p110δ than p110α/β/γ, and 400- to 4000-fold more selectivity to p110δ than C2β, hVPS34, DNA-PK and mTOR. Idelalisib also stimulates autophagy.

S1048

Tozasertib (VX-680, MK-0457)

Tozasertib (VX-680, MK-0457) is a pan-Aurora inhibitor, mostly against Aurora A with Kiapp of 0.6 nM in a cell-free assay, less potent towards Aurora B/Aurora C and 100-fold more selective for Aurora A than 55 other kinases. The only exceptions are Fms-related tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT-3) and c-ABL tyrosine kinase, which are inhibited by the Tozasertib with Ki of 30 nM and 20 nM, respectively. Tozasertib induces apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 2.

S1555

AZD8055

AZD8055 is a novel ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 0.8 nM in MDA-MB-468 cells with excellent selectivity (∼1,000-fold) against PI3K isoforms and ATM/DNA-PK. AZD8055 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis and also induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S1006

Saracatinib (AZD0530)

Saracatinib (AZD0530) is a potent Src inhibitor with IC50 of 2.7 nM in cell-free assays, and potent to c-Yes, Fyn, Lyn, Blk, Fgr and Lck; less active for Abl and EGFR (L858R and L861Q). Saracatinib induces autophagy. Phase 2/3.

S1057

Obatoclax Mesylate (GX15-070)

Obatoclax Mesylate (GX15-070) is an antagonist of Bcl-2 with Ki of 0.22 μM in a cell-free assay, can assist in overcoming MCL-1 mediated resistance to apoptosis. Phase 3.

S1141

Tanespimycin (17-AAG)

Tanespimycin (17-AAG, CP127374, NSC-330507, KOS 953) is a potent HSP90 inhibitor with IC50 of 5 nM in a cell-free assay, having a 100-fold higher binding affinity for HSP90 derived from tumour cells than HSP90 from normal cells. Tanespimycin (17-AAG) induces apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and mitophagy. Phase 3.

S1130

YM155 (Sepantronium Bromide)

YM155 (Sepantronium Bromide) is a potent survivin suppressant by inhibiting Survivin promoter activity with IC50 of 0.54 nM in HeLa-SURP-luc and CHO-SV40-luc cells; does not significantly inhibit SV40 promoter activity, but is observed to slightly inhibit the interaction of Survivin with XIAP. YM155 down-regulates survivin and XIAP, modulates autophagy and induces autophagy-dependent DNA damage in breast cancer cells. Phase 2.

S1166

Cisplatin

Cisplatin (cisplatinum, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, CDDP) is an inorganic platinum complex, which is able to inhibit DNA synthesis by conforming DNA adducts in tumor cells. Cisplatin activates ferroptosis and induces autophagy. Solutions are best fresh-prepared.

S2475

Imatinib (STI571)

Imatinib (STI571) is a multi-target inhibitor of tyrosine kinase with inhibition for v-Abl, c-Kit and PDGFR, IC50 values are 0.6 μM, 0.1 μM and 0.1 μM in cell-free or cell-based assays, respectively. Imatinib (STI571) induces autophagy.

S1033

Nilotinib (AMN-107)

Nilotinib (AMN-107) is a selective Bcr-Abl inhibitor with IC50 less than 30 nM in Murine myeloid progenitor cells. Nilotinib induces autophagy through AMPK activition.

S1044

Temsirolimus (CCI-779)

Temsirolimus (CCI-779, NSC 683864) is a specific mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 1.76 μM in a cell-free assay. Temsirolimus induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1038

PI-103

PI-103 is a multi-targeted PI3K inhibitor for p110α/β/δ/γ with IC50 of 2 nM/3 nM/3 nM/15 nM in cell-free assays, less potent to mTOR/DNA-PK with IC50 of 30 nM/23 nM. PI-103 induces apoptosis in murine T-cell Lymphoma.

S1069

Luminespib (NVP-AUY922)

Luminespib (AUY-922, NVP-AUY922) is a highly potent HSP90 inhibitor for HSP90α/β with IC50 of 13 nM /21 nM in cell-free assays, weaker potency against the HSP90 family members GRP94 and TRAP-1, exhibits the tightest binding of any small-molecule HSP90 ligand. Luminespib (AUY-922, NVP-AUY922) effectively downregulates and destabilizes the IGF-1Rβ protein and results in growth inhibition, autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 2.

S1046

Vandetanib (ZD6474)

Vandetanib (ZD6474) is a potent inhibitor of VEGFR2 with IC50 of 40 nM in a cell-free assay. It also inhibits VEGFR3 and EGFR with IC50 of 110 nM and 500 nM, respectively. Not sensitive to PDGFRβ, Flt1, Tie-2 and FGFR1 with IC50 of 1.1-3.6 μM. No activity against MEK, CDK2, c-Kit, erbB2, FAK, PDK1, Akt and IGF-1R with IC50 above 10 μM. Vandetanib (ZD6474) increases apoptosis and induces autophagy by increasing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

S1149

Gemcitabine HCl

Gemcitabine HCl (LY188011) is a DNA synthesis inhibitor with IC50 of 50 nM, 40 nM, 18 nM and 12 nM in PANC1, MIAPaCa2, BxPC3 and Capan2 cells, respectively.

S1122

Mocetinostat (MGCD0103)

Mocetinostat (MGCD0103, MG0103) is a potent HDAC inhibitor with most potency for HDAC1 with IC50 of 0.15 μM in a cell-free assay, 2- to 10- fold selectivity against HDAC2, 3, and 11, and no activity to HDAC4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. Mocetinostat (MGCD0103) induces apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 2.

S1178

Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506)

Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506, Fluoro-Sorafenib) is a multi-target inhibitor for VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFRβ, Kit, RET and Raf-1 with IC50 of 13 nM/4.2 nM/46 nM, 22 nM, 7 nM, 1.5 nM and 2.5 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Regorafenib induces autophagy.

S1129

SRT1720 HCl

SRT1720 HCl is a selective SIRT1 activator with EC50 of 0.16 μM in a cell-free assay, but is >230-fold less potent for SIRT2 and SIRT3. SRT1720 induces autophagy.

S1035

Pazopanib HCl (GW786034 HCl)

Pazopanib HCl (GW786034 HCl) is a novel multi-target inhibitor of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFR, FGFR, c-Kit and c-Fms with IC50 of 10 nM, 30 nM, 47 nM, 84 nM, 74 nM, 140 nM and 146 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Pazopanib induces autophagic Type II cell death.

S1014

Bosutinib (SKI-606)

Bosutinib (SKI-606) is a novel, dual Src/Abl inhibitor with IC50 of 1.2 nM and 1 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Bosutinib also effectively decreases the activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR, MAPK/ERK and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways by blocking the phosphorylation levels of p-ERK, p-S6, and p-STAT3. Bosutinib promotes autophagy.

S1017

Cediranib (AZD2171)

Cediranib (AZD2171, NSC-732208) is a highly potent VEGFR(KDR) inhibitor with IC50 of <1 nM, also inhibits Flt1/4 with IC50 of 5 nM/≤3 nM, similar activity against c-Kit and PDGFRβ, 36-, 110-fold and >1000-fold selective more for VEGFR than PDGFR-α, CSF-1R and Flt3 in HUVEC cells. Cediranib (AZD2171) induces autophagic vacuole accumulation. Phase 3.

S1085

Belinostat (PXD101)

Belinostat (PXD101, NSC726630, PX-105684) is a novel HDAC inhibitor with IC50 of 27 nM in a cell-free assay, with activity demonstrated in cisplatin-resistant tumors. Belinostat (PXD101) induces autophagy.

S1077

SB202190 (FHPI)

SB202190 (FHPI) is a potent p38 MAPK inhibitor targeting p38α/β with IC50 of 50 nM/100 nM in cell-free assays, sometimes used instead of SB 203580 to investigate potential roles for SAPK2a/p38 in vivo. SB202190 inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of autophagy and heme oxygenase-1. SB202190 significantly suppresses Erastin‐dependent ferroptosis.

S2853

Carfilzomib (PR-171)

Carfilzomib (PR-171) is an irreversible proteasome inhibitor with IC50 of <5 nM in ANBL-6 cells, displayed preferential in vitro inhibitory potency against the ChT-L activity in the β5 subunit, but little or no effect on the PGPH and T-L activities. Carfilzomib activates prosurvival autophagy and induces cell apoptosis.

S1191

Fulvestrant

Fulvestrant (ICI-182780, ZD 9238) is an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist with IC50 of 0.94 nM in a cell-free assay. Fulvestrant also induces autophagy and apoptosis and has antitumor activity.

S1075

SB216763

SB216763 is a potent and selective GSK-3 inhibitor with IC50 of 34.3 nM for GSK-3α and equally effective at inhibiting human GSK-3β. SB216763 activates autophagy.

S1080

SU11274

SU11274 (PKI-SU11274) is a selective Met inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM in cell-free assays, no effects on PGDFRβ, EGFR or Tie2. SU11274 induces autophagy, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

S1003

Linifanib (ABT-869)

Linifanib (ABT-869, AL39324, RG3635) is a novel, potent ATP-competitive VEGFR/PDGFR inhibitor for KDR, CSF-1R, Flt-1/3 and PDGFRβ with IC50 of 4 nM, 3 nM, 3 nM/4 nM and 66 nM respectively, mostly effective in mutant kinase-dependent cancer cells (i.e. FLT3). Linifanib (ABT-869) induces autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 3.

S1135

Pemetrexed

Pemetrexed (LY-231514) is a novel antifolate and antimetabolite for TS, DHFR and GARFT with Ki of 1.3 nM, 7.2 nM and 65 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Pemetrexed induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S2218

Torkinib (PP242)

Torkinib (PP242) is a selective mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 8 nM in cell-free assays; targets both mTOR complexes with >10- and 100-fold selectivity for mTOR than PI3Kδ or PI3Kα/β/γ, respectively. Torkinib (PP242) induces mitophagy and apoptosis.

S1225

Etoposide

Etoposide (VP-16, VP-16213) is a semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin, which inhibits DNA synthesis via topoisomerase II inhibition activity. Etoposide induces autophagy, mitophagy and apoptosis.

S1107

Danusertib (PHA-739358)

Danusertib (PHA-739358) is an Aurora kinase inhibitor for Aurora A/B/C with IC50 of 13 nM/79 nM/61 nM in cell-free assays, modestly potent to Abl, TrkA, c-RET and FGFR1, and less potent to Lck, VEGFR2/3, c-Kit, CDK2, etc. Danusertib induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy. Phase 2.

S2248

Silmitasertib (CX-4945)

Silmitasertib (CX-4945) is a potent and selective inhibitor of CK2 (casein kinase 2) with IC50 of 1 nM in a cell-free assay, less potent to Flt3, Pim1 and CDK1 (inactive in cell-based assay). Silmitasertib induces autophagy and promotes apoptosis. Phase 1/2.

S8048

Venetoclax (ABT-199)

Venetoclax (ABT-199, GDC-0199) is a Bcl-2-selective inhibitor with Ki of <0.01 nM in cell-free assays, >4800-fold more selective versus Bcl-xL and Bcl-w, and no activity to Mcl-1. Venetoclax is reported to induce cell growth suppression, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy in triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Phase 3.

S1230

Flavopiridol (Alvocidib)

Flavopiridol (Alvocidib, NSC 649890, HMR-1275) competes with ATP to inhibit CDKs including CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and CDK9 with IC50 values in the 20-100 nM range. It is more selective for CDK1, 2, 4, 6, 9 versus CDK7. Flavopiridol is initially found to inhibit EGFR and PKA. Flavopiridol induces autophagy and ER stress. Flavopiridol blocks HIV-1 replication. Phase 1/2.

S2198

SGI-1776 free base

SGI-1776 free base is a novel ATP competitive inhibitor of Pim1 with IC50 of 7 nM in a cell-free assay, 50- and 10-fold selective versus Pim2 and Pim3, also potent to Flt3 and haspin. SGI-1776 induces apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 1.

S2111

Lapatinib

Lapatinib, used in the form of Lapatinib Ditosylate, is a potent EGFR and ErbB2 inhibitor with IC50 of 10.8 and 9.2 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Lapatinib induces ferroptosis and autophagic cell death.

S1237

Temozolomide

Temozolomide (CCRG81045, NSC 362856, TMZ) is a monofunctional SN-1 alkylating agent that can modify nitrogen atoms in the DNA ring and the extracyclic oxygen group, chemically converted to MTIC and degrades to methyldiazonium cation, which transfers methyl groups to DNA at physiologic pH. A DNA damage inducer in L-1210 and L-1210/BCNU cells. Temozolomide induces apoptosis and exhibits antitumor activity.

S1190

Bicalutamide

Bicalutamide (ICI-176334) is an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist with IC50 of 0.16 μM in LNCaP/AR(cs)cell line. Bicalutamide promotes autophagy.

S5003

Tacrolimus (FK506)

Tacrolimus (FK506, FR900506, Fujimycin, Prograf) is a 23-membered macrolide lactone, it reduces peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity in T cells by binding to the immunophilin FKBP12 (FK506 binding protein) creating a new complex. Tacrolimus also inhibits the phosphatase activity of calcineurin. Tacrolimus induces vascular endothelial autophagy.

S1950

Metformin HCl

Metformin HCl decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis). Metformin promotes mitophagy in mononuclear cells. Metformin induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through activating JNK/p38 MAPK pathway and GADD153.

S1573

Fasudil (HA-1077) HCl

Fasudil(HA-1077), a potent and selective inhibitor of Rho kinase, displays less potent inhibiton over PKA, PKG, PKC and MLCK with Ki of 1.6, 1.6, 3.3, and 36 μM in cell-free assays, respectively. Fasudil is also a calcium channel blocker.

S1224

Oxaliplatin

Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a DNA alkylating agent that activates autophagy. Oxaliplatin inhibits DNA synthesis by conforming DNA adducts in RT4, TCCSUP, A2780, HT-29, U-373MG, U-87MG, SK-MEL-2, and HT-144 cells. DMF is recommended for dissolution. Solutions are best fresh-prepared.

S2626

Rabusertib (LY2603618)

Rabusertib (LY2603618, IC-83) is a highly selective Chk1 inhibitor with potential anti-tumor activity in a cell-free assay. IC50=7 nM, showing approximately 100-fold more potent against Chk1 than against any of the other protein kinases evaluated. Rabusertib (LY2603618) induces cell cycle arrest, DNA damage response and autophagy in cancer cells. Rabusertib (LY2603618) induces bak-dependent apoptosis in AML cell lines.

S2679

Flavopiridol HCl

Flavopiridol HCl competes with ATP to inhibit CDKs including CDK1, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 with IC50 of ~ 40 nM in cell-free assays. It is 7.5-fold more selective for CDK1/2/4/6 than CDK7. Flavopiridol is initially found to inhibit EGFR and PKA. Flavopiridol HCl induces autophagy and ER stress. Flavopiridol HCl blocks HIV-1 replication. Phase 1/2.

S7110

(+)-JQ1

(+)-JQ1 is a BET bromodomain inhibitor, with IC50 of 77 nM/33 nM for BRD4(1/2) in cell-free assays, binding to all bromodomains of the BET family, but not to bromodomains outside the BET family. (+)-JQ1 suppresses cell proliferation via inducing autophagy.

S1314

Zoledronic Acid

Zoledronic acid (ZA, Zoledronate, CGP-4244), a potent osteoclast inhibitor, induces apoptosis in osteoclasts by inhibiting enzymes of the mevalonate pathway and preventing the isoprenylation of small GTP-binding proteins such as Ras and Rho. Zoledronic acid (ZA) also induces autophagy.

S2219

Momelotinib (CYT387)

Momelotinib (CYT387, LM-1149 , CYT11387) is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of JAK1/JAK2 with IC50 of 11 nM/18 nM, ~10-fold selectivity versus JAK3. Momelotinib (CYT387) induces apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 3.

S2181

Ixazomib Citrate (MLN9708)

Ixazomib Citrate (MLN9708) immediately hydrolyzed to Ixazomib (MLN2238), the biologically active form, on exposure to aqueous solutions or plasma. Ixazomib (MLN2238) inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteolytic (β5) site of the 20S proteasome with IC50/Ki of 3.4 nM/0.93 nM in cell-free assays, less potent to β1 and little activity to β2. Ixazomib (MLN2238) induces autophagy. Phase 3.

S1972

Tamoxifen Citrate

Tamoxifen Citrate (ICI 46474) is an antagonist of the estrogen receptor by competitive inhibition of estrogen binding. Tamoxifen Citrate is also a potent Hsp90 activator and enhances the Hsp90 molecular chaperone ATPase activity. Tamoxifen induces apoptosis and autophagy.

S1235

Letrozole

Letrozole (CGS 20267) is a third generation inhibitor of aromatase with IC50 of 0.07-20 nM in cell-free assays.It has no effect on the plasma levels of 17α-OH progesterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), or androstenedione and does not affect normal urine electrolyte excretion or thyroid function in clinical studies. Letrozole induces autophagy.

S1231

Topotecan HCl

Topotecan HCl (NSC609699, Nogitecan, SKFS 104864A) is a topoisomerase I inhibitor for MCF-7 Luc cells and DU-145 Luc cells with IC50 of 13 nM and 2 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Topotecan HCl induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S2827

Torin 1

Torin 1 is a potent inhibitor of mTORC1/2 with IC50 of 2 nM/10 nM in cell-free assays; exhibits 1000-fold selectivity for mTOR than PI3K.

S2658

Omipalisib (GSK2126458)

Omipalisib (GSK2126458, GSK458) is a highly selective and potent inhibitor of p110α/β/δ/γ, mTORC1/2 with Ki of 0.019 nM/0.13 nM/0.024 nM/0.06 nM and 0.18 nM/0.3 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Omipalisib induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S1233

2-Methoxyestradiol (2-MeOE2)

2-Methoxyestradiol (2-MeOE2, NSC 659853) depolymerizes microtubules and blocks HIF-1α nuclear accumulation and HIF-transcriptional activity. 2-Methoxyestradiol induces both autophagy and apoptosis in various carcinogenic cell lines. Phase 2.

S1782

Azacitidine (5-Azacytidine)

Azacitidine (5-Azacytidine, 5-AzaC, Ladakamycin, AZA, 5-Aza) is a nucleoside analogue of cytidine that specifically inhibits DNA methylation by trapping DNA methyltransferases. Azacitidine induces mitochondrial apoptosis and autophagy.

S2624

OSI-027

OSI-027 is a selective and potent dual inhibitor of mTORC1 and mTORC2 with IC50 of 22 nM and 65 nM in cell-free assays, and more than 100-fold selectivity observed for mTOR than PI3Kα, PI3Kβ, PI3Kγ or DNA-PK. OSI-027 induces autophagy in cancer cells. Phase 1.

S2180

Ixazomib (MLN2238)

Ixazomib (MLN2238) inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteolytic (β5) site of the 20S proteasome with IC50 and Ki of 3.4 nM and 0.93 nM in cell-free assays, respectively, also inhibits the caspase-like (β1) and trypsin-like (β2) proteolytic sites, with IC50 of 31 and 3500 nM. Ixazomib (MLN2238) induces autophagy. Phase 3.

S1590

TWS119

TWS119 is a GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 30 nM in a cell-free assay; capable of inducing neuronal differentiation and may be useful to stem cell biology. GSK-3β inhibition triggers autophagy.

S2696

Apitolisib (GDC-0980)

Apitolisib (GDC-0980, RG7422) is a potent, class I PI3K inhibitor for PI3Kα/β/δ/γ with IC50 of 5 nM/27 nM/7 nM/14 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Also a mTOR inhibitor with Ki of 17 nM in a cell-free assay, and highly selective versus other PIKK family kinases. Apitolisib activates autophagy and apoptosis simultaneously in pancreatic cancer cells. Phase 2.

S2843

BI-D1870

BI-D1870 is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of S6 ribosome for RSK1/2/3/4 with IC50 of 31 nM/24 nM/18 nM/15 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; 10- to 100-fold selectivity for RSK than MST2, GSK-3β, MARK3, CK1 and Aurora B. BI-D1870 exhibits anticancer attributes including the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy.

S1396

Resveratrol

Resveratrol has a wide spectrum of targets including cyclooxygenases(i.e. COX, IC50=1.1 μM), lipooxygenases(LOX, IC50=2.7 μM), kinases, sirtuins and other proteins. It has anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, blood-sugar-lowering and other beneficial cardiovascular effects. Resveratrol induces mitophagy/autophagy and autophagy-dependent apoptosis.

S1322

Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid drugs, and an interleukin receptor modulator that has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects. Dexamethasone induces autophagy and mitophagy. Dexamethasone is tested in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and is found to have benefits for critically ill patients.

S1648

Cytarabine

Cytarabine (Cytarabin, Ara-C, Arabinofuranosyl Cytidine) is an antimetabolic agent and DNA synthesis inhibitor with IC50 of 16 nM in wild-type CCRF-CEM cells. Cytarabine induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1792

Simvastatin

Simvastatin (MK-0733) is a competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase with Ki of 0.1-0.2 nM in cell-free assays. Simvastatin induces ferroptosis, mitophagy, autophagy and apoptosis.

S2783

Vistusertib (AZD2014)

Vistusertib (AZD2014) is a novel mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 2.8 nM in a cell-free assay; highly selective against multiple PI3K isoforms (α/β/γ/δ). AZD2014 showed no or weak binding to the majority of kinases when tested at 1 μM. AZD2014 induces proliferation suppression, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy in HCC cells with antitumor activity.

S2635

CCT128930

CCT128930 is a potent, ATP-competitive and selective inhibitor of Akt2 with IC50 of 6 nM in a cell-free assay, 28-fold greater selectivity for Akt2 than the closely related PKA kinase. CCT128930 induces cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and autophagy independent of Akt inhibition. High dose of CCT128930 triggers cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

S1228

Idarubicin HCl

Idarubicin HCl (4-demethoxydaunorubicin, NSC256439, 4-DMDR) is a hydrochloride salt form of Idarubicin which is an anthracycline antibiotic and a DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) inhibitor for MCF-7 cells with IC50 of 3.3 ng/mL in a cell-free assay. Idarubicin induces mTOR-dependent cytotoxic autophagy.

S1714

Gemcitabine

Gemcitabine (LY-188011, NSC 613327), a nucleic acid synthesis inhibitor, is a very potent and specific deoxycytidine analogue, used as chemotherapy. Gemcitabine induces a potent p53-dependent apoptosis.

S2163

PF-4708671

PF-4708671 is a cell-permeable inhibitor of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K1 isoform) with Ki/IC50 of 20 nM/160 nM in cell-free assays, 400-fold greater selectivity for S6K1 than S6K2, and 4- and >20-fold selectivity for S6K1 than MSK1 and RSK1/2, respectively. PF-4708671 induces autophagy. First S6K1-specific inhibitor to be reported.

S2817

Torin 2

Torin 2 is a potent and selective mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 0.25 nM in p53−/− MEFs cell line; 800-fold greater selectivity for mTOR than PI3K and improved pharmacokinetic properties. Inhibition of ATM/ATR/DNA-PK with EC50 of 28 nM/35 nM/118 nM,in PC3 cell lines respectively. Torin 2 decreases cell viability and induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1312

Streptozotocin (STZ)

Streptozotocin (STZ, NSC-85998, Streptozocin) is a glucosamine-nitrosourea derivative, which is a DNA-methylating, carcinogenic, antibiotic and diabetes inducing agent. Streptozotocin induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1582

H 89 2HCl

H 89 2HCl is a potent PKA inhibitor with Ki of 48 nM in a cell-free assay, 10-fold selective for PKA than PKG,500-fold greater selectivity than PKC, MLCK, calmodulin kinase II and casein kinase I/II. H 89 2HCl induces autophagy.

S2713

Geldanamycin

Geldanamycin (NSC 122750) is a natural existing HSP90 inhibitor with Kd of 1.2 μM, specifically disrupts glucocorticoid receptor (GR)/HSP association. Geldanamycin attenuates virus infection-induced ALI (acute lung injury)/ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) by reducing the host's inflammatory responses.

S2770

MK-5108 (VX-689)

MK-5108 (VX-689) is a highly selective Aurora A inhibitor with IC50 of 0.064 nM in a cell-free assay and is 220- and 190-fold more selective for Aurora A than Aurora B/C, while it inhibits TrkA with less than 100-fold selectivity. MK-5108 (VX-689) induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S2449

Forskolin

Forskolin (Coleonol) is a ubiquitous activator of eukaryotic adenylyl cyclase (AC) in a wide variety of cell types, commonly used to raise levels of cAMP in the study and research of cell physiology. Forskolin also activates PXR and FXR activity. Forskolin stimulates autophagy.

S1168

Valproic acid sodium salt (Sodium valproate)

Valproic acid sodium salt (Sodium valproate) is a HDAC inhibitor by selectively inducing proteasomal degradation of HDAC2, used in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and prevention of migraine headaches. Valproic acid induces Notch1 signaling in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. Valproic acid is under investigation for treatment of HIV and various cancers. Valproic acid (VPA) induces autophagy and mitophagy by upregulation of BNIP3 and mitochondrial biogenesis by upregulating PGC-1α.

S1759

Pitavastatin Calcium

Pitavastatin Calcium (NK-104, P-872441, itavastatin, nisvastatin), a novel member of the medication class of statins, is a calcium salt formulation of pitavastatin which is a highly effective HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. Pitavastatin Calcium attenuates AGEs-induced mitophagy via inhibition of ROS generation. Pitavastatin Calcium induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S7306

Dorsomorphin (Compound C) 2HCl

Dorsomorphin 2HCl (BML-275, Compound C) is a potent, reversible, selective AMPK inhibitor with Ki of 109 nM in cell-free assays, exhibiting no significant inhibition of several structurally related kinases including ZAPK, SYK, PKCθ, PKA, and JAK3. Also inhibits type Ⅰ BMP receptor activity. Dorsomorphin induces autophagy in cancer cell line.

S2061

Lovastatin

Lovastatin (MK-803) is an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase with IC50 of 3.4 nM in a cell-free assay, used for lowering cholesterol (hypolipidemic agent). Lovastatin triggers autophagy.

S2505

Rosiglitazone maleate

Rosiglitazone maleate (BRL 49653), a member of the thiazolidinedione class of antihyperglycaemic agents, is a high-affinity selective agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) with IC50 of 42 nM. Rosiglitazone maleate also modulates TRP channels and induces autophagy. Rosiglitazone prevents ferroptosis.

S3012

Pazopanib

Pazopanib (GW786034) is a novel multi-target inhibitor of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFR, FGFR, c-Kit and c-Fms/CSF1R with IC50 of 10 nM, 30 nM, 47 nM, 84 nM, 74 nM, 140 nM and 146 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Pazopanib induces cathepsin B activation and autophagy.

S2799

Daporinad (FK866, APO866)

Daporinad (FK866, APO866) effectively inhibits nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NMPRTase; Nampt) with IC50 of 0.09 nM in a cell-free assay. Daporinad (FK866, APO866) triggers autophagy. Phase 1/2.

S1218

Clofarabine

Clofarabine inhibits the enzymatic activities of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) (IC50 = 65 nM) and DNA polymerase. Clofarabine induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S3022

Cabazitaxel

Cabazitaxel (RPR-116258A, XRP6258, TXD 258) is a semi-synthetic derivative of a natural taxoid that kills cancer cells by inhibiting cell division and growth. Cabazitaxel exerts its effects by inhibiting microtubule growth and assembly, processes that are essential for cells to divide. Cabazitaxel induces autophagy via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

S2077

Atorvastatin Calcium

Atorvastatin Calcium is an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase used as a cholesterol-lowering medication that blocks the production of cholesterol. Atorvastatin Calcium induces apoptosis and autophagy.

S2812

AT101

AT101, the R-(-) enantiomer of Gossypol acetic acid, binds with Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 with Ki of 0.32 μM, 0.48 μM and 0.18 μM in cell-free assays; does not inhibit BIR3 domain and BID. AT-101 simultaneously triggers apoptosis and a cytoprotective type of autophagy. Phase 2.

S2929

Pifithrin-α (PFTα) HBr

Pifithrin-α is an inhibitor of p53, inhibiting p53-dependent transactivation of p53-responsive genes. Pifithrin-α is also a potent agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).

S4908

SN-38

SN-38 is an active metabolite of CPT-11, inhibits DNA topoisomerase I, DNA synthesis and causes frequent DNA single-strand breaks. SN-38 induces autophagy.

S7164

GSK343

GSK343 is a potent and selective EZH2 inhibitor with IC50 of 4 nM in a cell-free assay, showing 60 fold selectivity against EZH1, and >1000 fold selectivity against other histone methyltransferases. GSK343 induces autophagy.

S8006

BIX 01294

BIX01294 is an inhibitor of G9a histone methyltransferase with IC50 of 2.7 μM in a cell-free assay, reduces H3K9me2 of bulk histones, also weakly inhibits GLP (primarily H3K9me3), no significant activity observed at other histone methyltransferases. BIX01294 induces autophagy.

S8059

Nutlin-3a

Nutlin-3a, the active enantiomer of Nutlin-3, inhibits the p53/MDM2 interaction with IC50 of 90 nM in a cell-free assay. Nutlin-3a induces autophagy and apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner.

S1403

Tigecycline

Tigecycline (GAR-936) is bacteriostatic and is a protein synthesis inhibitor by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit of bacteria and thereby blocking entry of Aminoacyl-tRNA into the A site of the ribosome during prokaryotic translation. Tigecycline induces autophagy by downregulating the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway.

S7007

Binimetinib (MEK162)

Binimetinib (MEK162, ARRY-162, ARRY-438162) is a potent inhibitor of MEK1/2 with IC50 of 12 nM in a cell-free assay. Binimetinib induces G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human NSCLC cell lines and induces autophagy. Phase 3.

S2476

Itraconazole

Itraconazole is a relatively potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 with IC50 of 6.1 nM, used as a triazole antifungal agent. Itraconazole is a potent antagonist of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Itraconazole suppresses the growth of glioblastoma through induction of autophagy.

S2751

Milciclib (PHA-848125)

Milciclib (PHA-848125) is a potent, ATP-competitive CDK inhibitor for CDK2 with IC50 of 45 nM. It is >3-fold more selective for CDK2 than CDK1, 2, 4, 5, and 7. Milciclib (PHA-848125) induces cell death through autophagy. Phase 2.

S7397

Sorafenib

Sorafenib (BAY 43-9006) is a multikinase inhibitor of Raf-1 and B-Raf with IC50 of 6 nM and 22 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Sorafenib inhibits VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, PDGFR-β, Flt-3 and c-KIT with IC50 of 90 nM, 20 nM, 57 nM, 59 nM and 68 nM, respectively. Sorafenib induces autophagy and apoptosis and activates ferroptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S2556

Rosiglitazone

Rosiglitazone (BRL 49653) is a potent antihyperglycemic agent and a potent thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizer with IC50 of 12, 4 and 9 nM for rat, 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes, respectively. Rosiglitazone is a pure ligand of PPAR-gamma, and has no PPAR-alpha-binding action. Rosiglitazone modulates TRP channels and induces autophagy. Rosiglitazone prevents ferroptosis.

S1219

YM201636

YM201636 is a selective PIKfyve inhibitor with IC50 of 33 nM, less potent to p110α and insensitive to Fabl (yeast orthologue). YM-201636 suppresses the growth of liver cancer via the induction of autophagy.

S7152

C646

C646 is an inhibitor for histone acetyltransferase, and inhibits p300 with a Ki of 400 nM in a cell-free assay. Preferentially selective for p300 versus other acetyltransferases. C646 induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy.

S1896

Hydroxyurea

Hydroxyurea (nci-c04831, nsc32065) is an antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase. Hydroxyurea activates apoptosis and autophagy. Hydroxyurea is used to treat HIV infection.

S8078

Bardoxolone Methyl

Bardoxolone Methyl (RTA 402, TP-155, NSC 713200, CDDO Methyl Ester, CDDO-Me) is an IKK inhibitor, showing potent proapoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities; Also a potent Nrf2 activator and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor. Bardoxolone Methyl abrogates ferroptosis. Bardoxolone methyl induces apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells.

S1999

Sodium butyrate

Sodium butyrate (NaB), sodium salt of butyric acid, is a histone deacetylase inhibitor and competitively binds to the zinc sites of class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs). Sodium butyrate (NaB) inhibits cell cycle progression, promotes differentiation, and induces apoptosis and autophagy in several types of cancer cells.

S2606

Mifepristone

Mifepristone (RU486, C-1073) is a remarkably active antagonist of progesterone receptor and glucocorticoid receptor with IC50 of 0.2 nM and 2.6 nM, respectively. Mifepristone promotes cell autophagy and apoptosis, decreases Bcl-2 level and increases Beclin1 level, accompanied by weakened interaction between Bcl-2 and Beclin1.

S1847

Clemastine Fumarate

Clemastine Fumarate (Clemastine) is a selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist with IC50 of 3 nM. Clemastine stimulates autophagy via mTOR pathway.

S7130

PR-619

PR-619 is a non-selective, reversible inhibitor of the deubiquitinylating enzymes (DUBs) with EC50 of 1-20 μM in a cell-free assay. PR-619 activates autophagy.

S2782

GW4064

GW4064 is an agonist of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) with EC50 of 65 nM in CV1 cell line and displays no activity at other nuclear receptors at concentrations up to 1 μM. GW4064 stimulates autophagy in MCF-7 cells.

S3031

Linagliptin

Linagliptin is a highly potent, selective DPP-4 inhibitor with IC50 of 1 nM and exhibits a 10,000-fold higher selectivity for DPP-4 than for other dipeptidyl peptidases such as DPP-2, DPP-8, and DPP-9. Linagliptin activates glomerular autophagy in a model of type 2 diabetes. DPP4 mediates ferroptosis in TP53-deficient CRC cells.

S3030

Niclosamide

Niclosamide can inhibit DNA replication and inhibit STAT3 with IC50 of 0.7 μM in a cell-free assay. Niclosamide selectively inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT3 and had no obvious inhibition against the activation of other homologues (e.g., STAT1 and STAT5).

S7165

UNC1999

UNC1999 is a potent, orally bioavailable and selective inhibitor of EZH2 and EZH1 with IC50 of 2 nM and 45 nM in cell-free assays, respectively, showing >1000-fold selectivity over a broad range of epigenetic and non-epigenetic targets. UNC1999 is a potent autophagy inducer. UNC1999 specifically suppresses H3K27me3/2 and induces a range of anti-leukemia effects including anti-proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.

S8047

Dynasore

Dynasore is a cell-permeable, reversible non-competitive dynamin inhibitor of GTPase activity of dynamin 1/2, with IC50 of 15 μM in a cell-free assay, also inhibits the mitochondrial dynamin Drp1, with no effect against other small GTPase. Dynasore suppresses mTORC1 activity and induces autophagy. Dynasore inhibits the entry of several viruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV).

S1848

Curcumin

Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane) is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). It is an inhibitor of p300 histone acetylatransferase(IC50~25 μM) and Histone deacetylase (HDAC); activates Nrf2 pathway and supresses the activation of transcription factor NF-κB. Curcumin induces mitophagy, autophagy, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest with antitumor activity. Curcumin reduces renal damage associated with rhabdomyolysis by decreasing ferroptosis-mediated cell death. Curcumin exhibits anti-infective properties against various human pathogens like the influenza virus, hepatitis C virus, HIV and so on.

S1290

Celastrol

Celastrol (Tripterine) is a potent proteasome inhibitor for the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with IC50 of 2.5 μM. Celastrol induces apoptosis and autophagy via the ROS/JNK signaling pathway. Celastrol inhibits dopaminergic neuronal death of Parkinson's disease through activating mitophagy.

S2310

Honokiol

Honokiol is the active principle of magnolia extract that inhibits Akt-phosphorylation and promotes ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Honokiol causes G0/G1 phase arrest, induces apoptosis, and autophagy via the ROS/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Honokiol inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Phase 3.

S1263

CHIR-99021 (CT99021)

CHIR-99021 (CT99021) is a GSK-3α and GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM and 6.7 nM, respectively. CHIR99201 does not exhibit cross-reactivity against cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and shows a 350-fold selectivity toward GSK-3β compared to CDKs. CHIR99021 functions as a Wnt/β-catenin activator and induces autophagy.

S1351

Ivermectin

Ivermectin (MK-933, IVM) is a glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCls) activator, used as a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug. Ivermectin (MK-933, IVM) is a specific positive allosteric effector of P2X4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Ivermectin has potent antiviral activity towards both HIV-1 and dengue virus. Ivermectin induces autophagy through the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and mitophagy.

S8075

GANT61

GANT61 is an inhibitor for GLI1 as well as GLI2-induced transcription, inhibits hedgehog with IC50 of 5 μM in GLI1 expressing HEK293T cell, displays selectivity over other pathways, such as TNF and glucocorticoid receptor gene transactivation. GANT61 induces apoptosis and activates protective autophagy in LX-2 cells.

S1389

Omeprazole

Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor, used to treat dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome.

S1979

Amiodarone HCl

Amiodarone HCl is a sodium/potassium-ATPase inhibitor and an autophagy activator, used to treat various types of cardiac dysrhythmias.

S2480

Loperamide HCl

Loperamide HCl is a selective μ-opioid receptor agonist opioid with Ki of 3.3 nM, 15-fold and 350-fold selective over the δ subtype and the κ subtype of the opioid receptor, used against diarrhea resulting from gastroenteritis or inflammatory bowel disease.

S4028

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate

Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid drugs, and an interleukin receptor modulator that has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects.

S3017

Aspirin

Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic acid) is a salicylate, and irreversible COX1 and COX2 inhibitor, used as an analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin induces autophagy and stimulates mitophagy.

S7106

AZD3463

AZD3463 is a novel orally bioavailable ALK inhibitor with Ki of 0.75 nM, which also inhibits IGF1R with equivalent potency. AZD3463 suppresses cell viability by inducing both cell apoptosis and autophagy.

S1693

Carbamazepine

Carbamazepine (Carbatrol, NSC 169864) is a sodium channel blocker with IC50 of 131 μM in rat brain synaptosomes.

S2458

Clonidine HCl

Clonidine HCl is a direct-acting α2 adrenergic agonist with an ED50 of 0.02±0.01 mg/kg.

S1837

Flubendazole

Flubendazole is an autophagy inducer by targeting Atg4B, used to treat internal parasite and worm infection.

S1747

Nimodipine

Nimodipine (BAY E 9736) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker and an autophagy inhibitor, used in the treatment of high blood pressure.

S7134

IU1

IU1 is a cell-permeable, reversible and selective proteasome inhibitor of human USP14 with IC50 of 4.7 μ M, 25-fold selective to IsoT. IU1 induces autophagy.

S1576

Sulfasalazine

Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine, Salazopyrin, Sulphasalazine) is a sulfa derivative of mesalazine, used as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine is a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), TGF-β and COX-2. Sulfasalazine induces ferroptosis, apoptosis and autophagy.

S7067

Tepotinib (EMD 1214063)

Tepotinib (EMD 1214063, MSC2156119) is a potent and selective c-Met inhibitor with IC50 of 4 nM, >200-fold selective for c-Met than IRAK4, TrkA, Axl, IRAK1, and Mer. Tepotinib (EMD 1214063) induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S1794

Fenofibrate

Fenofibrate (Tricor, Trilipix) is a compound of the fibrate class and fibric acid derivative. Fenofibrate is a selective agonist of PPARα with EC50 of 30 μM. Fenofibrate binds to and inhibits cytochrome P450 epoxygenase (CYP)2C with IC50 of 0.2 μM, 0.7 μM and 9.7 μM for CYP2C19, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9, respectively. Fenofibrate induces autophagy.

S7177

PF-543

PF-543, a novel sphingosine-competitive inhibitor of SphK1, inhibits SphK1 with IC50 and Ki of 2.0 nM and 3.6 nM, exhibits >100-fold selectivity over the SphK2 isoform. PF-543 induces apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy.

S8049

Tubastatin A

Tubastatin A is a potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitor with IC50 of 15 nM in a cell-free assay. It is selective against all the other isozymes (1000-fold) except HDAC8 (57-fold). Tubastatin A promotes autophagy and increases apoptosis.

S2491

Nitrendipine

Nitrendipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with an IC50 of 95 nM.

S4211

Montelukast Sodium

Montelukast (MK-0476) selectively antagonizes leukotriene D4 (LTD4) by binding to it so that block the action of leukotriene D4 on the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor CysLT1. Montelukast improves macroautophagy but not the chaperone-mediated autophagy pathway. Precipitations may form after reconstitution,solution is best fresh-prepared.

S3984

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA)

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a phenolic antioxidant found in the leaves and twigs of the evergreen desert shrub, Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC) Coville (creosote bush). It is a recognized inhibitor of lipoxygenase (LOX) and has antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a cytotoxic insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-1R)/HER2 inhibitor and induces apoptosis. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibits p300 and activates autophagy. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) protects cells from ferroptosis.

S7684

Salirasib

Salirasib is a potent competitive prenylated protein methyltransferase (PPMTase) inhibitor with Ki of 2.6 μM, which inhibits Ras methylation. Salirasib exerts antitumor effects and induces autophagy. Salirasib exerts antitumor effects and induces autophagy. Phase 2.

S5243

Ruxolitinib Phosphate

Ruxolitinib Phosphate is the phosphate salt form of Ruxolitinib. Ruxolitinib is the first potent, selective, JAK1/2 inhibitor to enter the clinic with IC50 of 3.3 nM/2.8 nM in cell-free assays, >130-fold selectivity for JAK1/2 versus JAK3. Ruxolitinib kills tumor cells through toxic mitophagy. Ruxolitinib induces autophagy and enhances apoptosis.

S7215

Losmapimod (GW856553X)

Losmapimod (GW856553X) is a selective, potent, and orally active p38 MAPK inhibitor with pKi of 8.1 and 7.6 for p38α and p38β, respectively. P38 MAPKs are involved in cell differentiation, apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 3.

S7998

Entrectinib (RXDX-101)

Entrectinib (RXDX-101, NMS-E628) is an orally bioavailable pan-TrkA/B/C, ROS1 and ALK inhibitor with IC50 ranging between 0.1 and 1.7 nM. Entrectinib (RXDX-101) induces autophagy. Phase 2.

S7781

Sunitinib

Sunitinib (SU11248) is a multi-targeted RTK inhibitor targeting VEGFR2 (Flk-1) and PDGFRβ with IC50 of 80 nM and 2 nM, and also inhibits c-Kit. Sunitinib is also a dose-dependent inhibitor of the autophosphorylation activity of IRE1α. Sunitinib induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S3944

Valproic acid (VPA)

Valproic acid (VPA, 2-Propylvaleric Acid, Sodium valproate) is a fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. It is also a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and is under investigation for treatment of HIV and various cancers. Valproic acid (VPA) induces autophagy and mitophagy by upregulation of BNIP3 and mitochondrial biogenesis by upregulating PGC-1α. Valproic acid activates Notch-1 signaling.

S7343

URMC-099

URMC-099 is an orally bioavailable, brain penetrant mixed lineage kinase (MLK) inhibitor with IC50 of 19 nM, 42 nM, 14 nM, and 150 nM, for MLK1, MLK2, MLK3, and DLK, respectively, and also inhibits LRRK2 activity with IC50 of 11 nM. URMC-099 also inhibits ABL1 with IC50 of 6.8 nM. URMC-099 induces autophagy.

S7786

Erlotinib

Erlotinib is an EGFR inhibitor with IC50 of 2 nM, >1000-fold more sensitive for EGFR than human c-Src or v-Abl. Erlotinib induces autophagy.

S7724

APR-246 (PRIMA-1MET)

APR-246, also known as PRIMA-1MET, is a small organic molecule that has been shown to restore tumour-suppressor function primarily to mutant p53 and also to induce cell death in various cancer types. APR-246 induces apoptosis and autophagy.

S8595

Tat-beclin 1 (Tat-BECN1)

Tat-beclin 1 (Tat-BECN1), a peptide known to stimulate autophagy through mobilization of endogenous Beclin 1, induces autophagy in vitro and in vivo and improves clinical outcomes.

S7785

Pemetrexed Disodium Hydrate

Pemetrexed Disodium Hydrate (LY-231514) is a novel antifolate and antimetabolite for TS, DHFR and GARFT with Ki of 1.3 nM, 7.2 nM and 65 nM, respectively. Pemetrexed Disodium Hydrate stimulates autophagy and apoptosis.

S5715

atorvastatin

Atorvastatin is a lipid lowering agent. It is a competitive inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-determining enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis via the mevalonate pathway. Atorvastatin activates autophagy.

S2391

Quercetin

Quercetin, a natural flavonoid present in vegetables, fruit and wine, is a stimulator of recombinant SIRT1 and also a PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 2.4-5.4 μM. Quercetin induces mitophagy, apoptosis and protective autophagy. Phase 4.

S7810

Afatinib (BIBW2992) Dimaleate

Afatinib (BIBW2992) Dimaleate irreversibly inhibits EGFR/HER2 including EGFR(wt), EGFR(L858R), EGFR(L858R/T790M) and HER2 with IC50 of 0.5 nM, 0.4 nM, 10 nM and 14 nM, respectively; 100-fold more active against Gefitinib-resistant L858R-T790M EGFR mutant. Afatinib (BIBW2992) Dimaleate induces autophagy.

S2285

Cryptotanshinone

Cryptotanshinone is a STAT3 inhibitor with IC50 of 4.6 μM in a cell-free assay, strongly inhibits phosphorylation of STAT3 Tyr705, with a small effect on STAT3 Ser727, but none against STAT1 nor STAT5. Cryptotanshinone induces ROS-dependent autophagy and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.

S2290

Dihydroartemisinin (DHA)

Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin and isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua. Dihydroartemisinin induces autophagy and apoptosis by suppressing NF-κB activation.

S7655

CB-839(Telaglenastat)

CB-839(Telaglenastat) is a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable glutaminase inhibitor with IC50 of 24 nM for recombinant human GAC. CB-839(Telaglenastat) inudces autophagy and has antitumor activity. Phase 1.

S7793

Purvalanol A

Purvalanol A is a potent, and cell-permeable CDK inhibitor with IC50 of 4 nM, 70 nM, 35 nM, and 850 nM for cdc2-cyclin B, cdk2-cyclin A, cdk2-cyclin E, and cdk4-cyclin D1, respectively. Purvalanol A induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis and autophagy.

S7409

Anisomycin

Anisomycin (Flagecidin) is a bacterial antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces griseolus, which inhibits protein synthesis, and also act as a JNK activator. Anisomycin upregulates autophagy and increases apoptosis.

S3653

Spermidine trihydrochloride

Spermidine (4-Azaoctamethylenediamine), a natural polyamine produced from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM) by spermidine synthase, is a novel autophagy inducer and negatively modulates N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA).

S7648

OTS964

OTS964 is a potent TOPK inhibitor with high affinity and selectivity and IC50 value is 28 nM. OTS964 is also a potent inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK11 with Kd of 40 nM. OTS964 treatment activates autophagy in glioma cells and induces apoptosis of human lung cancer cells in mouse xenografts.

S8432

Troglitazone (CS-045)

Troglitazone (Rezulin, Romglizone, Prelay, CS045, Romozin) is a potent agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-(PPAR) that is a ligand activated transcription factor regulating cell differentiation and growth. Troglitazone induces autophagy, apoptosis and necroptosis in bladder cancer cells. Troglitazone prevents RSL3-induced ferroptosis and lipid peroxidation in Pfa1 cells.

S9027

Corynoxine

Corynoxine, a natural oxindole alkaloid, is a new autophagy enhancer.

S4081

Sulfacetamide Sodium

Sulfacetamide Sodium is an anti-biotic.

S4269

Vinorelbine Tartrate

Vinorelbine Tartrate is a semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid, and inhibits mitosis through interaction with tubulin. Vinorelbine Tartrate exhibits anti-tumor activities via inducing the mitotic apoptosis, autophagy and inflammation.

S7483

DMOG

DMOG is an antagonist of α-ketoglutarate cofactor and inhibitor for HIF prolylhydroxylase, leading to stabilisation and accumulation of HIF-1α protein in the nucleus. DMOG enhances autophagy.

S8240

SMER28

SMER28 is a small-molecule enhancer (SMER) of autophagy, inducing autophagy independently of rapamycin in mammalian cells.

S4505

Vinblastine sulfate

Vinblastine sulfate (NSC49842) inhibits microtubule formation and suppresses nAChR activity with IC50 of 8.9 μM in a cell-free assay, used to treat certain kinds of cancer. Vinblastine sulfate induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S7680

SP2509

SP2509 is a selective histone demethylase LSD1 inhibitor with IC50 of 13 nM, showing no activity against MAO-A, MAO-B, lactate dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase. SP2509 induces apoptosis and promotes autophagy.

S7104

AZD1208

AZD1208 is a potent, and orally available Pim kinase inhibitor with IC50 of 0.4 nM, 5 nM, and 1.9 nM for Pim1, Pim2, and Pim3 in cell-free assays, respectively. AZD1208 induces autophagy, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Phase 1.

S7842

LY3009120

LY03009120 is a potent pan-Raf inhibitor with IC50 of 44 nM, 31-47 nM, and 42 nM for A-raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf in A375 cells, respectively. LY03009120 induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S4546

Xylitol

Xylitol is a sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.

S7840

Dorsomorphin (Compound C)

Dorsomorphin is a potent, reversible, selective AMPK inhibitor with Ki of 109 nM in cell-free assays, exhibiting no significant inhibition of several structurally related kinases including ZAPK, SYK, PKCθ, PKA, and JAK3. Dorsomorphin selectively inhibits the BMP type I receptors ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6. Dorsomorphin is used in promoting specific cell differentiation and inducing cancer cell line autophagy.

S9310

Isorhychophylline

Isorhynchophylline is a major tetracyclic oxindole alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.)Jacks (Gouteng in Chinese). It acts as a neuronal autophagy inducer with therapeutic potential for cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases.

S1238

Tamoxifen

Tamoxifen (ICI 46474) is an antagonist of the estrogen receptor in breast tissue. Tamoxifen enhances the Hsp90 molecular chaperone ATPase activity. Tamoxifen induces apoptosis.

S5742

Deferoxamine mesylate

Deferoxamine mesylate is the mesylate salt of Deferoxamine, which forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent. Deferoxamine is a ferroptosis inhibitor that stabilizes HIF-1α expression and improves HIF-1α transactivity in hypoxic and hyperglycemic states in vitro. Deferoxamine decreases beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and induces autophagy.

S7307

GSK2606414

GSK2606414 is an orally available, potent, and selective PERK inhibitor with IC50 of 0.4 nM, displaying at least 100-fold selectivity over the other EIF2AKs assayed. GSK2606414 impairs GANT-61 induced autophagy in NB cells with MYCN amplification. GSK2606414 exacerbates ER stress-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells while reduces the apoptosis in SIL1 KD HeLa cells.

S8597

LYN-1604

LYN-1604 is a potential ULK1 agonist with IC50 of 1.66 μM against MDA-MB-231 cells and it binds to wild-type ULK1 with a binding affinity in the nanomole range (Kd=291.4 nM). The ULK1 (Y89A) mutant protein caused a sharp decrease in binding affinity with lower response and Kd than wild-type ULK1, ULK1 (K50A) and ULK1 (L53A) mutants.

S2924

CHIR-99021 (CT99021) HCl

CHIR-99021 (CT99021) HCl is hydrochloride of CHIR-99021, which is a GSK-3α/β inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM/6.7 nM; CHIR-99021 shows greater than 500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 versus its closest homologs Cdc2 and ERK2. CHIR-99021 is a potent pharmacological activators of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. CHIR-99021 significantly rescues light-induced autophagy and augments GR, RORα and autophagy-related proteins.

S2215

DAPT (GSI-IX)

DAPT (GSI-IX, LY-374973) is a novel γ-secretase inhibitor, which inhibits Aβ production with IC50 of 20 nM in HEK 293 cells. DAPT enhances the apoptosis of human tongue carcinoma cells and regulates autophagy.

S1241

Vincristine sulfate

Vincristine sulfate (Leurocristine) is an inhibitor of polymerization of microtubules by binding to tubulin with IC50 of 32 μM in a cell-free assay. Vincristine sulfate induces apoptosis.

S1274

BX-795

BX-795 is a potent and specific PDK1 inhibitor with IC50 of 6 nM, 140- and 1600-fold more selective for PDK1 than PKA and PKC in cell-free assays, respectively. Meanwhile, in comparison to GSK3β more than 100-fold selectivity observed for PDK1. BX-795 modulates autophagy via inhibiting ULK1.

S1041

STF-62247

STF-62247 is a molecule targeting VHL-deficient renal cell carcinoma that induces autophagy. STF-62247 shows selective toxicity and growth inhibition of renal cells lacking VHL; 25-fold greater sensitivity observed for cells with VHL deficiency compared to wild-type (VHL+).

S7153

10058-F4

10058-F4 is a c-Myc inhibitor that specificallly inhibits the c-Myc-Max interaction and prevents transactivation of c-Myc target gene expression. 10058-F4 promotes a caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and modulates autophagy.

S1627

Nitazoxanide

Nitazoxanide is a synthetic nitrothiazolyl-salicylamide derivative and an antiprotozoal agent(IC50 for canine influenza virus ranges from 0.17 to 0.21 μM). Nitazoxanide modulates autophagy and inhibits mTORC1 signaling.

S1204

Melatonin

Melatonin is a MT receptor agonist, used as a dietary supplement. Melatonin is a selective ATF-6 inhibitor and downregulates COX-2. Melatonin enhances mitophagy and regulates the homeostasis of apoptosis and autophagy.

S5144

Neferine

Neferine ((R)-1,2-Dimethoxyaporphine), a natural component of Nelumbo nucifera, has antitumor efficiency. Neferine induces apoptosis in renal cancer cells. Neferine prevents autophagy through activation of Akt/mTOR pathway and Nrf2 in muscle cells. Neferine induces autophagy-dependent cell death in apoptosis-resistant cancers. Neferine possesses a number of therapeutic effects such as anti-diabetic, anti-aging, anti-microbial, anti-thrombotic, anti-arrhythmic, anti-inflammatory and even anti-HIV.

S2271

Berberine chloride

Berberine chloride is a quaternary ammonium salt from the group of isoquinoline alkaloids. Berberine activates caspase 3 and caspase 8, cleavage of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and the release of cytochrome c. Berberine chloride decreases the expression of c-IAP1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Berberine chloride induces apoptosis with sustained phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK, as well as generation of the ROS. Berberine chloride is a dual topoisomerase I and II inhibitor. Berberine chloride is also a potential autophagy modulator.

S7980

VPS34-IN1

Vps34-IN1 is a potent and highly selective Vps34 inhibitor with IC50 of 25 nM invitro,which does not significantly inhibit the isoforms of class I as well as class II PI3Ks. Vps34-IN1 modulates autophagy.

S4750

Sulfacetamide sodium salt hydrate

Sulfacetamide is a sulfonamide antibiotic that blocks the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid by inhibiting the enzyme dihydropteroate synthase(DHPS) with IC50 of 9.5 μM. Sulfacetamide is a competitive inhibitor of bacterial para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), which is required for bacterial synthesis of folic acid.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1013

Bortezomib (PS-341)

Bortezomib (PS-341, LDP-341, MLM341) is a potent 20S proteasome inhibitor with Ki of 0.6 nM. It exhibits favorable selectivity towards tumor cells over normal cells. Bortezomib (PS-341) inhibits NF-κB and induces ERK phosphorylation to suppress cathepsin B and inhibit the catalytic process of autophagy in ovarian cancer and other solid tumors.

S6847New

ML-9 HCl

ML-9 HCl (ML-9 hydrochloride) is a selective and potent inhibitor of Akt kinase, myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1). ML-9 HCl is also a potent inhibitor of Ca2+-permeable channels. ML-9 HCl is a lysosomotropic agent targeting autophagy and cell death.

S6851New

RA-190

RA190, a bis-benzylidine piperidon, is a potent, selective and oral effective inhibitor of proteasome ubiquitin receptor RPN13/ADRM1 with anticancer activity. RA190 triggers ER stress response, p53/p21 signaling axis and autophagy in multiple myeloma cells.

S8943New

VLX600

VLX600 is a novel iron-chelating inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), potentiates the effect of radiation in tumor spheroids in a synergistic manner. VLX600 shows enhanced cytotoxic activity under conditions of nutrient starvation. VLX600 induces autophagy and mitochondrial inhibition with antitumor activity.

S6716New

NSC 185058

NSC185058 inhibits ATG4B, the lipidation of LC3B, and autophagy without affecting the MTOR or PtdIns3K pathways.

S7455New

Resatorvid (TAK-242)

Resatorvid (TAK-242) is a small-molecule-specific inhibitor of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling, blocking LPS-induced production of NO, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in macrophages with IC50 values of 1-11 nM. Resatorvid inhibits autophagy.

S1109

BI 2536

BI-2536 is a potent Plk1 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.83 nM in a cell-free assay. BI-2536 inhibits Bromodomain 4 (BRD4) with Kd of 37 nM and potently suppresses c-Myc expression. BI-2536 induces apoptosis and attenuates autophagy. Phase 2.

S1105

LY294002

LY294002 (SF 1101, NSC 697286) is the first synthetic molecule known to inhibit PI3Kα/δ/β with IC50 of 0.5 μM/0.57 μM/0.97 μM, respectively; more stable in solution than Wortmannin, and also blocks autophagosome formation. It not only binds to class I PI3Ks and other PI3K-related kinases, but also to novel targets seemingly unrelated to the PI3K family. LY294002 also inhibits CK2 with IC50 of 98 nM. LY294002 is a non-specific DNA-PKcs inhibitor and activates autophagy and apoptosis.

S1092

KU-55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor)

KU-55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor) is a potent and specific ATM inhibitor with IC50/Ki of 12.9 nM/2.2 nM in cell-free assays, and is highly selective for ATM as compared to DNA-PK, PI3K/PI4K, ATR and mTOR. KU‑55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor) inhibits the activation of autophagy‑initiating kinase ULK1 and results in a significant decrease of autophagy.

S1102

U0126-EtOH

U0126-EtOH is a highly selective inhibitor of MEK1/2 with IC50 of 0.07 μM/0.06 μM in cell-free assays, 100-fold higher affinity for ΔN3-S218E/S222D MEK than PD98059. U0126 inhibits autophagy and mitophagy with antiviral activity.

S1150

Paclitaxel

Paclitaxel (NSC 125973, PTX, Taxol, Onxal) is a microtubule polymer stabilizer with IC50 of 0.1 pM in human endothelial cells.

S1460

SP600125

SP600125 (Nsc75890) is a broad-spectrum JNK inhibitor for JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 with IC50 of 40 nM, 40 nM and 90 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; 10-fold greater selectivity against MKK4, 25-fold greater selectivity against MKK3, MKK6, PKB, and PKCα, and 100-fold selectivity against ERK2, p38, Chk1, EGFR etc. SP600125 is also a broad‐spectrum inhibitor of serine/threonine kinases including Aurora kinase AFLT3 and TRKA with of IC50 of 60 nM, 90 nM and 70 nM. SP600125 inhibits autophagy and activates apoptosis.

S1490

Ponatinib (AP24534)

Ponatinib (AP24534) is a novel, potent multi-target inhibitor of Abl, PDGFRα, VEGFR2, FGFR1 and Src with IC50 of 0.37 nM, 1.1 nM, 1.5 nM, 2.2 nM and 5.4 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Ponatinib (AP24534) inhibits autophagy.

S1113

GSK690693

GSK690693 is a pan-Akt inhibitor targeting Akt1/2/3 with IC50 of 2 nM/13 nM/9 nM in cell-free assays, also sensitive to the AGC kinase family: PKA, PrkX and PKC isozymes. GSK690693 also potently inhibits AMPK and DAPK3 from the CAMK family with IC50 of 50 nM and 81 nM, respectively. GSK690693 affects Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) activity, robustly inhibits STING-dependent IRF3 activation. Phase 1.

S2758

Wortmannin

Wortmannin is the first described PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 3 nM in a cell-free assay, with little selectivity within the PI3K family. Wortmannin blocks autophagosome formation and potently inhibits DNA-PK/ATM with IC50 of 16 nM and 150 nM in cell-free assays. Wortmannin also inhibits PLK1 activity.

S2704

LY2109761

LY2109761 is a novel selective TGF-β receptor type I/II (TβRI/II) dual inhibitor with Ki of 38 nM and 300 nM in a cell-free assay, respectively; shown to negatively affect the phosphorylation of Smad2. LY2109761 blocks autophagy and induces apoptosis.

S2767

3-Methyladenine (3-MA)

3-Methyladenine (3-MA, NSC 66389) is a selective PI3K inhibitor for Vps34 and PI3Kγ with IC50 of 25 μM and 60 μM in HeLa cells; blocks class I PI3K consistently, whereas suppression of class III PI3K is transient, and also blocks autophagosome formation. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is successfully used to suppress mitophagy. Solutions of 3-MA are best fresh-prepared by heating.

S2243

Degrasyn (WP1130)

Degrasyn (WP1130) is a selective deubiquitinase (DUB: USP5, UCH-L1, USP9x, USP14, and UCH37) inhibitor and also suppresses Bcr/Abl, also a JAK2 transducer (without affecting 20S proteasome) and activator of transcription (STAT). Degrasyn (WP1130) induces apoptosis and blocks autophagy.

S1786

Verteporfin

Verteporfin (CL 318952, Visudyne) is a small molecule that inhibits TEAD–YAP association and YAP-induced liver overgrowth. It is also a potent second-generation photosensitizing agent derived from porphyrin. Verteporfin is an autophagy inhibitor. Verteporfin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis.

S7046

Brefeldin A

Brefeldin A is a lactone antibiotic and ATPase inhibitor for protein transport with IC50 of 0.2 μM in HCT 116 cells, induces cancer cell differentiation and apoptosis. It could also improve the HDR(homology-directed repair) efficiency and be an enhancer of CRISPR-mediated HDR. Brefeldin A is also an inhibitor of autophagy and mitophagy.

S8037

Necrostatin-1

Necrostatin-1 is a specific RIP1 (RIPK1) inhibitor and inhibits TNF-α-induced necroptosis with EC50 of 490 nM in 293T cells. Necrostatin-1 also blocks IDO and suppresses autophagy and apoptosis.

S2775

Nocodazole

Nocodazole is a rapidly-reversible inhibitor of microtubule polymerization, also inhibits Abl, Abl(E255K) and Abl(T315I) with IC50 of 0.21 μM, 0.53 μM and 0.64 μM in cell-free assays, respectively. Nocodazole induces apoptosis.

S3042

Purmorphamine

Purmorphamine, which directly binds and activates Smoothened, blocks BODIPY-cyclopamine binding to Smo with IC50 of ~ 1.5 μM in HEK293T cell and also is an inducer of osteoblast differentiation with EC50 of 1 μM. Purmorphamine can reduce both basal and induced autophagy.

S1346

Heparin sodium

Heparin sodium, a sulfated polysaccharide belonging to the family of glycosaminoglycans, has numerous important biological activities associated with its interaction with diverse proteins. Heparin is used as an anticoagulant primarily through its interaction with AT III by enhancing AT-IIImediated inhibition of blood coagulation factors, including thrombin and factor Xa. Heparin prevents the induction of autophagy.

S4157

Chloroquine diphosphate

Chloroquine diphosphate is a 4-aminoquinoline anti-malarial and anti-rheumatoid agent, also acting as an ATM activator. Chloroquine is also an inhibitor of toll-like receptors (TLRs).

S7033

GSK2656157

GSK2656157 is an ATP-competitive and highly selective inhibitor of PERK with IC50 of 0.9 nM in a cell-free assay, 500-fold greater against a panel of 300 kinases. GSK2656157 decreases apoptosis and inhibits excessive autophagy.

S1733

Methylprednisolone

Methylprednisolone (NSC-19987) is a synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, used to achieve prompt suppression of inflammation. Methylprednisolone activates ACE2 and reduces IL-6 levels, thus improves severe or critical COVID-19. Methylprednisolone markedly reduces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1413

Bafilomycin A1(Baf-A1)

Bafilomycin A1 is a vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitor with IC50 of 0.44 nM. Bafilomycin A1 is found to inhibit autophagy while induces apoptosis.

S1835

Azithromycin

Azithromycin is an antibiotic by inhibiting protein synthesis, used for the treatment of bacterial infections.

S2930

Pifithrin-μ

Pifithrin-μ (NSC 303580, PFTμ) is a specific p53 inhibitor by reducing its affinity to Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, and also inhibits HSP70 function and autophagy.

S8808

DC661

DC661 is capable of deacidifying the lysosome and inhibiting autophagy significantly better than hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). DC661 induces apoptosis.

S7289

PFK15

PFK15 (PFK-015) is a potent and selective 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3) inhibitor with IC50 of 207 nM.

S7885

SBI-0206965

SBI-0206965 is a highly selective autophagy kinase ULK1 inhibitor with IC50 of 108 nM, about 7-fold selectivity over ULK2. SBI-0206965 inhibits autophagy and enhances apoptosis in human glioblastoma and lung cancer cells.

S8576

EAD1

EAD1 is a potent autophagy inhibitor with an IC50 of 5.8 μM in the BxPC3 cells. It has antiproliferative activities in lung and pancreatic cancer cells.

S8274

STO-609

STO-609 is a specific inhibitor of the Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase(CaM-KK) that inhibits the activities of recombinant CaM-KKα and CaM-KKβ isoforms, with Ki values of 80 and 15 ng/ml, respectively, and also inhibits their autophosphorylation activities. STO-609 inhibits AMPKK activity and inhibits autophagy.

S8764

IITZ-01

IITZ-01 is a potent autophagy inhibitor, enhancing autophagosome accumulation but inhibiting autophagosomal degradation by impairing lysosomal function.

S7888

Spautin-1

Spautin-1 is a potent and specific autophagy inhibitor, and inhibits the deubiquitinating activity of USP10 and USP13 with IC50 of ∼0.6-0.7 μM. Spautin-1 enhances apoptosis.

S8317

3BDO

3BDO, a butyrolactone derivative, could target FKBP1A and activate the mTOR signaling pathway. It inhibits autophagy in HUVECs. 3BDO inhibits oxLDL-induced apoptosis.

S7811

MHY1485

MHY1485 is a potent, and cell-permeable mTOR activator, and also potently inhibits autophagy.

S8596

Autophinib

Autophinib is a potent autophagy inhibitor with a novel chemotype with IC50 values of 90 and 40 nM for autophagy in starvation induced autophagy assay and rapamycin induced autophagy assay. The IC50 value for Vps34 is 19 nM in vitro.

S7423

KN-93 Phosphate

KN-93 Phosphate is a potent and specific inhibitor of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) with Ki of 0.37 μM, no remarkable inhibitory effects on APK, PKC, MLCK or Ca2+-PDE activities. KN-93 attenuates CaMKII-induced autophagy.

S8807

PFK158

PFK158 is a potent and selective inhibitor of PFKFB3. It has improved PK properties and causes ~80% growth inhibition in several mouse models of human-derived tumors.

S3758

Sinomenine hydrochloride

Sinomenine (SN, Cucoline, Kukoline, Sabianine A), extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant, sinomenium acutum, is a potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent.

S7948

MRT67307 HCl

MRT67307 is a potent and dual IKKϵ and TBK1 inhibitor with IC50 of 160 and 19 nM, respectively. MRT67307 potently inhibits ULK1 and ULK2 and blocks autophagy.

S8369

Lys05

Lys05 is a new lysosomal autophagy inhibitor which potently accumulates within and deacidifies the lysosome of both cells and tumors, resulting in sustained inhibition of autophagy and tumor growth.

S7660

Obeticholic Acid

Obeticholic Acid is a potent and selective farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist with EC50 of 99 nM. Obeticholic Acid inhibits autophagy. Phase 3.

S7146

DMH1

DMH1 is a selective BMP receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 107.9 nM for ALK2, exhibiting no inhibition on AMPK, ALK5, KDR (VEGFR-2) or PDGFR. DMH1 inhibits autophagy.

S4430

Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate

Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate (HCQ) is an antimalarial agent used for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune, inflammatory and dermatologic conditions. Also acts as an inhibitor of autophagy and toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/9.

S7949

MRT68921 HCl

MRT68921 is a potent and dual autophagy kinase ULK1/2 inhibitor with IC50 of 2.9 nM and 1.1 nM, respectively.

S8744

PHY34

PHY34 is a late-stage autophagy inhibitor with nanomolar potency and significant antitumor efficacy as a single agent against HGSOC in vivo.

S5920

CA-5f

CA-5f is a potent late-stage macroautophagy/autophagy inhibitor via inhibiting autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

S8222

AS1842856

AS1842856 is a cell-permeable inhibitor that blocks the transcription activity of Foxo1 with IC50 of 33 nM. It could directly bind to the active Foxo1, but not the Ser256-phosphorylated form. AS1842856 suppresses autophagy.

S7682

SAR405

SAR405 is a low-molecular-mass kinase inhibitor of PIK3C3/Vps34 (KD 1.5 nM) showing high selectivity and not be active up to 10 μM on class I and class II PI3Ks as well as on mTOR. SAR405 prevents autophagy and synergizes with MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibition in tumor cells.

S7683

PIK-III

PIK-III (VPS34-IN2), which is a selective inhibitor of ​VPS34 enzymatic activity, inhibits autophagy and de novo lipidation of LC3 and leads to the stabilization of autophagy substrates. The IC50 values for VPS34 and PI(3)Kδ are 0.018 μM and 1.2 μM respectively.

S8793

ULK-101

ULK-101 is a potent and selective ULK1 inhibitor with IC50 values of 8.3 nM and 30 nM for ULK1 and ULK2, respectively.

S8527

ROC-325

ROC-325 is an orally available novel inhibitor of lysosomal-mediated autophagy which diminishes AML cell viability with the IC50 range of 0.7-2.2 μM.

S9424

Liensinine diperchlorate

Liensinine, a major isoquinoline alkaloid, inhibits late-stage autophagy/mitophagy through blocking autophagosome-lysosome fusion. It is a novel autophagy/mitophagy inhibitor.

S6471

Lucanthone

Lucanthone is a novel autophagic inhibitor and also an orally available thioxanthone-based DNA intercalator and inhibitor of the DNA repair enzyme apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1.

S7751

VER155008

VER-155008 is a potent Hsp70 family inhibitor with IC50 of 0.5 μM, 2.6 μM, and 2.6 μM in cell-free assays for HSP70, HSC70, and GRP78, respectively, >100-fold selectivity over HSP90. VER155008 inhibits autophagy and causes reduced levels of HSP90 client proteins.

S9150

Daurisoline

Daurisoline, a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the rhizomes of Menispermum dauricum, is a potent autophagy blockers with antiarrhythmic effects.

S7381

Pepstatin A

Pepstatin A (Pepstatin) is a potent aspartic protease inhibitor, and also inhibits HIV replication. Pepstatin A is also an inhibitor of cathepsins D and cathepsins E. Pepstatin A inhibits autophagy by suppressing lysosomal proteases.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1078

MK-2206 2HCl

MK-2206 2HCl is a highly selective inhibitor of Akt1/2/3 with IC50 of 8 nM/12 nM/65 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; no inhibitory activities against 250 other protein kinases observed. MK-2206 2HCl induces autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells. Phase 2.

S1060

Olaparib (AZD2281)

Olaparib (AZD2281, KU0059436) is a selective inhibitor of PARP1/2 with IC50 of 5 nM/1 nM in cell-free assays, 300-times less effective against tankyrase-1. Olaparib induces significant autophagy that is associated with mitophagy in cells with BRCA mutations.

S1267

Vemurafenib (PLX4032)

Vemurafenib (PLX4032, RG7204) is a novel and potent inhibitor of B-RafV600E with IC50 of 31 nM in cell-free assay. 10-fold selective for B-RafV600E over wild-type B-Raf in enzymatic assays and the cellular selectivity can exceed 100-fold. Vemurafenib (PLX4032, RG7204) induces autophagy.

S1047

Vorinostat (SAHA)

Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA, MK0683) is an HDAC inhibitor with IC50 of ~10 nM in a cell-free assay. Vorinostat abrogates productive HPV-18 DNA amplification.

S6797New

QX77

QX77 is a novel activator of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). QX77 induces the up-regulation of Rab11 expression and up-regulates LAMP2A expression.

S6650New

EN6

EN6 is a novel covalent autophagy activator and targets cysteine 277 in the ATP6V1A subunit of the lysosomal v-ATPase with an IC50 of 1.7 μM for recombinant human ATP6V1A protein.

S1002

ABT-737

ABT-737 is a BH3 mimetic inhibitor of Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w with EC50 of 78.7 nM, 30.3 nM and 197.8 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; no inhibition observed against Mcl-1, Bcl-B or Bfl-1. ABT-737 induces mitochondrial pathway apoptosis and mitophagy. Phase 2.

S1049

Y-27632 2HCl

Y-27632 2HCl is a selective ROCK1 (p160ROCK) inhibitor with Ki of 140 nM in a cell-free assay, exhibits >200-fold selectivity over other kinases, including PKC, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, MLCK and PAK.

S2619

MG-132

MG132 is a potent cell-permeable proteasome and calpain inhibitor with IC50s of 0.1 μM and 1.2 μM for the inhibition of proteasome and calpain, respectively. MG132 activates autophagy and induces apoptosis in tumor cells.

S1009

Dactolisib (BEZ235)

Dactolisib (BEZ235, NVP-BEZ235) is a dual ATP-competitive PI3K and mTOR inhibitor for p110α/γ/δ/β and mTOR(p70S6K) with IC50 of 4 nM /5 nM /7 nM /75 nM /6 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Inhibits ATR with IC50 of 21 nM in 3T3TopBP1-ER cell. Dactolisib induces autophagy and suppresses HIV-1 replication. Phase 2.

S1040

Sorafenib Tosylate

Sorafenib Tosylate (Bay 43-9006) is a multikinase inhibitor of Raf-1 and B-Raf with IC50 of 6 nM and 22 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Sorafenib Tosylate inhibits VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, PDGFR-β, Flt-3 and c-KIT with IC50 of 90 nM, 20 nM, 57 nM, 59 nM and 68 nM, respectively. Sorafenib Tosylate induces autophagy and apoptosis and activates ferroptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S1021

Dasatinib

Dasatinib (BMS-354825) is a novel, potent and multi-targeted inhibitor that targets Abl, Src and c-Kit, with IC50 of <1 nM, 0.8 nM and 79 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Dasatinib induces autophagy and apoptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S1039

Rapamycin (Sirolimus)

Rapamycin (Sirolimus, AY 22989, NSC-2260804) is a specific mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of ~0.1 nM HEK293 cells.

S1068

Crizotinib (PF-02341066)

Crizotinib (PF-02341066) is a potent inhibitor of c-Met and ALK with IC50 of 11 nM and 24 nM in cell-based assays, respectively. It is also a potent ROS1 inhibitor with Ki value less than 0.025 nM. Crizotinib induces autophagy through inhibition of the STAT3 pathway in multiple lung cancer cell lines.

S1023

Erlotinib HCl (OSI-744)

Erlotinib HCl (OSI-744, CP358774, NSC 718781) is an EGFR inhibitor with IC50 of 2 nM in cell-free assays, >1000-fold more sensitive for EGFR than human c-Src or v-Abl.

S1120

Everolimus (RAD001)

Everolimus (RAD001) is an mTOR inhibitor of FKBP12 with IC50 of 1.6-2.4 nM in a cell-free assay. Everolimus induces cell apoptosis and autophagy and inhibits tumor cells proliferation.

S1025

Gefitinib (ZD1839)

Gefitinib (ZD-1839) is an EGFR inhibitor for Tyr1173, Tyr992, Tyr1173 and Tyr992 in the NR6wtEGFR and NR6W cells with IC50 of 37 nM, 37nM, 26 nM and 57 nM, respectively. Gefitinib promotes autophagy and apoptosis of lung cancer cells via blockade of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.

S1004

Veliparib (ABT-888)

Veliparib (ABT-888, NSC 737664) is a potent inhibitor of PARP1 and PARP2 with Ki of 5.2 nM and 2.9 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. It is inactive to SIRT2. Veliparib increases autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 3.

S1053

Entinostat (MS-275)

Entinostat (MS-275, SNDX-275) strongly inhibits HDAC1 and HDAC3 with IC50 of 0.51 μM and 1.7 μM in cell-free assays, compared with HDACs 4, 6, 8, and 10. Entinostat induces autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 3.

S1065

Pictilisib (GDC-0941)

Pictilisib (GDC-0941, RG7321) is a potent inhibitor of PI3Kα/δ with IC50 of 3 nM in cell-free assays, with modest selectivity against p110β (11-fold) and p110γ (25-fold). Pictilisib (GDC-0941) induces autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 2.

S2673

Trametinib (GSK1120212)

Trametinib (GSK1120212) is a highly specific and potent MEK1/2 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.92 nM/1.8 nM in cell-free assays, no inhibition of the kinase activities of c-Raf, B-Raf, ERK1/2. Trametinib activates autophagy and induces apoptosis.

S1378

Ruxolitinib (INCB018424)

Ruxolitinib (INCB018424) is the first potent, selective, JAK1/2 inhibitor to enter the clinic with IC50 of 3.3 nM/2.8 nM in cell-free assays, >130-fold selectivity for JAK1/2 versus JAK3. Ruxolitinib kills tumor cells through toxic mitophagy. Ruxolitinib induces autophagy and enhances apoptosis.

S1030

Panobinostat (LBH589)

Panobinostat (LBH589, NVP-LBH589) is a novel broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitor with IC50 of 5 nM in a cell-free assay. Panobinostat (LBH589) induces autophagy and apoptosis. Panobinostat effectively disrupts HIV latency in vivo. Phase 3.

S1026

Imatinib Mesylate (STI571)

Imatinib Mesylate (STI571, CGP-57148B) is an orally bioavailability mesylate salt of Imatinib, which is a multi-target inhibitor of v-Abl, c-Kit and PDGFR with IC50 of 0.6 μM, 0.1 μM and 0.1 μM in cell-free or cell-based assays, respectively. Imatinib Mesylate (STI571) induces autophagy.

S1250

Enzalutamide (MDV3100)

Enzalutamide (MDV3100) is an androgen-receptor (AR) antagonist with IC50 of 36 nM in LNCaP cells. Enzalutamide is shown to increase autophagy.

S1133

Alisertib (MLN8237)

Alisertib (MLN8237) is a selective Aurora A inhibitor with IC50 of 1.2 nM in a cell-free assay. It has >200-fold higher selectivity for Aurora A than Aurora B. Alisertib induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 3.

S1011

Afatinib (BIBW2992)

Afatinib (BIBW2992) inhibits EGFR/ErbB irreversibly in vitro with IC50 of 0.5, 0.4, 10, 14, 1 nM for EGFRwt, EGFR L858R , EGFR L858R/T790M ErbB2 (HER2) and ErbB4 (HER4), respectively. Afatinib induces autophagy.

S2226

Idelalisib (CAL-101, GS-1101)

Idelalisib (CAL-101, GS-1101) is a selective p110δ inhibitor with IC50 of 2.5 nM in cell-free assays; shown to have 40- to 300-fold greater selectivity for p110δ than p110α/β/γ, and 400- to 4000-fold more selectivity to p110δ than C2β, hVPS34, DNA-PK and mTOR. Idelalisib also stimulates autophagy.

S1048

Tozasertib (VX-680, MK-0457)

Tozasertib (VX-680, MK-0457) is a pan-Aurora inhibitor, mostly against Aurora A with Kiapp of 0.6 nM in a cell-free assay, less potent towards Aurora B/Aurora C and 100-fold more selective for Aurora A than 55 other kinases. The only exceptions are Fms-related tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT-3) and c-ABL tyrosine kinase, which are inhibited by the Tozasertib with Ki of 30 nM and 20 nM, respectively. Tozasertib induces apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 2.

S1555

AZD8055

AZD8055 is a novel ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 0.8 nM in MDA-MB-468 cells with excellent selectivity (∼1,000-fold) against PI3K isoforms and ATM/DNA-PK. AZD8055 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis and also induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S1006

Saracatinib (AZD0530)

Saracatinib (AZD0530) is a potent Src inhibitor with IC50 of 2.7 nM in cell-free assays, and potent to c-Yes, Fyn, Lyn, Blk, Fgr and Lck; less active for Abl and EGFR (L858R and L861Q). Saracatinib induces autophagy. Phase 2/3.

S1057

Obatoclax Mesylate (GX15-070)

Obatoclax Mesylate (GX15-070) is an antagonist of Bcl-2 with Ki of 0.22 μM in a cell-free assay, can assist in overcoming MCL-1 mediated resistance to apoptosis. Phase 3.

S1141

Tanespimycin (17-AAG)

Tanespimycin (17-AAG, CP127374, NSC-330507, KOS 953) is a potent HSP90 inhibitor with IC50 of 5 nM in a cell-free assay, having a 100-fold higher binding affinity for HSP90 derived from tumour cells than HSP90 from normal cells. Tanespimycin (17-AAG) induces apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and mitophagy. Phase 3.

S1130

YM155 (Sepantronium Bromide)

YM155 (Sepantronium Bromide) is a potent survivin suppressant by inhibiting Survivin promoter activity with IC50 of 0.54 nM in HeLa-SURP-luc and CHO-SV40-luc cells; does not significantly inhibit SV40 promoter activity, but is observed to slightly inhibit the interaction of Survivin with XIAP. YM155 down-regulates survivin and XIAP, modulates autophagy and induces autophagy-dependent DNA damage in breast cancer cells. Phase 2.

S1166

Cisplatin

Cisplatin (cisplatinum, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum II, CDDP) is an inorganic platinum complex, which is able to inhibit DNA synthesis by conforming DNA adducts in tumor cells. Cisplatin activates ferroptosis and induces autophagy. Solutions are best fresh-prepared.

S2475

Imatinib (STI571)

Imatinib (STI571) is a multi-target inhibitor of tyrosine kinase with inhibition for v-Abl, c-Kit and PDGFR, IC50 values are 0.6 μM, 0.1 μM and 0.1 μM in cell-free or cell-based assays, respectively. Imatinib (STI571) induces autophagy.

S1033

Nilotinib (AMN-107)

Nilotinib (AMN-107) is a selective Bcr-Abl inhibitor with IC50 less than 30 nM in Murine myeloid progenitor cells. Nilotinib induces autophagy through AMPK activition.

S1044

Temsirolimus (CCI-779)

Temsirolimus (CCI-779, NSC 683864) is a specific mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 1.76 μM in a cell-free assay. Temsirolimus induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1038

PI-103

PI-103 is a multi-targeted PI3K inhibitor for p110α/β/δ/γ with IC50 of 2 nM/3 nM/3 nM/15 nM in cell-free assays, less potent to mTOR/DNA-PK with IC50 of 30 nM/23 nM. PI-103 induces apoptosis in murine T-cell Lymphoma.

S1069

Luminespib (NVP-AUY922)

Luminespib (AUY-922, NVP-AUY922) is a highly potent HSP90 inhibitor for HSP90α/β with IC50 of 13 nM /21 nM in cell-free assays, weaker potency against the HSP90 family members GRP94 and TRAP-1, exhibits the tightest binding of any small-molecule HSP90 ligand. Luminespib (AUY-922, NVP-AUY922) effectively downregulates and destabilizes the IGF-1Rβ protein and results in growth inhibition, autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 2.

S1046

Vandetanib (ZD6474)

Vandetanib (ZD6474) is a potent inhibitor of VEGFR2 with IC50 of 40 nM in a cell-free assay. It also inhibits VEGFR3 and EGFR with IC50 of 110 nM and 500 nM, respectively. Not sensitive to PDGFRβ, Flt1, Tie-2 and FGFR1 with IC50 of 1.1-3.6 μM. No activity against MEK, CDK2, c-Kit, erbB2, FAK, PDK1, Akt and IGF-1R with IC50 above 10 μM. Vandetanib (ZD6474) increases apoptosis and induces autophagy by increasing the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS).

S1149

Gemcitabine HCl

Gemcitabine HCl (LY188011) is a DNA synthesis inhibitor with IC50 of 50 nM, 40 nM, 18 nM and 12 nM in PANC1, MIAPaCa2, BxPC3 and Capan2 cells, respectively.

S1122

Mocetinostat (MGCD0103)

Mocetinostat (MGCD0103, MG0103) is a potent HDAC inhibitor with most potency for HDAC1 with IC50 of 0.15 μM in a cell-free assay, 2- to 10- fold selectivity against HDAC2, 3, and 11, and no activity to HDAC4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. Mocetinostat (MGCD0103) induces apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 2.

S1178

Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506)

Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506, Fluoro-Sorafenib) is a multi-target inhibitor for VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFRβ, Kit, RET and Raf-1 with IC50 of 13 nM/4.2 nM/46 nM, 22 nM, 7 nM, 1.5 nM and 2.5 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Regorafenib induces autophagy.

S1129

SRT1720 HCl

SRT1720 HCl is a selective SIRT1 activator with EC50 of 0.16 μM in a cell-free assay, but is >230-fold less potent for SIRT2 and SIRT3. SRT1720 induces autophagy.

S1035

Pazopanib HCl (GW786034 HCl)

Pazopanib HCl (GW786034 HCl) is a novel multi-target inhibitor of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFR, FGFR, c-Kit and c-Fms with IC50 of 10 nM, 30 nM, 47 nM, 84 nM, 74 nM, 140 nM and 146 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Pazopanib induces autophagic Type II cell death.

S1014

Bosutinib (SKI-606)

Bosutinib (SKI-606) is a novel, dual Src/Abl inhibitor with IC50 of 1.2 nM and 1 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Bosutinib also effectively decreases the activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR, MAPK/ERK and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways by blocking the phosphorylation levels of p-ERK, p-S6, and p-STAT3. Bosutinib promotes autophagy.

S1017

Cediranib (AZD2171)

Cediranib (AZD2171, NSC-732208) is a highly potent VEGFR(KDR) inhibitor with IC50 of <1 nM, also inhibits Flt1/4 with IC50 of 5 nM/≤3 nM, similar activity against c-Kit and PDGFRβ, 36-, 110-fold and >1000-fold selective more for VEGFR than PDGFR-α, CSF-1R and Flt3 in HUVEC cells. Cediranib (AZD2171) induces autophagic vacuole accumulation. Phase 3.

S1085

Belinostat (PXD101)

Belinostat (PXD101, NSC726630, PX-105684) is a novel HDAC inhibitor with IC50 of 27 nM in a cell-free assay, with activity demonstrated in cisplatin-resistant tumors. Belinostat (PXD101) induces autophagy.

S1077

SB202190 (FHPI)

SB202190 (FHPI) is a potent p38 MAPK inhibitor targeting p38α/β with IC50 of 50 nM/100 nM in cell-free assays, sometimes used instead of SB 203580 to investigate potential roles for SAPK2a/p38 in vivo. SB202190 inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of autophagy and heme oxygenase-1. SB202190 significantly suppresses Erastin‐dependent ferroptosis.

S2853

Carfilzomib (PR-171)

Carfilzomib (PR-171) is an irreversible proteasome inhibitor with IC50 of <5 nM in ANBL-6 cells, displayed preferential in vitro inhibitory potency against the ChT-L activity in the β5 subunit, but little or no effect on the PGPH and T-L activities. Carfilzomib activates prosurvival autophagy and induces cell apoptosis.

S1191

Fulvestrant

Fulvestrant (ICI-182780, ZD 9238) is an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist with IC50 of 0.94 nM in a cell-free assay. Fulvestrant also induces autophagy and apoptosis and has antitumor activity.

S1075

SB216763

SB216763 is a potent and selective GSK-3 inhibitor with IC50 of 34.3 nM for GSK-3α and equally effective at inhibiting human GSK-3β. SB216763 activates autophagy.

S1080

SU11274

SU11274 (PKI-SU11274) is a selective Met inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM in cell-free assays, no effects on PGDFRβ, EGFR or Tie2. SU11274 induces autophagy, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.

S1003

Linifanib (ABT-869)

Linifanib (ABT-869, AL39324, RG3635) is a novel, potent ATP-competitive VEGFR/PDGFR inhibitor for KDR, CSF-1R, Flt-1/3 and PDGFRβ with IC50 of 4 nM, 3 nM, 3 nM/4 nM and 66 nM respectively, mostly effective in mutant kinase-dependent cancer cells (i.e. FLT3). Linifanib (ABT-869) induces autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 3.

S1135

Pemetrexed

Pemetrexed (LY-231514) is a novel antifolate and antimetabolite for TS, DHFR and GARFT with Ki of 1.3 nM, 7.2 nM and 65 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Pemetrexed induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S2218

Torkinib (PP242)

Torkinib (PP242) is a selective mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 8 nM in cell-free assays; targets both mTOR complexes with >10- and 100-fold selectivity for mTOR than PI3Kδ or PI3Kα/β/γ, respectively. Torkinib (PP242) induces mitophagy and apoptosis.

S1225

Etoposide

Etoposide (VP-16, VP-16213) is a semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin, which inhibits DNA synthesis via topoisomerase II inhibition activity. Etoposide induces autophagy, mitophagy and apoptosis.

S1107

Danusertib (PHA-739358)

Danusertib (PHA-739358) is an Aurora kinase inhibitor for Aurora A/B/C with IC50 of 13 nM/79 nM/61 nM in cell-free assays, modestly potent to Abl, TrkA, c-RET and FGFR1, and less potent to Lck, VEGFR2/3, c-Kit, CDK2, etc. Danusertib induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy. Phase 2.

S2248

Silmitasertib (CX-4945)

Silmitasertib (CX-4945) is a potent and selective inhibitor of CK2 (casein kinase 2) with IC50 of 1 nM in a cell-free assay, less potent to Flt3, Pim1 and CDK1 (inactive in cell-based assay). Silmitasertib induces autophagy and promotes apoptosis. Phase 1/2.

S8048

Venetoclax (ABT-199)

Venetoclax (ABT-199, GDC-0199) is a Bcl-2-selective inhibitor with Ki of <0.01 nM in cell-free assays, >4800-fold more selective versus Bcl-xL and Bcl-w, and no activity to Mcl-1. Venetoclax is reported to induce cell growth suppression, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy in triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Phase 3.

S1230

Flavopiridol (Alvocidib)

Flavopiridol (Alvocidib, NSC 649890, HMR-1275) competes with ATP to inhibit CDKs including CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and CDK9 with IC50 values in the 20-100 nM range. It is more selective for CDK1, 2, 4, 6, 9 versus CDK7. Flavopiridol is initially found to inhibit EGFR and PKA. Flavopiridol induces autophagy and ER stress. Flavopiridol blocks HIV-1 replication. Phase 1/2.

S2198

SGI-1776 free base

SGI-1776 free base is a novel ATP competitive inhibitor of Pim1 with IC50 of 7 nM in a cell-free assay, 50- and 10-fold selective versus Pim2 and Pim3, also potent to Flt3 and haspin. SGI-1776 induces apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 1.

S2111

Lapatinib

Lapatinib, used in the form of Lapatinib Ditosylate, is a potent EGFR and ErbB2 inhibitor with IC50 of 10.8 and 9.2 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Lapatinib induces ferroptosis and autophagic cell death.

S1237

Temozolomide

Temozolomide (CCRG81045, NSC 362856, TMZ) is a monofunctional SN-1 alkylating agent that can modify nitrogen atoms in the DNA ring and the extracyclic oxygen group, chemically converted to MTIC and degrades to methyldiazonium cation, which transfers methyl groups to DNA at physiologic pH. A DNA damage inducer in L-1210 and L-1210/BCNU cells. Temozolomide induces apoptosis and exhibits antitumor activity.

S1190

Bicalutamide

Bicalutamide (ICI-176334) is an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist with IC50 of 0.16 μM in LNCaP/AR(cs)cell line. Bicalutamide promotes autophagy.

S5003

Tacrolimus (FK506)

Tacrolimus (FK506, FR900506, Fujimycin, Prograf) is a 23-membered macrolide lactone, it reduces peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity in T cells by binding to the immunophilin FKBP12 (FK506 binding protein) creating a new complex. Tacrolimus also inhibits the phosphatase activity of calcineurin. Tacrolimus induces vascular endothelial autophagy.

S1950

Metformin HCl

Metformin HCl decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis). Metformin promotes mitophagy in mononuclear cells. Metformin induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through activating JNK/p38 MAPK pathway and GADD153.

S1573

Fasudil (HA-1077) HCl

Fasudil(HA-1077), a potent and selective inhibitor of Rho kinase, displays less potent inhibiton over PKA, PKG, PKC and MLCK with Ki of 1.6, 1.6, 3.3, and 36 μM in cell-free assays, respectively. Fasudil is also a calcium channel blocker.

S1224

Oxaliplatin

Oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is a DNA alkylating agent that activates autophagy. Oxaliplatin inhibits DNA synthesis by conforming DNA adducts in RT4, TCCSUP, A2780, HT-29, U-373MG, U-87MG, SK-MEL-2, and HT-144 cells. DMF is recommended for dissolution. Solutions are best fresh-prepared.

S2626

Rabusertib (LY2603618)

Rabusertib (LY2603618, IC-83) is a highly selective Chk1 inhibitor with potential anti-tumor activity in a cell-free assay. IC50=7 nM, showing approximately 100-fold more potent against Chk1 than against any of the other protein kinases evaluated. Rabusertib (LY2603618) induces cell cycle arrest, DNA damage response and autophagy in cancer cells. Rabusertib (LY2603618) induces bak-dependent apoptosis in AML cell lines.

S2679

Flavopiridol HCl

Flavopiridol HCl competes with ATP to inhibit CDKs including CDK1, CDK2, CDK4 and CDK6 with IC50 of ~ 40 nM in cell-free assays. It is 7.5-fold more selective for CDK1/2/4/6 than CDK7. Flavopiridol is initially found to inhibit EGFR and PKA. Flavopiridol HCl induces autophagy and ER stress. Flavopiridol HCl blocks HIV-1 replication. Phase 1/2.

S7110

(+)-JQ1

(+)-JQ1 is a BET bromodomain inhibitor, with IC50 of 77 nM/33 nM for BRD4(1/2) in cell-free assays, binding to all bromodomains of the BET family, but not to bromodomains outside the BET family. (+)-JQ1 suppresses cell proliferation via inducing autophagy.

S1314

Zoledronic Acid

Zoledronic acid (ZA, Zoledronate, CGP-4244), a potent osteoclast inhibitor, induces apoptosis in osteoclasts by inhibiting enzymes of the mevalonate pathway and preventing the isoprenylation of small GTP-binding proteins such as Ras and Rho. Zoledronic acid (ZA) also induces autophagy.

S2219

Momelotinib (CYT387)

Momelotinib (CYT387, LM-1149 , CYT11387) is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of JAK1/JAK2 with IC50 of 11 nM/18 nM, ~10-fold selectivity versus JAK3. Momelotinib (CYT387) induces apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 3.

S2181

Ixazomib Citrate (MLN9708)

Ixazomib Citrate (MLN9708) immediately hydrolyzed to Ixazomib (MLN2238), the biologically active form, on exposure to aqueous solutions or plasma. Ixazomib (MLN2238) inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteolytic (β5) site of the 20S proteasome with IC50/Ki of 3.4 nM/0.93 nM in cell-free assays, less potent to β1 and little activity to β2. Ixazomib (MLN2238) induces autophagy. Phase 3.

S1972

Tamoxifen Citrate

Tamoxifen Citrate (ICI 46474) is an antagonist of the estrogen receptor by competitive inhibition of estrogen binding. Tamoxifen Citrate is also a potent Hsp90 activator and enhances the Hsp90 molecular chaperone ATPase activity. Tamoxifen induces apoptosis and autophagy.

S1235

Letrozole

Letrozole (CGS 20267) is a third generation inhibitor of aromatase with IC50 of 0.07-20 nM in cell-free assays.It has no effect on the plasma levels of 17α-OH progesterone, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), or androstenedione and does not affect normal urine electrolyte excretion or thyroid function in clinical studies. Letrozole induces autophagy.

S1231

Topotecan HCl

Topotecan HCl (NSC609699, Nogitecan, SKFS 104864A) is a topoisomerase I inhibitor for MCF-7 Luc cells and DU-145 Luc cells with IC50 of 13 nM and 2 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Topotecan HCl induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S2827

Torin 1

Torin 1 is a potent inhibitor of mTORC1/2 with IC50 of 2 nM/10 nM in cell-free assays; exhibits 1000-fold selectivity for mTOR than PI3K.

S2658

Omipalisib (GSK2126458)

Omipalisib (GSK2126458, GSK458) is a highly selective and potent inhibitor of p110α/β/δ/γ, mTORC1/2 with Ki of 0.019 nM/0.13 nM/0.024 nM/0.06 nM and 0.18 nM/0.3 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Omipalisib induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S1233

2-Methoxyestradiol (2-MeOE2)

2-Methoxyestradiol (2-MeOE2, NSC 659853) depolymerizes microtubules and blocks HIF-1α nuclear accumulation and HIF-transcriptional activity. 2-Methoxyestradiol induces both autophagy and apoptosis in various carcinogenic cell lines. Phase 2.

S1782

Azacitidine (5-Azacytidine)

Azacitidine (5-Azacytidine, 5-AzaC, Ladakamycin, AZA, 5-Aza) is a nucleoside analogue of cytidine that specifically inhibits DNA methylation by trapping DNA methyltransferases. Azacitidine induces mitochondrial apoptosis and autophagy.

S2624

OSI-027

OSI-027 is a selective and potent dual inhibitor of mTORC1 and mTORC2 with IC50 of 22 nM and 65 nM in cell-free assays, and more than 100-fold selectivity observed for mTOR than PI3Kα, PI3Kβ, PI3Kγ or DNA-PK. OSI-027 induces autophagy in cancer cells. Phase 1.

S2180

Ixazomib (MLN2238)

Ixazomib (MLN2238) inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteolytic (β5) site of the 20S proteasome with IC50 and Ki of 3.4 nM and 0.93 nM in cell-free assays, respectively, also inhibits the caspase-like (β1) and trypsin-like (β2) proteolytic sites, with IC50 of 31 and 3500 nM. Ixazomib (MLN2238) induces autophagy. Phase 3.

S1590

TWS119

TWS119 is a GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 30 nM in a cell-free assay; capable of inducing neuronal differentiation and may be useful to stem cell biology. GSK-3β inhibition triggers autophagy.

S2696

Apitolisib (GDC-0980)

Apitolisib (GDC-0980, RG7422) is a potent, class I PI3K inhibitor for PI3Kα/β/δ/γ with IC50 of 5 nM/27 nM/7 nM/14 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Also a mTOR inhibitor with Ki of 17 nM in a cell-free assay, and highly selective versus other PIKK family kinases. Apitolisib activates autophagy and apoptosis simultaneously in pancreatic cancer cells. Phase 2.

S2843

BI-D1870

BI-D1870 is an ATP-competitive inhibitor of S6 ribosome for RSK1/2/3/4 with IC50 of 31 nM/24 nM/18 nM/15 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; 10- to 100-fold selectivity for RSK than MST2, GSK-3β, MARK3, CK1 and Aurora B. BI-D1870 exhibits anticancer attributes including the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increases in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy.

S1396

Resveratrol

Resveratrol has a wide spectrum of targets including cyclooxygenases(i.e. COX, IC50=1.1 μM), lipooxygenases(LOX, IC50=2.7 μM), kinases, sirtuins and other proteins. It has anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, blood-sugar-lowering and other beneficial cardiovascular effects. Resveratrol induces mitophagy/autophagy and autophagy-dependent apoptosis.

S1322

Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid drugs, and an interleukin receptor modulator that has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects. Dexamethasone induces autophagy and mitophagy. Dexamethasone is tested in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and is found to have benefits for critically ill patients.

S1648

Cytarabine

Cytarabine (Cytarabin, Ara-C, Arabinofuranosyl Cytidine) is an antimetabolic agent and DNA synthesis inhibitor with IC50 of 16 nM in wild-type CCRF-CEM cells. Cytarabine induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1792

Simvastatin

Simvastatin (MK-0733) is a competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase with Ki of 0.1-0.2 nM in cell-free assays. Simvastatin induces ferroptosis, mitophagy, autophagy and apoptosis.

S2783

Vistusertib (AZD2014)

Vistusertib (AZD2014) is a novel mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 2.8 nM in a cell-free assay; highly selective against multiple PI3K isoforms (α/β/γ/δ). AZD2014 showed no or weak binding to the majority of kinases when tested at 1 μM. AZD2014 induces proliferation suppression, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy in HCC cells with antitumor activity.

S2635

CCT128930

CCT128930 is a potent, ATP-competitive and selective inhibitor of Akt2 with IC50 of 6 nM in a cell-free assay, 28-fold greater selectivity for Akt2 than the closely related PKA kinase. CCT128930 induces cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and autophagy independent of Akt inhibition. High dose of CCT128930 triggers cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells.

S1228

Idarubicin HCl

Idarubicin HCl (4-demethoxydaunorubicin, NSC256439, 4-DMDR) is a hydrochloride salt form of Idarubicin which is an anthracycline antibiotic and a DNA topoisomerase II (topo II) inhibitor for MCF-7 cells with IC50 of 3.3 ng/mL in a cell-free assay. Idarubicin induces mTOR-dependent cytotoxic autophagy.

S1714

Gemcitabine

Gemcitabine (LY-188011, NSC 613327), a nucleic acid synthesis inhibitor, is a very potent and specific deoxycytidine analogue, used as chemotherapy. Gemcitabine induces a potent p53-dependent apoptosis.

S2163

PF-4708671

PF-4708671 is a cell-permeable inhibitor of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K1 isoform) with Ki/IC50 of 20 nM/160 nM in cell-free assays, 400-fold greater selectivity for S6K1 than S6K2, and 4- and >20-fold selectivity for S6K1 than MSK1 and RSK1/2, respectively. PF-4708671 induces autophagy. First S6K1-specific inhibitor to be reported.

S2817

Torin 2

Torin 2 is a potent and selective mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 0.25 nM in p53−/− MEFs cell line; 800-fold greater selectivity for mTOR than PI3K and improved pharmacokinetic properties. Inhibition of ATM/ATR/DNA-PK with EC50 of 28 nM/35 nM/118 nM,in PC3 cell lines respectively. Torin 2 decreases cell viability and induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1312

Streptozotocin (STZ)

Streptozotocin (STZ, NSC-85998, Streptozocin) is a glucosamine-nitrosourea derivative, which is a DNA-methylating, carcinogenic, antibiotic and diabetes inducing agent. Streptozotocin induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1582

H 89 2HCl

H 89 2HCl is a potent PKA inhibitor with Ki of 48 nM in a cell-free assay, 10-fold selective for PKA than PKG,500-fold greater selectivity than PKC, MLCK, calmodulin kinase II and casein kinase I/II. H 89 2HCl induces autophagy.

S2713

Geldanamycin

Geldanamycin (NSC 122750) is a natural existing HSP90 inhibitor with Kd of 1.2 μM, specifically disrupts glucocorticoid receptor (GR)/HSP association. Geldanamycin attenuates virus infection-induced ALI (acute lung injury)/ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) by reducing the host's inflammatory responses.

S2770

MK-5108 (VX-689)

MK-5108 (VX-689) is a highly selective Aurora A inhibitor with IC50 of 0.064 nM in a cell-free assay and is 220- and 190-fold more selective for Aurora A than Aurora B/C, while it inhibits TrkA with less than 100-fold selectivity. MK-5108 (VX-689) induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S2449

Forskolin

Forskolin (Coleonol) is a ubiquitous activator of eukaryotic adenylyl cyclase (AC) in a wide variety of cell types, commonly used to raise levels of cAMP in the study and research of cell physiology. Forskolin also activates PXR and FXR activity. Forskolin stimulates autophagy.

S1168

Valproic acid sodium salt (Sodium valproate)

Valproic acid sodium salt (Sodium valproate) is a HDAC inhibitor by selectively inducing proteasomal degradation of HDAC2, used in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and prevention of migraine headaches. Valproic acid induces Notch1 signaling in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. Valproic acid is under investigation for treatment of HIV and various cancers. Valproic acid (VPA) induces autophagy and mitophagy by upregulation of BNIP3 and mitochondrial biogenesis by upregulating PGC-1α.

S1759

Pitavastatin Calcium

Pitavastatin Calcium (NK-104, P-872441, itavastatin, nisvastatin), a novel member of the medication class of statins, is a calcium salt formulation of pitavastatin which is a highly effective HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. Pitavastatin Calcium attenuates AGEs-induced mitophagy via inhibition of ROS generation. Pitavastatin Calcium induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S7306

Dorsomorphin (Compound C) 2HCl

Dorsomorphin 2HCl (BML-275, Compound C) is a potent, reversible, selective AMPK inhibitor with Ki of 109 nM in cell-free assays, exhibiting no significant inhibition of several structurally related kinases including ZAPK, SYK, PKCθ, PKA, and JAK3. Also inhibits type Ⅰ BMP receptor activity. Dorsomorphin induces autophagy in cancer cell line.

S2061

Lovastatin

Lovastatin (MK-803) is an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase with IC50 of 3.4 nM in a cell-free assay, used for lowering cholesterol (hypolipidemic agent). Lovastatin triggers autophagy.

S2505

Rosiglitazone maleate

Rosiglitazone maleate (BRL 49653), a member of the thiazolidinedione class of antihyperglycaemic agents, is a high-affinity selective agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) with IC50 of 42 nM. Rosiglitazone maleate also modulates TRP channels and induces autophagy. Rosiglitazone prevents ferroptosis.

S3012

Pazopanib

Pazopanib (GW786034) is a novel multi-target inhibitor of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFR, FGFR, c-Kit and c-Fms/CSF1R with IC50 of 10 nM, 30 nM, 47 nM, 84 nM, 74 nM, 140 nM and 146 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Pazopanib induces cathepsin B activation and autophagy.

S2799

Daporinad (FK866, APO866)

Daporinad (FK866, APO866) effectively inhibits nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NMPRTase; Nampt) with IC50 of 0.09 nM in a cell-free assay. Daporinad (FK866, APO866) triggers autophagy. Phase 1/2.

S1218

Clofarabine

Clofarabine inhibits the enzymatic activities of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) (IC50 = 65 nM) and DNA polymerase. Clofarabine induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S3022

Cabazitaxel

Cabazitaxel (RPR-116258A, XRP6258, TXD 258) is a semi-synthetic derivative of a natural taxoid that kills cancer cells by inhibiting cell division and growth. Cabazitaxel exerts its effects by inhibiting microtubule growth and assembly, processes that are essential for cells to divide. Cabazitaxel induces autophagy via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

S2077

Atorvastatin Calcium

Atorvastatin Calcium is an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase used as a cholesterol-lowering medication that blocks the production of cholesterol. Atorvastatin Calcium induces apoptosis and autophagy.

S2812

AT101

AT101, the R-(-) enantiomer of Gossypol acetic acid, binds with Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 with Ki of 0.32 μM, 0.48 μM and 0.18 μM in cell-free assays; does not inhibit BIR3 domain and BID. AT-101 simultaneously triggers apoptosis and a cytoprotective type of autophagy. Phase 2.

S2929

Pifithrin-α (PFTα) HBr

Pifithrin-α is an inhibitor of p53, inhibiting p53-dependent transactivation of p53-responsive genes. Pifithrin-α is also a potent agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).

S4908

SN-38

SN-38 is an active metabolite of CPT-11, inhibits DNA topoisomerase I, DNA synthesis and causes frequent DNA single-strand breaks. SN-38 induces autophagy.

S7164

GSK343

GSK343 is a potent and selective EZH2 inhibitor with IC50 of 4 nM in a cell-free assay, showing 60 fold selectivity against EZH1, and >1000 fold selectivity against other histone methyltransferases. GSK343 induces autophagy.

S8006

BIX 01294

BIX01294 is an inhibitor of G9a histone methyltransferase with IC50 of 2.7 μM in a cell-free assay, reduces H3K9me2 of bulk histones, also weakly inhibits GLP (primarily H3K9me3), no significant activity observed at other histone methyltransferases. BIX01294 induces autophagy.

S8059

Nutlin-3a

Nutlin-3a, the active enantiomer of Nutlin-3, inhibits the p53/MDM2 interaction with IC50 of 90 nM in a cell-free assay. Nutlin-3a induces autophagy and apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner.

S1403

Tigecycline

Tigecycline (GAR-936) is bacteriostatic and is a protein synthesis inhibitor by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit of bacteria and thereby blocking entry of Aminoacyl-tRNA into the A site of the ribosome during prokaryotic translation. Tigecycline induces autophagy by downregulating the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway.

S7007

Binimetinib (MEK162)

Binimetinib (MEK162, ARRY-162, ARRY-438162) is a potent inhibitor of MEK1/2 with IC50 of 12 nM in a cell-free assay. Binimetinib induces G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human NSCLC cell lines and induces autophagy. Phase 3.

S2476

Itraconazole

Itraconazole is a relatively potent inhibitor of CYP3A4 with IC50 of 6.1 nM, used as a triazole antifungal agent. Itraconazole is a potent antagonist of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Itraconazole suppresses the growth of glioblastoma through induction of autophagy.

S2751

Milciclib (PHA-848125)

Milciclib (PHA-848125) is a potent, ATP-competitive CDK inhibitor for CDK2 with IC50 of 45 nM. It is >3-fold more selective for CDK2 than CDK1, 2, 4, 5, and 7. Milciclib (PHA-848125) induces cell death through autophagy. Phase 2.

S7397

Sorafenib

Sorafenib (BAY 43-9006) is a multikinase inhibitor of Raf-1 and B-Raf with IC50 of 6 nM and 22 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Sorafenib inhibits VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, PDGFR-β, Flt-3 and c-KIT with IC50 of 90 nM, 20 nM, 57 nM, 59 nM and 68 nM, respectively. Sorafenib induces autophagy and apoptosis and activates ferroptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S2556

Rosiglitazone

Rosiglitazone (BRL 49653) is a potent antihyperglycemic agent and a potent thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizer with IC50 of 12, 4 and 9 nM for rat, 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes, respectively. Rosiglitazone is a pure ligand of PPAR-gamma, and has no PPAR-alpha-binding action. Rosiglitazone modulates TRP channels and induces autophagy. Rosiglitazone prevents ferroptosis.

S1219

YM201636

YM201636 is a selective PIKfyve inhibitor with IC50 of 33 nM, less potent to p110α and insensitive to Fabl (yeast orthologue). YM-201636 suppresses the growth of liver cancer via the induction of autophagy.

S7152

C646

C646 is an inhibitor for histone acetyltransferase, and inhibits p300 with a Ki of 400 nM in a cell-free assay. Preferentially selective for p300 versus other acetyltransferases. C646 induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy.

S1896

Hydroxyurea

Hydroxyurea (nci-c04831, nsc32065) is an antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase. Hydroxyurea activates apoptosis and autophagy. Hydroxyurea is used to treat HIV infection.

S8078

Bardoxolone Methyl

Bardoxolone Methyl (RTA 402, TP-155, NSC 713200, CDDO Methyl Ester, CDDO-Me) is an IKK inhibitor, showing potent proapoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities; Also a potent Nrf2 activator and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inhibitor. Bardoxolone Methyl abrogates ferroptosis. Bardoxolone methyl induces apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells.

S1999

Sodium butyrate

Sodium butyrate (NaB), sodium salt of butyric acid, is a histone deacetylase inhibitor and competitively binds to the zinc sites of class I and II histone deacetylases (HDACs). Sodium butyrate (NaB) inhibits cell cycle progression, promotes differentiation, and induces apoptosis and autophagy in several types of cancer cells.

S2606

Mifepristone

Mifepristone (RU486, C-1073) is a remarkably active antagonist of progesterone receptor and glucocorticoid receptor with IC50 of 0.2 nM and 2.6 nM, respectively. Mifepristone promotes cell autophagy and apoptosis, decreases Bcl-2 level and increases Beclin1 level, accompanied by weakened interaction between Bcl-2 and Beclin1.

S1847

Clemastine Fumarate

Clemastine Fumarate (Clemastine) is a selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist with IC50 of 3 nM. Clemastine stimulates autophagy via mTOR pathway.

S7130

PR-619

PR-619 is a non-selective, reversible inhibitor of the deubiquitinylating enzymes (DUBs) with EC50 of 1-20 μM in a cell-free assay. PR-619 activates autophagy.

S2782

GW4064

GW4064 is an agonist of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) with EC50 of 65 nM in CV1 cell line and displays no activity at other nuclear receptors at concentrations up to 1 μM. GW4064 stimulates autophagy in MCF-7 cells.

S3031

Linagliptin

Linagliptin is a highly potent, selective DPP-4 inhibitor with IC50 of 1 nM and exhibits a 10,000-fold higher selectivity for DPP-4 than for other dipeptidyl peptidases such as DPP-2, DPP-8, and DPP-9. Linagliptin activates glomerular autophagy in a model of type 2 diabetes. DPP4 mediates ferroptosis in TP53-deficient CRC cells.

S3030

Niclosamide

Niclosamide can inhibit DNA replication and inhibit STAT3 with IC50 of 0.7 μM in a cell-free assay. Niclosamide selectively inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT3 and had no obvious inhibition against the activation of other homologues (e.g., STAT1 and STAT5).

S7165

UNC1999

UNC1999 is a potent, orally bioavailable and selective inhibitor of EZH2 and EZH1 with IC50 of 2 nM and 45 nM in cell-free assays, respectively, showing >1000-fold selectivity over a broad range of epigenetic and non-epigenetic targets. UNC1999 is a potent autophagy inducer. UNC1999 specifically suppresses H3K27me3/2 and induces a range of anti-leukemia effects including anti-proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.

S8047

Dynasore

Dynasore is a cell-permeable, reversible non-competitive dynamin inhibitor of GTPase activity of dynamin 1/2, with IC50 of 15 μM in a cell-free assay, also inhibits the mitochondrial dynamin Drp1, with no effect against other small GTPase. Dynasore suppresses mTORC1 activity and induces autophagy. Dynasore inhibits the entry of several viruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV).

S1848

Curcumin

Curcumin (Diferuloylmethane) is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, which is a member of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae). It is an inhibitor of p300 histone acetylatransferase(IC50~25 μM) and Histone deacetylase (HDAC); activates Nrf2 pathway and supresses the activation of transcription factor NF-κB. Curcumin induces mitophagy, autophagy, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest with antitumor activity. Curcumin reduces renal damage associated with rhabdomyolysis by decreasing ferroptosis-mediated cell death. Curcumin exhibits anti-infective properties against various human pathogens like the influenza virus, hepatitis C virus, HIV and so on.

S1290

Celastrol

Celastrol (Tripterine) is a potent proteasome inhibitor for the chymotrypsin-like activity of a purified 20S proteasome with IC50 of 2.5 μM. Celastrol induces apoptosis and autophagy via the ROS/JNK signaling pathway. Celastrol inhibits dopaminergic neuronal death of Parkinson's disease through activating mitophagy.

S2310

Honokiol

Honokiol is the active principle of magnolia extract that inhibits Akt-phosphorylation and promotes ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Honokiol causes G0/G1 phase arrest, induces apoptosis, and autophagy via the ROS/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Honokiol inhibits hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Phase 3.

S1263

CHIR-99021 (CT99021)

CHIR-99021 (CT99021) is a GSK-3α and GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM and 6.7 nM, respectively. CHIR99201 does not exhibit cross-reactivity against cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and shows a 350-fold selectivity toward GSK-3β compared to CDKs. CHIR99021 functions as a Wnt/β-catenin activator and induces autophagy.

S1351

Ivermectin

Ivermectin (MK-933, IVM) is a glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCls) activator, used as a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug. Ivermectin (MK-933, IVM) is a specific positive allosteric effector of P2X4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Ivermectin has potent antiviral activity towards both HIV-1 and dengue virus. Ivermectin induces autophagy through the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway and mitophagy.

S8075

GANT61

GANT61 is an inhibitor for GLI1 as well as GLI2-induced transcription, inhibits hedgehog with IC50 of 5 μM in GLI1 expressing HEK293T cell, displays selectivity over other pathways, such as TNF and glucocorticoid receptor gene transactivation. GANT61 induces apoptosis and activates protective autophagy in LX-2 cells.

S1389

Omeprazole

Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor, used to treat dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome.

S1979

Amiodarone HCl

Amiodarone HCl is a sodium/potassium-ATPase inhibitor and an autophagy activator, used to treat various types of cardiac dysrhythmias.

S2480

Loperamide HCl

Loperamide HCl is a selective μ-opioid receptor agonist opioid with Ki of 3.3 nM, 15-fold and 350-fold selective over the δ subtype and the κ subtype of the opioid receptor, used against diarrhea resulting from gastroenteritis or inflammatory bowel disease.

S4028

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate

Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid drugs, and an interleukin receptor modulator that has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects.

S3017

Aspirin

Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic acid) is a salicylate, and irreversible COX1 and COX2 inhibitor, used as an analgesic to relieve minor aches and pains, as an antipyretic to reduce fever, and as an anti-inflammatory medication. Aspirin induces autophagy and stimulates mitophagy.

S7106

AZD3463

AZD3463 is a novel orally bioavailable ALK inhibitor with Ki of 0.75 nM, which also inhibits IGF1R with equivalent potency. AZD3463 suppresses cell viability by inducing both cell apoptosis and autophagy.

S1693

Carbamazepine

Carbamazepine (Carbatrol, NSC 169864) is a sodium channel blocker with IC50 of 131 μM in rat brain synaptosomes.

S2458

Clonidine HCl

Clonidine HCl is a direct-acting α2 adrenergic agonist with an ED50 of 0.02±0.01 mg/kg.

S1837

Flubendazole

Flubendazole is an autophagy inducer by targeting Atg4B, used to treat internal parasite and worm infection.

S1747

Nimodipine

Nimodipine (BAY E 9736) is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker and an autophagy inhibitor, used in the treatment of high blood pressure.

S7134

IU1

IU1 is a cell-permeable, reversible and selective proteasome inhibitor of human USP14 with IC50 of 4.7 μ M, 25-fold selective to IsoT. IU1 induces autophagy.

S1576

Sulfasalazine

Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine, Salazopyrin, Sulphasalazine) is a sulfa derivative of mesalazine, used as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Sulfasalazine is a potent and specific inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), TGF-β and COX-2. Sulfasalazine induces ferroptosis, apoptosis and autophagy.

S7067

Tepotinib (EMD 1214063)

Tepotinib (EMD 1214063, MSC2156119) is a potent and selective c-Met inhibitor with IC50 of 4 nM, >200-fold selective for c-Met than IRAK4, TrkA, Axl, IRAK1, and Mer. Tepotinib (EMD 1214063) induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S1794

Fenofibrate

Fenofibrate (Tricor, Trilipix) is a compound of the fibrate class and fibric acid derivative. Fenofibrate is a selective agonist of PPARα with EC50 of 30 μM. Fenofibrate binds to and inhibits cytochrome P450 epoxygenase (CYP)2C with IC50 of 0.2 μM, 0.7 μM and 9.7 μM for CYP2C19, CYP2B6 and CYP2C9, respectively. Fenofibrate induces autophagy.

S7177

PF-543

PF-543, a novel sphingosine-competitive inhibitor of SphK1, inhibits SphK1 with IC50 and Ki of 2.0 nM and 3.6 nM, exhibits >100-fold selectivity over the SphK2 isoform. PF-543 induces apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy.

S8049

Tubastatin A

Tubastatin A is a potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitor with IC50 of 15 nM in a cell-free assay. It is selective against all the other isozymes (1000-fold) except HDAC8 (57-fold). Tubastatin A promotes autophagy and increases apoptosis.

S2491

Nitrendipine

Nitrendipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with an IC50 of 95 nM.

S4211

Montelukast Sodium

Montelukast (MK-0476) selectively antagonizes leukotriene D4 (LTD4) by binding to it so that block the action of leukotriene D4 on the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor CysLT1. Montelukast improves macroautophagy but not the chaperone-mediated autophagy pathway. Precipitations may form after reconstitution,solution is best fresh-prepared.

S3984

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA)

Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a phenolic antioxidant found in the leaves and twigs of the evergreen desert shrub, Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC) Coville (creosote bush). It is a recognized inhibitor of lipoxygenase (LOX) and has antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a cytotoxic insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-1R)/HER2 inhibitor and induces apoptosis. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibits p300 and activates autophagy. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) protects cells from ferroptosis.

S7684

Salirasib

Salirasib is a potent competitive prenylated protein methyltransferase (PPMTase) inhibitor with Ki of 2.6 μM, which inhibits Ras methylation. Salirasib exerts antitumor effects and induces autophagy. Salirasib exerts antitumor effects and induces autophagy. Phase 2.

S5243

Ruxolitinib Phosphate

Ruxolitinib Phosphate is the phosphate salt form of Ruxolitinib. Ruxolitinib is the first potent, selective, JAK1/2 inhibitor to enter the clinic with IC50 of 3.3 nM/2.8 nM in cell-free assays, >130-fold selectivity for JAK1/2 versus JAK3. Ruxolitinib kills tumor cells through toxic mitophagy. Ruxolitinib induces autophagy and enhances apoptosis.

S7215

Losmapimod (GW856553X)

Losmapimod (GW856553X) is a selective, potent, and orally active p38 MAPK inhibitor with pKi of 8.1 and 7.6 for p38α and p38β, respectively. P38 MAPKs are involved in cell differentiation, apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 3.

S7998

Entrectinib (RXDX-101)

Entrectinib (RXDX-101, NMS-E628) is an orally bioavailable pan-TrkA/B/C, ROS1 and ALK inhibitor with IC50 ranging between 0.1 and 1.7 nM. Entrectinib (RXDX-101) induces autophagy. Phase 2.

S7781

Sunitinib

Sunitinib (SU11248) is a multi-targeted RTK inhibitor targeting VEGFR2 (Flk-1) and PDGFRβ with IC50 of 80 nM and 2 nM, and also inhibits c-Kit. Sunitinib is also a dose-dependent inhibitor of the autophosphorylation activity of IRE1α. Sunitinib induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S3944

Valproic acid (VPA)

Valproic acid (VPA, 2-Propylvaleric Acid, Sodium valproate) is a fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. It is also a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and is under investigation for treatment of HIV and various cancers. Valproic acid (VPA) induces autophagy and mitophagy by upregulation of BNIP3 and mitochondrial biogenesis by upregulating PGC-1α. Valproic acid activates Notch-1 signaling.

S7343

URMC-099

URMC-099 is an orally bioavailable, brain penetrant mixed lineage kinase (MLK) inhibitor with IC50 of 19 nM, 42 nM, 14 nM, and 150 nM, for MLK1, MLK2, MLK3, and DLK, respectively, and also inhibits LRRK2 activity with IC50 of 11 nM. URMC-099 also inhibits ABL1 with IC50 of 6.8 nM. URMC-099 induces autophagy.

S7786

Erlotinib

Erlotinib is an EGFR inhibitor with IC50 of 2 nM, >1000-fold more sensitive for EGFR than human c-Src or v-Abl. Erlotinib induces autophagy.

S7724

APR-246 (PRIMA-1MET)

APR-246, also known as PRIMA-1MET, is a small organic molecule that has been shown to restore tumour-suppressor function primarily to mutant p53 and also to induce cell death in various cancer types. APR-246 induces apoptosis and autophagy.

S8595

Tat-beclin 1 (Tat-BECN1)

Tat-beclin 1 (Tat-BECN1), a peptide known to stimulate autophagy through mobilization of endogenous Beclin 1, induces autophagy in vitro and in vivo and improves clinical outcomes.

S7785

Pemetrexed Disodium Hydrate

Pemetrexed Disodium Hydrate (LY-231514) is a novel antifolate and antimetabolite for TS, DHFR and GARFT with Ki of 1.3 nM, 7.2 nM and 65 nM, respectively. Pemetrexed Disodium Hydrate stimulates autophagy and apoptosis.

S5715

atorvastatin

Atorvastatin is a lipid lowering agent. It is a competitive inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-determining enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis via the mevalonate pathway. Atorvastatin activates autophagy.

S2391

Quercetin

Quercetin, a natural flavonoid present in vegetables, fruit and wine, is a stimulator of recombinant SIRT1 and also a PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 2.4-5.4 μM. Quercetin induces mitophagy, apoptosis and protective autophagy. Phase 4.

S7810

Afatinib (BIBW2992) Dimaleate

Afatinib (BIBW2992) Dimaleate irreversibly inhibits EGFR/HER2 including EGFR(wt), EGFR(L858R), EGFR(L858R/T790M) and HER2 with IC50 of 0.5 nM, 0.4 nM, 10 nM and 14 nM, respectively; 100-fold more active against Gefitinib-resistant L858R-T790M EGFR mutant. Afatinib (BIBW2992) Dimaleate induces autophagy.

S2285

Cryptotanshinone

Cryptotanshinone is a STAT3 inhibitor with IC50 of 4.6 μM in a cell-free assay, strongly inhibits phosphorylation of STAT3 Tyr705, with a small effect on STAT3 Ser727, but none against STAT1 nor STAT5. Cryptotanshinone induces ROS-dependent autophagy and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.

S2290

Dihydroartemisinin (DHA)

Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin and isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua. Dihydroartemisinin induces autophagy and apoptosis by suppressing NF-κB activation.

S7655

CB-839(Telaglenastat)

CB-839(Telaglenastat) is a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable glutaminase inhibitor with IC50 of 24 nM for recombinant human GAC. CB-839(Telaglenastat) inudces autophagy and has antitumor activity. Phase 1.

S7793

Purvalanol A

Purvalanol A is a potent, and cell-permeable CDK inhibitor with IC50 of 4 nM, 70 nM, 35 nM, and 850 nM for cdc2-cyclin B, cdk2-cyclin A, cdk2-cyclin E, and cdk4-cyclin D1, respectively. Purvalanol A induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis and autophagy.

S7409

Anisomycin

Anisomycin (Flagecidin) is a bacterial antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces griseolus, which inhibits protein synthesis, and also act as a JNK activator. Anisomycin upregulates autophagy and increases apoptosis.

S3653

Spermidine trihydrochloride

Spermidine (4-Azaoctamethylenediamine), a natural polyamine produced from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM) by spermidine synthase, is a novel autophagy inducer and negatively modulates N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA).

S7648

OTS964

OTS964 is a potent TOPK inhibitor with high affinity and selectivity and IC50 value is 28 nM. OTS964 is also a potent inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK11 with Kd of 40 nM. OTS964 treatment activates autophagy in glioma cells and induces apoptosis of human lung cancer cells in mouse xenografts.

S8432

Troglitazone (CS-045)

Troglitazone (Rezulin, Romglizone, Prelay, CS045, Romozin) is a potent agonist for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-(PPAR) that is a ligand activated transcription factor regulating cell differentiation and growth. Troglitazone induces autophagy, apoptosis and necroptosis in bladder cancer cells. Troglitazone prevents RSL3-induced ferroptosis and lipid peroxidation in Pfa1 cells.

S9027

Corynoxine

Corynoxine, a natural oxindole alkaloid, is a new autophagy enhancer.

S4081

Sulfacetamide Sodium

Sulfacetamide Sodium is an anti-biotic.

S4269

Vinorelbine Tartrate

Vinorelbine Tartrate is a semi-synthetic vinca alkaloid, and inhibits mitosis through interaction with tubulin. Vinorelbine Tartrate exhibits anti-tumor activities via inducing the mitotic apoptosis, autophagy and inflammation.

S7483

DMOG

DMOG is an antagonist of α-ketoglutarate cofactor and inhibitor for HIF prolylhydroxylase, leading to stabilisation and accumulation of HIF-1α protein in the nucleus. DMOG enhances autophagy.

S8240

SMER28

SMER28 is a small-molecule enhancer (SMER) of autophagy, inducing autophagy independently of rapamycin in mammalian cells.

S4505

Vinblastine sulfate

Vinblastine sulfate (NSC49842) inhibits microtubule formation and suppresses nAChR activity with IC50 of 8.9 μM in a cell-free assay, used to treat certain kinds of cancer. Vinblastine sulfate induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S7680

SP2509

SP2509 is a selective histone demethylase LSD1 inhibitor with IC50 of 13 nM, showing no activity against MAO-A, MAO-B, lactate dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase. SP2509 induces apoptosis and promotes autophagy.

S7104

AZD1208

AZD1208 is a potent, and orally available Pim kinase inhibitor with IC50 of 0.4 nM, 5 nM, and 1.9 nM for Pim1, Pim2, and Pim3 in cell-free assays, respectively. AZD1208 induces autophagy, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Phase 1.

S7842

LY3009120

LY03009120 is a potent pan-Raf inhibitor with IC50 of 44 nM, 31-47 nM, and 42 nM for A-raf, B-Raf, and C-Raf in A375 cells, respectively. LY03009120 induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S4546

Xylitol

Xylitol is a sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.

S7840

Dorsomorphin (Compound C)

Dorsomorphin is a potent, reversible, selective AMPK inhibitor with Ki of 109 nM in cell-free assays, exhibiting no significant inhibition of several structurally related kinases including ZAPK, SYK, PKCθ, PKA, and JAK3. Dorsomorphin selectively inhibits the BMP type I receptors ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6. Dorsomorphin is used in promoting specific cell differentiation and inducing cancer cell line autophagy.

S9310

Isorhychophylline

Isorhynchophylline is a major tetracyclic oxindole alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.)Jacks (Gouteng in Chinese). It acts as a neuronal autophagy inducer with therapeutic potential for cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases.

S1238

Tamoxifen

Tamoxifen (ICI 46474) is an antagonist of the estrogen receptor in breast tissue. Tamoxifen enhances the Hsp90 molecular chaperone ATPase activity. Tamoxifen induces apoptosis.

S5742

Deferoxamine mesylate

Deferoxamine mesylate is the mesylate salt of Deferoxamine, which forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent. Deferoxamine is a ferroptosis inhibitor that stabilizes HIF-1α expression and improves HIF-1α transactivity in hypoxic and hyperglycemic states in vitro. Deferoxamine decreases beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and induces autophagy.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S7307

GSK2606414

GSK2606414 is an orally available, potent, and selective PERK inhibitor with IC50 of 0.4 nM, displaying at least 100-fold selectivity over the other EIF2AKs assayed. GSK2606414 impairs GANT-61 induced autophagy in NB cells with MYCN amplification. GSK2606414 exacerbates ER stress-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells while reduces the apoptosis in SIL1 KD HeLa cells.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S8597

LYN-1604

LYN-1604 is a potential ULK1 agonist with IC50 of 1.66 μM against MDA-MB-231 cells and it binds to wild-type ULK1 with a binding affinity in the nanomole range (Kd=291.4 nM). The ULK1 (Y89A) mutant protein caused a sharp decrease in binding affinity with lower response and Kd than wild-type ULK1, ULK1 (K50A) and ULK1 (L53A) mutants.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S2924

CHIR-99021 (CT99021) HCl

CHIR-99021 (CT99021) HCl is hydrochloride of CHIR-99021, which is a GSK-3α/β inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM/6.7 nM; CHIR-99021 shows greater than 500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 versus its closest homologs Cdc2 and ERK2. CHIR-99021 is a potent pharmacological activators of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. CHIR-99021 significantly rescues light-induced autophagy and augments GR, RORα and autophagy-related proteins.

S2215

DAPT (GSI-IX)

DAPT (GSI-IX, LY-374973) is a novel γ-secretase inhibitor, which inhibits Aβ production with IC50 of 20 nM in HEK 293 cells. DAPT enhances the apoptosis of human tongue carcinoma cells and regulates autophagy.

S1241

Vincristine sulfate

Vincristine sulfate (Leurocristine) is an inhibitor of polymerization of microtubules by binding to tubulin with IC50 of 32 μM in a cell-free assay. Vincristine sulfate induces apoptosis.

S1274

BX-795

BX-795 is a potent and specific PDK1 inhibitor with IC50 of 6 nM, 140- and 1600-fold more selective for PDK1 than PKA and PKC in cell-free assays, respectively. Meanwhile, in comparison to GSK3β more than 100-fold selectivity observed for PDK1. BX-795 modulates autophagy via inhibiting ULK1.

S1041

STF-62247

STF-62247 is a molecule targeting VHL-deficient renal cell carcinoma that induces autophagy. STF-62247 shows selective toxicity and growth inhibition of renal cells lacking VHL; 25-fold greater sensitivity observed for cells with VHL deficiency compared to wild-type (VHL+).

S7153

10058-F4

10058-F4 is a c-Myc inhibitor that specificallly inhibits the c-Myc-Max interaction and prevents transactivation of c-Myc target gene expression. 10058-F4 promotes a caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and modulates autophagy.

S1627

Nitazoxanide

Nitazoxanide is a synthetic nitrothiazolyl-salicylamide derivative and an antiprotozoal agent(IC50 for canine influenza virus ranges from 0.17 to 0.21 μM). Nitazoxanide modulates autophagy and inhibits mTORC1 signaling.

S1204

Melatonin

Melatonin is a MT receptor agonist, used as a dietary supplement. Melatonin is a selective ATF-6 inhibitor and downregulates COX-2. Melatonin enhances mitophagy and regulates the homeostasis of apoptosis and autophagy.

S5144

Neferine

Neferine ((R)-1,2-Dimethoxyaporphine), a natural component of Nelumbo nucifera, has antitumor efficiency. Neferine induces apoptosis in renal cancer cells. Neferine prevents autophagy through activation of Akt/mTOR pathway and Nrf2 in muscle cells. Neferine induces autophagy-dependent cell death in apoptosis-resistant cancers. Neferine possesses a number of therapeutic effects such as anti-diabetic, anti-aging, anti-microbial, anti-thrombotic, anti-arrhythmic, a