Autophagy

Signaling Pathway Map

Research Area

Inhibitory Selectivity

Autophagy Products

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1013

Bortezomib (PS-341)

Bortezomib (PS-341) is a potent 20S proteasome inhibitor with Ki of 0.6 nM. It exhibits favorable selectivity towards tumor cells over normal cells. Bortezomib (PS-341) inhibits NF-κB and induces ERK phosphorylation to suppress cathepsin B and inhibit the catalytic process of autophagy in ovarian cancer and other solid tumors.

S8943New

VLX600

VLX600 is a novel iron-chelating inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), potentiates the effect of radiation in tumor spheroids in a synergistic manner. VLX600 shows enhanced cytotoxic activity under conditions of nutrient starvation. VLX600 induces autophagy and mitochondrial inhibition with antitumor activity.

S6716New

NSC 185058

NSC185058 inhibits ATG4B, the lipidation of LC3B, and autophagy without affecting the MTOR or PtdIns3K pathways.

S7455New

Resatorvid (TAK-242)

Resatorvid (TAK-242) is a small-molecule-specific inhibitor of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling, blocking LPS-induced production of NO, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in macrophages with IC50 values of 1-11 nM. Resatorvid inhibits autophagy.

S1109

BI 2536

BI-2536 is a potent Plk1 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.83 nM in a cell-free assay. BI-2536 inhibits Bromodomain 4 (BRD4) with Kd of 37 nM and potently suppresses c-Myc expression. BI-2536 induces apoptosis and attenuates autophagy. Phase 2.

S1105

LY294002

LY294002 is the first synthetic molecule known to inhibit PI3Kα/δ/β with IC50 of 0.5 μM/0.57 μM/0.97 μM, respectively; more stable in solution than Wortmannin, and also blocks autophagosome formation. It not only binds to class I PI3Ks and other PI3K-related kinases, but also to novel targets seemingly unrelated to the PI3K family. LY294002 also inhibits CK2 with IC50 of 98 nM. LY294002 is a non-specific DNA-PKcs inhibitor and activates autophagy and apoptosis.

S1092

KU-55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor)

KU-55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor) is a potent and specific ATM inhibitor with IC50/Ki of 12.9 nM/2.2 nM in cell-free assays, and is highly selective for ATM as compared to DNA-PK, PI3K/PI4K, ATR and mTOR. KU‑55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor) inhibits the activation of autophagy‑initiating kinase ULK1 and results in a significant decrease of autophagy.

S1102

U0126-EtOH

U0126-EtOH is a highly selective inhibitor of MEK1/2 with IC50 of 0.07 μM/0.06 μM in cell-free assays, 100-fold higher affinity for ΔN3-S218E/S222D MEK than PD98059. U0126 inhibits autophagy and mitophagy with antiviral activity.

S1150

Paclitaxel

Paclitaxel is a microtubule polymer stabilizer with IC50 of 0.1 pM in human endothelial cells.

S1460

SP600125

SP600125 is a broad-spectrum JNK inhibitor for JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 with IC50 of 40 nM, 40 nM and 90 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; 10-fold greater selectivity against MKK4, 25-fold greater selectivity against MKK3, MKK6, PKB, and PKCα, and 100-fold selectivity against ERK2, p38, Chk1, EGFR etc. SP600125 is also a broad‐spectrum inhibitor of serine/threonine kinases including Aurora kinase AFLT3 and TRKA with of IC50 of 60 nM, 90 nM and 70 nM. SP600125 inhibits autophagy and activates apoptosis.

S1490

Ponatinib (AP24534)

Ponatinib (AP24534) is a novel, potent multi-target inhibitor of Abl, PDGFRα, VEGFR2, FGFR1 and Src with IC50 of 0.37 nM, 1.1 nM, 1.5 nM, 2.2 nM and 5.4 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Ponatinib (AP24534) inhibits autophagy.

S1113

GSK690693

GSK690693 is a pan-Akt inhibitor targeting Akt1/2/3 with IC50 of 2 nM/13 nM/9 nM in cell-free assays, also sensitive to the AGC kinase family: PKA, PrkX and PKC isozymes. GSK690693 also potently inhibits AMPK and DAPK3 from the CAMK family with IC50 of 50 nM and 81 nM, respectively. GSK690693 affects Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) activity, robustly inhibits STING-dependent IRF3 activation. Phase 1.

S2758

Wortmannin

Wortmannin is the first described PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 3 nM in a cell-free assay, with little selectivity within the PI3K family. Wortmannin blocks autophagosome formation and potently inhibits DNA-PK/ATM with IC50 of 16 nM and 150 nM in cell-free assays. Wortmannin also inhibits PLK1 activity.

S2704

LY2109761

LY2109761 is a novel selective TGF-β receptor type I/II (TβRI/II) dual inhibitor with Ki of 38 nM and 300 nM in a cell-free assay, respectively; shown to negatively affect the phosphorylation of Smad2. LY2109761 blocks autophagy and induces apoptosis.

S2767

3-Methyladenine (3-MA)

3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is a selective PI3K inhibitor for Vps34 and PI3Kγ with IC50 of 25 μM and 60 μM in HeLa cells; blocks class I PI3K consistently, whereas suppression of class III PI3K is transient, and also blocks autophagosome formation. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is successfully used to suppress mitophagy. Solutions of 3-MA are best fresh-prepared by heating.

S2243

Degrasyn (WP1130)

Degrasyn (WP1130) is a selective deubiquitinase (DUB: USP5, UCH-L1, USP9x, USP14, and UCH37) inhibitor and also suppresses Bcr/Abl, also a JAK2 transducer (without affecting 20S proteasome) and activator of transcription (STAT). Degrasyn (WP1130) induces apoptosis and blocks autophagy.

S1786

Verteporfin

Verteporfin is a small molecule that inhibits TEAD–YAP association and YAP-induced liver overgrowth. It is also a potent second-generation photosensitizing agent derived from porphyrin. Verteporfin is an autophagy inhibitor. Verteporfin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis.

S7046

Brefeldin A

Brefeldin A is a lactone antibiotic and ATPase inhibitor for protein transport with IC50 of 0.2 μM in HCT 116 cells, induces cancer cell differentiation and apoptosis. It could also improve the HDR(homology-directed repair) efficiency and be an enhancer of CRISPR-mediated HDR. Brefeldin A is also an inhibitor of autophagy and mitophagy.

S8037

Necrostatin-1

Necrostatin-1 is a specific RIP1 (RIPK1) inhibitor and inhibits TNF-α-induced necroptosis with EC50 of 490 nM in 293T cells. Necrostatin-1 also blocks IDO and suppresses autophagy and apoptosis.

S2775

Nocodazole

Nocodazole is a rapidly-reversible inhibitor of microtubule polymerization, also inhibits Abl, Abl(E255K) and Abl(T315I) with IC50 of 0.21 μM, 0.53 μM and 0.64 μM in cell-free assays, respectively. Nocodazole improves the CRISPR-mediated HDR efficiency and has an additive effect on enhancing precise genome editing.

S3042

Purmorphamine

Purmorphamine, which directly binds and activates Smoothened, blocks BODIPY-cyclopamine binding to Smo with IC50 of ~ 1.5 μM in HEK293T cell and also is an inducer of osteoblast differentiation with EC50 of 1 μM. Purmorphamine can reduce both basal and induced autophagy.

S4157

Chloroquine diphosphate

Chloroquine diphosphate is a 4-aminoquinoline anti-malarial and anti-rheumatoid agent, also acting as an ATM activator. Chloroquine is also an inhibitor of toll-like receptors (TLRs).

S1413

Bafilomycin A1(Baf-A1)

Bafilomycin A1 is a vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitor with IC50 of 0.44 nM. Bafilomycin A1 is found to inhibit autophagy while induces apoptosis.

S1835

Azithromycin

Azithromycin is an antibiotic by inhibiting protein synthesis, used for the treatment of bacterial infections.

S8808

DC661

DC661 is capable of deacidifying the lysosome and inhibiting autophagy significantly better than hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). DC661 induces apoptosis.

S7289

PFK15

PFK15 is a potent and selective 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3) inhibitor with IC50 of 207 nM.

S7885

SBI-0206965

SBI-0206965 is a highly selective autophagy kinase ULK1 inhibitor with IC50 of 108 nM, about 7-fold selectivity over ULK2.

S8576

EAD1

EAD1 is a potent autophagy inhibitor with an IC50 of 5.8 μM in the BxPC3 cells. It has antiproliferative activities in lung and pancreatic cancer cells.

S8764

IITZ-01

IITZ-01 is a potent autophagy inhibitor, enhancing autophagosome accumulation but inhibiting autophagosomal degradation by impairing lysosomal function.

S7888

Spautin-1

Spautin-1 is a potent and specific autophagy inhibitor, and inhibits the deubiquitinating activity of USP10 and USP13 with IC50 of ∼0.6-0.7 μM. Spautin-1 enhances apoptosis.

S8317

3BDO

3BDO, a butyrolactone derivative, could target FKBP1A and activate the mTOR signaling pathway. It inhibits autophagy in HUVECs.

S7811

MHY1485

MHY1485 is a potent, and cell-permeable mTOR activator, and also potently inhibits autophagy.

S8596

Autophinib

Autophinib is a potent autophagy inhibitor with a novel chemotype with IC50 values of 90 and 40 nM for autophagy in starvation induced autophagy assay and rapamycin induced autophagy assay. The IC50 value for Vps34 is 19 nM in vitro.

S8807

PFK158

PFK158 is a potent and selective inhibitor of PFKFB3. It has improved PK properties and causes ~80% growth inhibition in several mouse models of human-derived tumors.

S3758

Sinomenine hydrochloride

Sinomenine (SN), extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant, sinomenium acutum, is a potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent.

S8369

Lys05

Lys05 is a new lysosomal autophagy inhibitor which potently accumulates within and deacidifies the lysosome of both cells and tumors, resulting in sustained inhibition of autophagy and tumor growth.

S7660

Obeticholic Acid

Obeticholic Acid is a potent and selective farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist with EC50 of 99 nM. Obeticholic Acid inhibits autophagy. Phase 3.

S4430

Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate

Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate is an antimalarial agent used for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune, inflammatory and dermatologic conditions. Also acts as an inhibitor of autophagy and toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/9.

S7949

MRT68921 HCl

MRT68921 is a potent and dual autophagy kinase ULK1/2 inhibitor with IC50 of 2.9 nM and 1.1 nM, respectively.

S8744

PHY34

PHY34 is a late-stage autophagy inhibitor with nanomolar potency and significant antitumor efficacy as a single agent against HGSOC in vivo.

S5920

CA-5f

CA-5f is a potent late-stage macroautophagy/autophagy inhibitor via inhibiting autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

S7683

PIK-III

PIK-III, which is a selective inhibitor of ​VPS34 enzymatic activity, inhibits autophagy and de novo lipidation of LC3 and leads to the stabilization of autophagy substrates. The IC50 values for VPS34 and PI(3)Kδ are 0.018 μM and 1.2 μM respectively.

S8793

ULK-101

ULK-101 is a potent and selective ULK1 inhibitor with IC50 values of 8.3 nM and 30 nM for ULK1 and ULK2, respectively.

S8527

ROC-325

ROC-325 is an orally available novel inhibitor of lysosomal-mediated autophagy which diminishes AML cell viability with the IC50 range of 0.7-2.2 μM.

S9424

Liensinine diperchlorate

Liensinine, a major isoquinoline alkaloid, inhibits late-stage autophagy/mitophagy through blocking autophagosome-lysosome fusion. It is a novel autophagy/mitophagy inhibitor.

S6471

Lucanthone

Lucanthone is a novel autophagic inhibitor and also an orally available thioxanthone-based DNA intercalator and inhibitor of the DNA repair enzyme apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1.

S9150

Daurisoline

Daurisoline, a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the rhizomes of Menispermum dauricum, is a potent autophagy blockers with antiarrhythmic effects.

S1078

MK-2206 2HCl

MK-2206 2HCl is a highly selective inhibitor of Akt1/2/3 with IC50 of 8 nM/12 nM/65 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; no inhibitory activities against 250 other protein kinases observed. MK-2206 2HCl induces autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells. Phase 2.

S1060

Olaparib (AZD2281)

Olaparib (AZD2281, KU0059436) is a selective inhibitor of PARP1/2 with IC50 of 5 nM/1 nM in cell-free assays, 300-times less effective against tankyrase-1. Olaparib induces significant autophagy that is associated with mitophagy in cells with BRCA mutations.

S1267

Vemurafenib (PLX4032)

Vemurafenib (PLX4032, RG7204) is a novel and potent inhibitor of B-RafV600E with IC50 of 31 nM in cell-free assay. 10-fold selective for B-RafV600E over wild-type B-Raf in enzymatic assays and the cellular selectivity can exceed 100-fold. Vemurafenib (PLX4032, RG7204) induces autophagy.

S1047

Vorinostat (SAHA)

Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA) is an HDAC inhibitor with IC50 of ~10 nM in a cell-free assay. Vorinostat abrogates productive HPV-18 DNA amplification.

S6797New

QX77

QX77 is a novel activator of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). QX77 induces the up-regulation of Rab11 expression and up-regulates LAMP2A expression.

S6650New

EN6

EN6 is a novel covalent autophagy activator and targets cysteine 277 in the ATP6V1A subunit of the lysosomal v-ATPase with an IC50 of 1.7 μM for recombinant human ATP6V1A protein.

S1002

ABT-737

ABT-737 is a BH3 mimetic inhibitor of Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w with EC50 of 78.7 nM, 30.3 nM and 197.8 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; no inhibition observed against Mcl-1, Bcl-B or Bfl-1. ABT-737 induces mitochondrial pathway apoptosis and mitophagy. Phase 2.

S1049

Y-27632 2HCl

Y-27632 2HCl is a selective ROCK1 (p160ROCK) inhibitor with Ki of 140 nM in a cell-free assay, exhibits >200-fold selectivity over other kinases, including PKC, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, MLCK and PAK.

S2619

MG-132

MG132 is a potent cell-permeable proteasome and calpain inhibitor with IC50s of 0.1 μM and 1.2 μM for the inhibition of proteasome and calpain, respectively. MG132 activates autophagy and induces apoptosis in tumor cells.

S1009

Dactolisib (BEZ235)

Dactolisib (BEZ235, NVP-BEZ235) is a dual ATP-competitive PI3K and mTOR inhibitor for p110α/γ/δ/β and mTOR(p70S6K) with IC50 of 4 nM /5 nM /7 nM /75 nM /6 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Inhibits ATR with IC50 of 21 nM in 3T3TopBP1-ER cell. Dactolisib induces autophagy and suppresses HIV-1 replication. Phase 2.

S1040

Sorafenib Tosylate

Sorafenib Tosylate is a multikinase inhibitor of Raf-1 and B-Raf with IC50 of 6 nM and 22 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Sorafenib Tosylate inhibits VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, PDGFR-β, Flt-3 and c-KIT with IC50 of 90 nM, 20 nM, 57 nM, 59 nM and 68 nM, respectively. Sorafenib Tosylate induces autophagy and apoptosis and activates ferroptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S1021

Dasatinib

Dasatinib is a novel, potent and multi-targeted inhibitor that targets Abl, Src and c-Kit, with IC50 of <1 nM, 0.8 nM and 79 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Dasatinib induces autophagy and apoptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S1039

Rapamycin (Sirolimus)

Rapamycin (Sirolimus) is a specific mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of ~0.1 nM HEK293 cells.

S1068

Crizotinib (PF-02341066)

Crizotinib (PF-02341066) is a potent inhibitor of c-Met and ALK with IC50 of 11 nM and 24 nM in cell-based assays, respectively. It is also a potent ROS1 inhibitor with Ki value less than 0.025 nM. Crizotinib induces autophagy through inhibition of the STAT3 pathway in multiple lung cancer cell lines.

S1023

Erlotinib HCl (OSI-744)

Erlotinib HCl (OSI-744) is an EGFR inhibitor with IC50 of 2 nM in cell-free assays, >1000-fold more sensitive for EGFR than human c-Src or v-Abl.

S1120

Everolimus (RAD001)

Everolimus (RAD001) is an mTOR inhibitor of FKBP12 with IC50 of 1.6-2.4 nM in a cell-free assay. Everolimus induces cell apoptosis and autophagy and inhibits tumor cells proliferation.

S1025

Gefitinib (ZD1839)

Gefitinib (ZD-1839) is an EGFR inhibitor for Tyr1173, Tyr992, Tyr1173 and Tyr992 in the NR6wtEGFR and NR6W cells with IC50 of 37 nM, 37nM, 26 nM and 57 nM, respectively. Gefitinib promotes autophagy and apoptosis of lung cancer cells via blockade of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.

S1004

Veliparib (ABT-888)

Veliparib (ABT-888) is a potent inhibitor of PARP1 and PARP2 with Ki of 5.2 nM and 2.9 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. It is inactive to SIRT2. Veliparib increases autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 3.

S1053

Entinostat (MS-275)

Entinostat (MS-275) strongly inhibits HDAC1 and HDAC3 with IC50 of 0.51 μM and 1.7 μM in cell-free assays, compared with HDACs 4, 6, 8, and 10. Entinostat induces autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 3.

S1065

Pictilisib (GDC-0941)

Pictilisib (GDC-0941) is a potent inhibitor of PI3Kα/δ with IC50 of 3 nM in cell-free assays, with modest selectivity against p110β (11-fold) and p110γ (25-fold). Pictilisib (GDC-0941) induces autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 2.

S2673

Trametinib (GSK1120212)

Trametinib (GSK1120212) is a highly specific and potent MEK1/2 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.92 nM/1.8 nM in cell-free assays, no inhibition of the kinase activities of c-Raf, B-Raf, ERK1/2. Trametinib activates autophagy and induces apoptosis.

S1378

Ruxolitinib (INCB018424)

Ruxolitinib (INCB018424) is the first potent, selective, JAK1/2 inhibitor to enter the clinic with IC50 of 3.3 nM/2.8 nM in cell-free assays, >130-fold selectivity for JAK1/2 versus JAK3. Ruxolitinib kills tumor cells through toxic mitophagy. Ruxolitinib induces autophagy and enhances apoptosis.

S1030

Panobinostat (LBH589)

Panobinostat (LBH589) is a novel broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitor with IC50 of 5 nM in a cell-free assay. Panobinostat (LBH589) induces autophagy and apoptosis. Panobinostat effectively disrupts HIV latency in vivo. Phase 3.

S1026

Imatinib Mesylate (STI571)

Imatinib Mesylate (STI571) is an orally bioavailability mesylate salt of Imatinib, which is a multi-target inhibitor of v-Abl, c-Kit and PDGFR with IC50 of 0.6 μM, 0.1 μM and 0.1 μM in cell-free or cell-based assays, respectively. Imatinib Mesylate (STI571) induces autophagy.

S1250

Enzalutamide (MDV3100)

Enzalutamide (MDV3100) is an androgen-receptor (AR) antagonist with IC50 of 36 nM in LNCaP cells. Enzalutamide is shown to increase autophagy.

S1133

Alisertib (MLN8237)

Alisertib (MLN8237) is a selective Aurora A inhibitor with IC50 of 1.2 nM in a cell-free assay. It has >200-fold higher selectivity for Aurora A than Aurora B. Alisertib induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 3.

S1011

Afatinib (BIBW2992)

Afatinib (BIBW2992) inhibits EGFR/ErbB irreversibly in vitro with IC50 of 0.5, 0.4, 10, 14, 1 nM for EGFRwt, EGFR L858R , EGFR L858R/T790M ErbB2 (HER2) and ErbB4 (HER4), respectively. Afatinib induces autophagy.

S2226

Idelalisib (CAL-101, GS-1101)

Idelalisib (CAL-101, GS-1101) is a selective p110δ inhibitor with IC50 of 2.5 nM in cell-free assays; shown to have 40- to 300-fold greater selectivity for p110δ than p110α/β/γ, and 400- to 4000-fold more selectivity to p110δ than C2β, hVPS34, DNA-PK and mTOR. Idelalisib also stimulates autophagy.

S1555

AZD8055

AZD8055 is a novel ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 0.8 nM in MDA-MB-468 cells with excellent selectivity (∼1,000-fold) against PI3K isoforms and ATM/DNA-PK. AZD8055 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis and also induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S1006

Saracatinib (AZD0530)

Saracatinib (AZD0530) is a potent Src inhibitor with IC50 of 2.7 nM in cell-free assays, and potent to c-Yes, Fyn, Lyn, Blk, Fgr and Lck; less active for Abl and EGFR (L858R and L861Q). Saracatinib induces autophagy. Phase 2/3.

S1057

Obatoclax Mesylate (GX15-070)

Obatoclax Mesylate (GX15-070) is an antagonist of Bcl-2 with Ki of 0.22 μM in a cell-free assay, can assist in overcoming MCL-1 mediated resistance to apoptosis. Phase 3.

S1141

Tanespimycin (17-AAG)

Tanespimycin (17-AAG) is a potent HSP90 inhibitor with IC50 of 5 nM in a cell-free assay, having a 100-fold higher binding affinity for HSP90 derived from tumour cells than HSP90 from normal cells. Tanespimycin (17-AAG) induces apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and mitophagy. Phase 2.

S1166

Cisplatin

Cisplatin is an inorganic platinum complex, which is able to inhibit DNA synthesis by conforming DNA adducts in tumor cells. Cisplatin activates ferroptosis and induces autophagy. Solutions are best fresh-prepared.

S1033

Nilotinib (AMN-107)

Nilotinib (AMN-107) is a selective Bcr-Abl inhibitor with IC50 less than 30 nM in Murine myeloid progenitor cells. Nilotinib induces autophagy through AMPK activition.

S1044

Temsirolimus (CCI-779)

Temsirolimus (CCI-779, NSC 683864) is a specific mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 1.76 μM in a cell-free assay. Temsirolimus induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1038

PI-103

PI-103 is a multi-targeted PI3K inhibitor for p110α/β/δ/γ with IC50 of 2 nM/3 nM/3 nM/15 nM in cell-free assays, less potent to mTOR/DNA-PK with IC50 of 30 nM/23 nM.

S1069

Luminespib (NVP-AUY922)

Luminespib (AUY-922, NVP-AUY922) is a highly potent HSP90 inhibitor for HSP90α/β with IC50 of 13 nM /21 nM in cell-free assays, weaker potency against the HSP90 family members GRP94 and TRAP-1, exhibits the tightest binding of any small-molecule HSP90 ligand. Luminespib (AUY-922, NVP-AUY922) effectively downregulates and destabilizes the IGF-1Rβ protein and results in growth inhibition, autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 2.

S1149

Gemcitabine HCl

Gemcitabine HCl is a DNA synthesis inhibitor with IC50 of 50 nM, 40 nM, 18 nM and 12 nM in PANC1, MIAPaCa2, BxPC3 and Capan2 cells, respectively.

S1122

Mocetinostat (MGCD0103)

Mocetinostat (MGCD0103) is a potent HDAC inhibitor with most potency for HDAC1 with IC50 of 0.15 μM in a cell-free assay, 2- to 10- fold selectivity against HDAC2, 3, and 11, and no activity to HDAC4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. Mocetinostat (MGCD0103) induces apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 2.

S1178

Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506)

Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506) is a multi-target inhibitor for VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFRβ, Kit, RET and Raf-1 with IC50 of 13 nM/4.2 nM/46 nM, 22 nM, 7 nM, 1.5 nM and 2.5 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Regorafenib induces autophagy.

S1129

SRT1720 HCl

SRT1720 HCl is a selective SIRT1 activator with EC50 of 0.16 μM in a cell-free assay, but is >230-fold less potent for SIRT2 and SIRT3. SRT1720 induces autophagy.

S1014

Bosutinib (SKI-606)

Bosutinib (SKI-606) is a novel, dual Src/Abl inhibitor with IC50 of 1.2 nM and 1 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Bosutinib also effectively decreases the activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR, MAPK/ERK and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways by blocking the phosphorylation levels of p-ERK, p-S6, and p-STAT3. Bosutinib promotes autophagy.

S1077

SB202190 (FHPI)

SB202190 (FHPI) is a potent p38 MAPK inhibitor targeting p38α/β with IC50 of 50 nM/100 nM in cell-free assays, sometimes used instead of SB 203580 to investigate potential roles for SAPK2a/p38 in vivo. SB202190 inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of autophagy and heme oxygenase-1. SB202190 significantly suppresses Erastin‐dependent ferroptosis.

S2853

Carfilzomib (PR-171)

Carfilzomib (PR-171) is an irreversible proteasome inhibitor with IC50 of <5 nM in ANBL-6 cells, displayed preferential in vitro inhibitory potency against the ChT-L activity in the β5 subunit, but little or no effect on the PGPH and T-L activities. Carfilzomib activates prosurvival autophagy and induces cell apoptosis.

S1191

Fulvestrant

Fulvestrant is an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist with IC50 of 0.94 nM in a cell-free assay. Fulvestrant also induces autophagy and apoptosis and has antitumor activity.

S1075

SB216763

SB216763 is a potent and selective GSK-3 inhibitor with IC50 of 34.3 nM for GSK-3α and equally effective at inhibiting human GSK-3β. SB216763 activates autophagy.

S1135

Pemetrexed

Pemetrexed is a novel antifolate and antimetabolite for TS, DHFR and GARFT with Ki of 1.3 nM, 7.2 nM and 65 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Pemetrexed induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S2218

Torkinib (PP242)

Torkinib (PP242) is a selective mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 8 nM in cell-free assays; targets both mTOR complexes with >10- and 100-fold selectivity for mTOR than PI3Kδ or PI3Kα/β/γ, respectively.

S1225

Etoposide

Etoposide is a semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin, which inhibits DNA synthesis via topoisomerase II inhibition activity. Etoposide induces autophagy, mitophagy and apoptosis.

S2248

Silmitasertib (CX-4945)

Silmitasertib (CX-4945) is a potent and selective inhibitor of CK2 (casein kinase 2) with IC50 of 1 nM in a cell-free assay, less potent to Flt3, Pim1 and CDK1 (inactive in cell-based assay). Silmitasertib induces autophagy and promotes apoptosis. Phase 1/2.

S8048

Venetoclax (ABT-199)

Venetoclax (ABT-199, GDC-0199) is a Bcl-2-selective inhibitor with Ki of <0.01 nM in cell-free assays, >4800-fold more selective versus Bcl-xL and Bcl-w, and no activity to Mcl-1. Venetoclax is reported to induce cell growth suppression, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy in triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Phase 3.

S1230

Flavopiridol (Alvocidib)

Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) competes with ATP to inhibit CDKs including CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and CDK9 with IC50 values in the 20-100 nM range. It is more selective for CDK1, 2, 4, 6, 9 versus CDK7. Flavopiridol is initially found to inhibit EGFR and PKA. Flavopiridol induces autophagy and ER stress. Flavopiridol blocks HIV-1 replication. Phase 1/2.

S2111

Lapatinib

Lapatinib, used in the form of Lapatinib Ditosylate, is a potent EGFR and ErbB2 inhibitor with IC50 of 10.8 and 9.2 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Lapatinib induces ferroptosis and autophagic cell death.

S1237

Temozolomide

Temozolomide is a monofunctional SN-1 alkylating agent that can modify nitrogen atoms in the DNA ring and the extracyclic oxygen group, chemically converted to MTIC and degrades to methyldiazonium cation, which transfers methyl groups to DNA at physiologic pH. A DNA damage inducer in L-1210 and L-1210/BCNU cells. Temozolomide induces apoptosis and exhibits antitumor activity.

S5003

Tacrolimus (FK506)

Tacrolimus (FK506) is a 23-membered macrolide lactone, it reduces peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity in T cells by binding to the immunophilin FKBP12 (FK506 binding protein) creating a new complex. Tacrolimus also inhibits the phosphatase activity of calcineurin. Tacrolimus induces vascular endothelial autophagy.

S1950

Metformin HCl

Metformin HCl decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis). Metformin promotes mitophagy in mononuclear cells. Metformin induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through activating JNK/p38 MAPK pathway and GADD153.

S1573

Fasudil (HA-1077) HCl

Fasudil(HA-1077), a potent and selective inhibitor of Rho kinase, displays less potent inhibiton over PKA, PKG, PKC and MLCK with Ki of 1.6, 1.6, 3.3, and 36 μM in cell-free assays, respectively. Fasudil is also a calcium channel blocker.

S1224

Oxaliplatin

Oxaliplatin is a DNA alkylating agent that activates autophagy. Oxaliplatin inhibits DNA synthesis by conforming DNA adducts in RT4, TCCSUP, A2780, HT-29, U-373MG, U-87MG, SK-MEL-2, and HT-144 cells. DMF is recommended for dissolution. Solutions are best fresh-prepared.

S7110

(+)-JQ1

(+)-JQ1 is a BET bromodomain inhibitor, with IC50 of 77 nM/33 nM for BRD4(1/2) in cell-free assays, binding to all bromodomains of the BET family, but not to bromodomains outside the BET family. (+)-JQ1 suppresses cell proliferation via inducing autophagy.

S1972

Tamoxifen Citrate

Tamoxifen Citrate is an antagonist of the estrogen receptor by competitive inhibition of estrogen binding.

S2827

Torin 1

Torin 1 is a potent inhibitor of mTORC1/2 with IC50 of 2 nM/10 nM in cell-free assays; exhibits 1000-fold selectivity for mTOR than PI3K.

S1782

Azacitidine (5-Azacytidine)

Azacitidine is a nucleoside analogue of cytidine that specifically inhibits DNA methylation by trapping DNA methyltransferases. Azacitidine induces mitochondrial apoptosis and autophagy.

S2180

Ixazomib (MLN2238)

Ixazomib (MLN2238) inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteolytic (β5) site of the 20S proteasome with IC50 and Ki of 3.4 nM and 0.93 nM in cell-free assays, respectively, also inhibits the caspase-like (β1) and trypsin-like (β2) proteolytic sites, with IC50 of 31 and 3500 nM. Ixazomib (MLN2238) induces autophagy. Phase 3.

S1590

TWS119

TWS119 is a GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 30 nM in a cell-free assay; capable of inducing neuronal differentiation and may be useful to stem cell biology. GSK-3β inhibition triggers autophagy.

S1396

Resveratrol

Resveratrol has a wide spectrum of targets including cyclooxygenases(i.e. COX, IC50=1.1 μM), lipooxygenases(LOX, IC50=2.7 μM), kinases, sirtuins and other proteins. It has anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, blood-sugar-lowering and other beneficial cardiovascular effects.

S1322

Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid drugs, and an interleukin receptor modulator that has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects. Dexamethasone induces autophagy and mitophagy. Dexamethasone is tested in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and is found to have benefits for critically ill patients.

S1648

Cytarabine

Cytarabine is an antimetabolic agent and DNA synthesis inhibitor with IC50 of 16 nM in wild-type CCRF-CEM cells. Cytarabine induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1792

Simvastatin

Simvastatin is a competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase with Ki of 0.1-0.2 nM in cell-free assays. Simvastatin induces ferroptosis, mitophagy, autophagy and apoptosis.

S1714

Gemcitabine

Gemcitabine, a nucleic acid synthesis inhibitor, is a very potent and specific deoxycytidine analogue, used as chemotherapy. Gemcitabine induces a potent p53-dependent apoptosis.

S2163

PF-4708671

PF-4708671 is a cell-permeable inhibitor of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K1 isoform) with Ki/IC50 of 20 nM/160 nM in cell-free assays, 400-fold greater selectivity for S6K1 than S6K2, and 4- and >20-fold selectivity for S6K1 than MSK1 and RSK1/2, respectively. PF-4708671 induces autophagy. First S6K1-specific inhibitor to be reported.

S2817

Torin 2

Torin 2 is a potent and selective mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 0.25 nM in p53−/− MEFs cell line; 800-fold greater selectivity for mTOR than PI3K and improved pharmacokinetic properties. Inhibition of ATM/ATR/DNA-PK with EC50 of 28 nM/35 nM/118 nM,in PC3 cell lines respectively. Torin 2 decreases cell viability and induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1582

H 89 2HCl

H 89 2HCl is a potent PKA inhibitor with Ki of 48 nM in a cell-free assay, 10-fold selective for PKA than PKG,500-fold greater selectivity than PKC, MLCK, calmodulin kinase II and casein kinase I/II. H 89 2HCl induces autophagy.

S2713

Geldanamycin

Geldanamycin is a natural existing HSP90 inhibitor with Kd of 1.2 μM, specifically disrupts glucocorticoid receptor (GR)/HSP association.

S2449

Forskolin

Forskolin is a ubiquitous activator of eukaryotic adenylyl cyclase (AC) in a wide variety of cell types, commonly used to raise levels of cAMP in the study and research of cell physiology. Forskolin also activates PXR and FXR activity. Forskolin stimulates autophagy.

S7306

Dorsomorphin (Compound C) 2HCl

Dorsomorphin 2HCl is a potent, reversible, selective AMPK inhibitor with Ki of 109 nM in cell-free assays, exhibiting no significant inhibition of several structurally related kinases including ZAPK, SYK, PKCθ, PKA, and JAK3. Also inhibits type Ⅰ BMP receptor activity. Dorsomorphin induces autophagy in cancer cell line.

S2505

Rosiglitazone maleate

Rosiglitazone maleate, a member of the thiazolidinedione class of antihyperglycaemic agents, is a high-affinity selective agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) with IC50 of 42 nM. Rosiglitazone maleate also modulates TRP channels and induces autophagy. Rosiglitazone prevents ferroptosis.

S2799

Daporinad (FK866, APO866)

Daporinad (FK866, APO866) effectively inhibits nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NMPRTase; Nampt) with IC50 of 0.09 nM in a cell-free assay. Daporinad (FK866, APO866) triggers autophagy. Phase 1/2.

S2929

Pifithrin-α (PFTα) HBr

Pifithrin-α is an inhibitor of p53, inhibiting p53-dependent transactivation of p53-responsive genes. Pifithrin-α is also a potent agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).

S7164

GSK343

GSK343 is a potent and selective EZH2 inhibitor with IC50 of 4 nM in a cell-free assay, showing 60 fold selectivity against EZH1, and >1000 fold selectivity against other histone methyltransferases. GSK343 induces autophagy.

S8059

Nutlin-3a

Nutlin-3a, the active enantiomer of Nutlin-3, inhibits the p53/MDM2 interaction with IC50 of 90 nM in a cell-free assay. Nutlin-3a induces autophagy and apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner.

S7007

Binimetinib (MEK162)

Binimetinib (MEK162, ARRY-162, ARRY-438162) is a potent inhibitor of MEK1/2 with IC50 of 12 nM in a cell-free assay. Binimetinib induces G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human NSCLC cell lines and induces autophagy. Phase 3.

S2751

Milciclib (PHA-848125)

Milciclib (PHA-848125) is a potent, ATP-competitive CDK inhibitor for CDK2 with IC50 of 45 nM. It is >3-fold more selective for CDK2 than CDK1, 2, 4, 5, and 7. Milciclib (PHA-848125) induces cell death through autophagy. Phase 2.

S7397

Sorafenib

Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor of Raf-1 and B-Raf with IC50 of 6 nM and 22 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Sorafenib inhibits VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, PDGFR-β, Flt-3 and c-KIT with IC50 of 90 nM, 20 nM, 57 nM, 59 nM and 68 nM, respectively. Sorafenib induces autophagy and apoptosis and activates ferroptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S2556

Rosiglitazone

Rosiglitazone is a potent antihyperglycemic agent and a potent thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizer with IC50 of 12, 4 and 9 nM for rat, 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes, respectively. Rosiglitazone is a pure ligand of PPAR-gamma, and has no PPAR-alpha-binding action. Rosiglitazone modulates TRP channels and induces autophagy. Rosiglitazone prevents ferroptosis.

S3030

Niclosamide

Niclosamide can inhibit DNA replication and inhibit STAT3 with IC50 of 0.7 μM in a cell-free assay. Niclosamide selectively inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT3 and had no obvious inhibition against the activation of other homologues (e.g., STAT1 and STAT5).

S8047

Dynasore

Dynasore is a cell-permeable, reversible non-competitive dynamin inhibitor of GTPase activity of dynamin 1/2, with IC50 of 15 μM in a cell-free assay, also inhibits the mitochondrial dynamin Drp1, with no effect against other small GTPase. Dynasore suppresses mTORC1 activity and induces autophagy. Dynasore inhibits the entry of several viruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV).

S1263

CHIR-99021 (CT99021)

CHIR-99021 (CT99021) is a GSK-3α and GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM and 6.7 nM, respectively. CHIR99201 does not exhibit cross-reactivity against cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and shows a 350-fold selectivity toward GSK-3β compared to CDKs. CHIR99021 functions as a Wnt/β-catenin activator and induces autophagy.

S8075

GANT61

GANT61 is an inhibitor for GLI1 as well as GLI2-induced transcription, inhibits hedgehog with IC50 of 5 μM in GLI1 expressing HEK293T cell, displays selectivity over other pathways, such as TNF and glucocorticoid receptor gene transactivation. GANT61 induces apoptosis and activates protective autophagy in LX-2 cells.

S1389

Omeprazole

Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor, used to treat dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome.

S1979

Amiodarone HCl

Amiodarone HCl is a sodium/potassium-ATPase inhibitor and an autophagy activator, used to treat various types of cardiac dysrhythmias.

S2480

Loperamide HCl

Loperamide HCl is a selective μ-opioid receptor agonist opioid with Ki of 3.3 nM, 15-fold and 350-fold selective over the δ subtype and the κ subtype of the opioid receptor, used against diarrhea resulting from gastroenteritis or inflammatory bowel disease.

S4028

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate

Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid drugs, and an interleukin receptor modulator that has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects.

S1693

Carbamazepine

Carbamazepine (Carbatrol) is a sodium channel blocker with IC50 of 131 μM in rat brain synaptosomes.

S2458

Clonidine HCl

Clonidine HCl is a direct-acting α2 adrenergic agonist with an ED50 of 0.02±0.01 mg/kg.

S1837

Flubendazole

Flubendazole is an autophagy inducer by targeting Atg4B, used to treat internal parasite and worm infection.

S1747

Nimodipine

Nimodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker and an autophagy inhibitor, used in the treatment of high blood pressure.

S7067

Tepotinib (EMD 1214063)

Tepotinib (EMD 1214063) is a potent and selective c-Met inhibitor with IC50 of 4 nM, >200-fold selective for c-Met than IRAK4, TrkA, Axl, IRAK1, and Mer. Tepotinib (EMD 1214063) induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S7177

PF-543

PF-543, a novel sphingosine-competitive inhibitor of SphK1, inhibits SphK1 with IC50 and Ki of 2.0 nM and 3.6 nM, exhibits >100-fold selectivity over the SphK2 isoform. PF-543 induces apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy.

S2491

Nitrendipine

Nitrendipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with an IC50 of 95 nM.

S5243

Ruxolitinib Phosphate

Ruxolitinib Phosphate is the phosphate salt form of Ruxolitinib. Ruxolitinib is the first potent, selective, JAK1/2 inhibitor to enter the clinic with IC50 of 3.3 nM/2.8 nM in cell-free assays, >130-fold selectivity for JAK1/2 versus JAK3. Ruxolitinib kills tumor cells through toxic mitophagy. Ruxolitinib induces autophagy and enhances apoptosis.

S7781

Sunitinib

Sunitinib is a multi-targeted RTK inhibitor targeting VEGFR2 (Flk-1) and PDGFRβ with IC50 of 80 nM and 2 nM, and also inhibits c-Kit. Sunitinib is also a dose-dependent inhibitor of the autophosphorylation activity of IRE1α. Sunitinib induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S7786

Erlotinib

Erlotinib is an EGFR inhibitor with IC50 of 2 nM, >1000-fold more sensitive for EGFR than human c-Src or v-Abl. Erlotinib induces autophagy.

S8595

Tat-beclin 1 (Tat-BECN1)

Tat-beclin 1 (Tat-BECN1), a peptide known to stimulate autophagy through mobilization of endogenous Beclin 1, induces autophagy in vitro and in vivo and improves clinical outcomes.

S5715

atorvastatin

Atorvastatin is a lipid lowering agent. It is a competitive inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-determining enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis via the mevalonate pathway. Atorvastatin activates autophagy.

S7655

CB-839(Telaglenastat)

CB-839(Telaglenastat) is a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable glutaminase inhibitor with IC50 of 24 nM for recombinant human GAC. CB-839(Telaglenastat) inudces autophagy and has antitumor activity. Phase 1.

S3653

Spermidine trihydrochloride

Spermidine, a natural polyamine produced from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM) by spermidine synthase, is a novel autophagy inducer and negatively modulates N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA).

S9027

Corynoxine

Corynoxine, a natural oxindole alkaloid, is a new autophagy enhancer.

S4081

Sulfacetamide Sodium

Sulfacetamide Sodium is an anti-biotic.

S7483

DMOG

DMOG is an antagonist of α-ketoglutarate cofactor and inhibitor for HIF prolylhydroxylase, leading to stabilisation and accumulation of HIF-1α protein in the nucleus. DMOG enhances autophagy.

S8240

SMER28

SMER28 is a small-molecule enhancer (SMER) of autophagy, inducing autophagy independently of rapamycin in mammalian cells.

S4546

Xylitol

Xylitol is a sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.

S7840

Dorsomorphin (Compound C)

Dorsomorphin is a potent, reversible, selective AMPK inhibitor with Ki of 109 nM in cell-free assays, exhibiting no significant inhibition of several structurally related kinases including ZAPK, SYK, PKCθ, PKA, and JAK3. Dorsomorphin selectively inhibits the BMP type I receptors ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6. Dorsomorphin is used in promoting specific cell differentiation and inducing cancer cell line autophagy.

S9310

Isorhychophylline

Isorhynchophylline is a major tetracyclic oxindole alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.)Jacks (Gouteng in Chinese). It acts as a neuronal autophagy inducer with therapeutic potential for cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases.

S1238

Tamoxifen

Tamoxifen is an antagonist of the estrogen receptor in breast tissue. Tamoxifen enhances the Hsp90 molecular chaperone ATPase activity. Tamoxifen induces apoptosis.

S8597

LYN-1604

LYN-1604 is a potential ULK1 agonist with IC50 of 1.66 μM against MDA-MB-231 cells and it binds to wild-type ULK1 with a binding affinity in the nanomole range (Kd=291.4 nM). The ULK1 (Y89A) mutant protein caused a sharp decrease in binding affinity with lower response and Kd than wild-type ULK1, ULK1 (K50A) and ULK1 (L53A) mutants.

S2924

CHIR-99021 (CT99021) HCl

CHIR-99021 (CT99021) HCl is hydrochloride of CHIR-99021, which is a GSK-3α/β inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM/6.7 nM; CHIR-99021 shows greater than 500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 versus its closest homologs Cdc2 and ERK2. CHIR-99021 is a potent pharmacological activators of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. CHIR-99021 significantly rescues light-induced autophagy and augments GR, RORα and autophagy-related proteins.

S2215

DAPT (GSI-IX)

DAPT (GSI-IX) is a novel γ-secretase inhibitor, which inhibits Aβ production with IC50 of 20 nM in HEK 293 cells. DAPT enhances the apoptosis of human tongue carcinoma cells and regulates autophagy.

S1241

Vincristine sulfate

Vincristine sulfate is an inhibitor of polymerization of microtubules by binding to tubulin with IC50 of 32 μM in a cell-free assay. Vincristine sulfate induces apoptosis.

S1168

Valproic acid sodium salt (Sodium valproate)

Valproic acid sodium salt (Sodium valproate) is a HDAC inhibitor by selectively inducing proteasomal degradation of HDAC2, used in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and prevention of migraine headaches.

S1041

STF-62247

STF-62247 is a molecule targeting VHL-deficient renal cell carcinoma that induces autophagy. STF-62247 shows selective toxicity and growth inhibition of renal cells lacking VHL; 25-fold greater sensitivity observed for cells with VHL deficiency compared to wild-type (VHL+).

S7980

VPS34-IN1

Vps34-IN1 is a potent and highly selective Vps34 inhibitor with IC50 of 25 nM invitro,which does not significantly inhibit the isoforms of class I as well as class II PI3Ks. Vps34-IN1 modulates autophagy.

S4750

Sulfacetamide sodium salt hydrate

Sulfacetamide is a sulfonamide antibiotic that blocks the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid by inhibiting the enzyme dihydropteroate synthase(DHPS) with IC50 of 9.5 μM. Sulfacetamide is a competitive inhibitor of bacterial para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), which is required for bacterial synthesis of folic acid.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1013

Bortezomib (PS-341)

Bortezomib (PS-341) is a potent 20S proteasome inhibitor with Ki of 0.6 nM. It exhibits favorable selectivity towards tumor cells over normal cells. Bortezomib (PS-341) inhibits NF-κB and induces ERK phosphorylation to suppress cathepsin B and inhibit the catalytic process of autophagy in ovarian cancer and other solid tumors.

S8943New

VLX600

VLX600 is a novel iron-chelating inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), potentiates the effect of radiation in tumor spheroids in a synergistic manner. VLX600 shows enhanced cytotoxic activity under conditions of nutrient starvation. VLX600 induces autophagy and mitochondrial inhibition with antitumor activity.

S6716New

NSC 185058

NSC185058 inhibits ATG4B, the lipidation of LC3B, and autophagy without affecting the MTOR or PtdIns3K pathways.

S7455New

Resatorvid (TAK-242)

Resatorvid (TAK-242) is a small-molecule-specific inhibitor of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling, blocking LPS-induced production of NO, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in macrophages with IC50 values of 1-11 nM. Resatorvid inhibits autophagy.

S1109

BI 2536

BI-2536 is a potent Plk1 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.83 nM in a cell-free assay. BI-2536 inhibits Bromodomain 4 (BRD4) with Kd of 37 nM and potently suppresses c-Myc expression. BI-2536 induces apoptosis and attenuates autophagy. Phase 2.

S1105

LY294002

LY294002 is the first synthetic molecule known to inhibit PI3Kα/δ/β with IC50 of 0.5 μM/0.57 μM/0.97 μM, respectively; more stable in solution than Wortmannin, and also blocks autophagosome formation. It not only binds to class I PI3Ks and other PI3K-related kinases, but also to novel targets seemingly unrelated to the PI3K family. LY294002 also inhibits CK2 with IC50 of 98 nM. LY294002 is a non-specific DNA-PKcs inhibitor and activates autophagy and apoptosis.

S1092

KU-55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor)

KU-55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor) is a potent and specific ATM inhibitor with IC50/Ki of 12.9 nM/2.2 nM in cell-free assays, and is highly selective for ATM as compared to DNA-PK, PI3K/PI4K, ATR and mTOR. KU‑55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor) inhibits the activation of autophagy‑initiating kinase ULK1 and results in a significant decrease of autophagy.

S1102

U0126-EtOH

U0126-EtOH is a highly selective inhibitor of MEK1/2 with IC50 of 0.07 μM/0.06 μM in cell-free assays, 100-fold higher affinity for ΔN3-S218E/S222D MEK than PD98059. U0126 inhibits autophagy and mitophagy with antiviral activity.

S1150

Paclitaxel

Paclitaxel is a microtubule polymer stabilizer with IC50 of 0.1 pM in human endothelial cells.

S1460

SP600125

SP600125 is a broad-spectrum JNK inhibitor for JNK1, JNK2 and JNK3 with IC50 of 40 nM, 40 nM and 90 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; 10-fold greater selectivity against MKK4, 25-fold greater selectivity against MKK3, MKK6, PKB, and PKCα, and 100-fold selectivity against ERK2, p38, Chk1, EGFR etc. SP600125 is also a broad‐spectrum inhibitor of serine/threonine kinases including Aurora kinase AFLT3 and TRKA with of IC50 of 60 nM, 90 nM and 70 nM. SP600125 inhibits autophagy and activates apoptosis.

S1490

Ponatinib (AP24534)

Ponatinib (AP24534) is a novel, potent multi-target inhibitor of Abl, PDGFRα, VEGFR2, FGFR1 and Src with IC50 of 0.37 nM, 1.1 nM, 1.5 nM, 2.2 nM and 5.4 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Ponatinib (AP24534) inhibits autophagy.

S1113

GSK690693

GSK690693 is a pan-Akt inhibitor targeting Akt1/2/3 with IC50 of 2 nM/13 nM/9 nM in cell-free assays, also sensitive to the AGC kinase family: PKA, PrkX and PKC isozymes. GSK690693 also potently inhibits AMPK and DAPK3 from the CAMK family with IC50 of 50 nM and 81 nM, respectively. GSK690693 affects Unc-51-like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) activity, robustly inhibits STING-dependent IRF3 activation. Phase 1.

S2758

Wortmannin

Wortmannin is the first described PI3K inhibitor with IC50 of 3 nM in a cell-free assay, with little selectivity within the PI3K family. Wortmannin blocks autophagosome formation and potently inhibits DNA-PK/ATM with IC50 of 16 nM and 150 nM in cell-free assays. Wortmannin also inhibits PLK1 activity.

S2704

LY2109761

LY2109761 is a novel selective TGF-β receptor type I/II (TβRI/II) dual inhibitor with Ki of 38 nM and 300 nM in a cell-free assay, respectively; shown to negatively affect the phosphorylation of Smad2. LY2109761 blocks autophagy and induces apoptosis.

S2767

3-Methyladenine (3-MA)

3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is a selective PI3K inhibitor for Vps34 and PI3Kγ with IC50 of 25 μM and 60 μM in HeLa cells; blocks class I PI3K consistently, whereas suppression of class III PI3K is transient, and also blocks autophagosome formation. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is successfully used to suppress mitophagy. Solutions of 3-MA are best fresh-prepared by heating.

S2243

Degrasyn (WP1130)

Degrasyn (WP1130) is a selective deubiquitinase (DUB: USP5, UCH-L1, USP9x, USP14, and UCH37) inhibitor and also suppresses Bcr/Abl, also a JAK2 transducer (without affecting 20S proteasome) and activator of transcription (STAT). Degrasyn (WP1130) induces apoptosis and blocks autophagy.

S1786

Verteporfin

Verteporfin is a small molecule that inhibits TEAD–YAP association and YAP-induced liver overgrowth. It is also a potent second-generation photosensitizing agent derived from porphyrin. Verteporfin is an autophagy inhibitor. Verteporfin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis.

S7046

Brefeldin A

Brefeldin A is a lactone antibiotic and ATPase inhibitor for protein transport with IC50 of 0.2 μM in HCT 116 cells, induces cancer cell differentiation and apoptosis. It could also improve the HDR(homology-directed repair) efficiency and be an enhancer of CRISPR-mediated HDR. Brefeldin A is also an inhibitor of autophagy and mitophagy.

S8037

Necrostatin-1

Necrostatin-1 is a specific RIP1 (RIPK1) inhibitor and inhibits TNF-α-induced necroptosis with EC50 of 490 nM in 293T cells. Necrostatin-1 also blocks IDO and suppresses autophagy and apoptosis.

S2775

Nocodazole

Nocodazole is a rapidly-reversible inhibitor of microtubule polymerization, also inhibits Abl, Abl(E255K) and Abl(T315I) with IC50 of 0.21 μM, 0.53 μM and 0.64 μM in cell-free assays, respectively. Nocodazole improves the CRISPR-mediated HDR efficiency and has an additive effect on enhancing precise genome editing.

S3042

Purmorphamine

Purmorphamine, which directly binds and activates Smoothened, blocks BODIPY-cyclopamine binding to Smo with IC50 of ~ 1.5 μM in HEK293T cell and also is an inducer of osteoblast differentiation with EC50 of 1 μM. Purmorphamine can reduce both basal and induced autophagy.

S4157

Chloroquine diphosphate

Chloroquine diphosphate is a 4-aminoquinoline anti-malarial and anti-rheumatoid agent, also acting as an ATM activator. Chloroquine is also an inhibitor of toll-like receptors (TLRs).

S1413

Bafilomycin A1(Baf-A1)

Bafilomycin A1 is a vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitor with IC50 of 0.44 nM. Bafilomycin A1 is found to inhibit autophagy while induces apoptosis.

S1835

Azithromycin

Azithromycin is an antibiotic by inhibiting protein synthesis, used for the treatment of bacterial infections.

S8808

DC661

DC661 is capable of deacidifying the lysosome and inhibiting autophagy significantly better than hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). DC661 induces apoptosis.

S7289

PFK15

PFK15 is a potent and selective 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3) inhibitor with IC50 of 207 nM.

S7885

SBI-0206965

SBI-0206965 is a highly selective autophagy kinase ULK1 inhibitor with IC50 of 108 nM, about 7-fold selectivity over ULK2.

S8576

EAD1

EAD1 is a potent autophagy inhibitor with an IC50 of 5.8 μM in the BxPC3 cells. It has antiproliferative activities in lung and pancreatic cancer cells.

S8764

IITZ-01

IITZ-01 is a potent autophagy inhibitor, enhancing autophagosome accumulation but inhibiting autophagosomal degradation by impairing lysosomal function.

S7888

Spautin-1

Spautin-1 is a potent and specific autophagy inhibitor, and inhibits the deubiquitinating activity of USP10 and USP13 with IC50 of ∼0.6-0.7 μM. Spautin-1 enhances apoptosis.

S8317

3BDO

3BDO, a butyrolactone derivative, could target FKBP1A and activate the mTOR signaling pathway. It inhibits autophagy in HUVECs.

S7811

MHY1485

MHY1485 is a potent, and cell-permeable mTOR activator, and also potently inhibits autophagy.

S8596

Autophinib

Autophinib is a potent autophagy inhibitor with a novel chemotype with IC50 values of 90 and 40 nM for autophagy in starvation induced autophagy assay and rapamycin induced autophagy assay. The IC50 value for Vps34 is 19 nM in vitro.

S8807

PFK158

PFK158 is a potent and selective inhibitor of PFKFB3. It has improved PK properties and causes ~80% growth inhibition in several mouse models of human-derived tumors.

S3758

Sinomenine hydrochloride

Sinomenine (SN), extracted from the Chinese medicinal plant, sinomenium acutum, is a potent anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent.

S8369

Lys05

Lys05 is a new lysosomal autophagy inhibitor which potently accumulates within and deacidifies the lysosome of both cells and tumors, resulting in sustained inhibition of autophagy and tumor growth.

S7660

Obeticholic Acid

Obeticholic Acid is a potent and selective farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist with EC50 of 99 nM. Obeticholic Acid inhibits autophagy. Phase 3.

S4430

Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate

Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate is an antimalarial agent used for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune, inflammatory and dermatologic conditions. Also acts as an inhibitor of autophagy and toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/9.

S7949

MRT68921 HCl

MRT68921 is a potent and dual autophagy kinase ULK1/2 inhibitor with IC50 of 2.9 nM and 1.1 nM, respectively.

S8744

PHY34

PHY34 is a late-stage autophagy inhibitor with nanomolar potency and significant antitumor efficacy as a single agent against HGSOC in vivo.

S5920

CA-5f

CA-5f is a potent late-stage macroautophagy/autophagy inhibitor via inhibiting autophagosome-lysosome fusion.

S7683

PIK-III

PIK-III, which is a selective inhibitor of ​VPS34 enzymatic activity, inhibits autophagy and de novo lipidation of LC3 and leads to the stabilization of autophagy substrates. The IC50 values for VPS34 and PI(3)Kδ are 0.018 μM and 1.2 μM respectively.

S8793

ULK-101

ULK-101 is a potent and selective ULK1 inhibitor with IC50 values of 8.3 nM and 30 nM for ULK1 and ULK2, respectively.

S8527

ROC-325

ROC-325 is an orally available novel inhibitor of lysosomal-mediated autophagy which diminishes AML cell viability with the IC50 range of 0.7-2.2 μM.

S9424

Liensinine diperchlorate

Liensinine, a major isoquinoline alkaloid, inhibits late-stage autophagy/mitophagy through blocking autophagosome-lysosome fusion. It is a novel autophagy/mitophagy inhibitor.

S6471

Lucanthone

Lucanthone is a novel autophagic inhibitor and also an orally available thioxanthone-based DNA intercalator and inhibitor of the DNA repair enzyme apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1.

S9150

Daurisoline

Daurisoline, a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the rhizomes of Menispermum dauricum, is a potent autophagy blockers with antiarrhythmic effects.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S1078

MK-2206 2HCl

MK-2206 2HCl is a highly selective inhibitor of Akt1/2/3 with IC50 of 8 nM/12 nM/65 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; no inhibitory activities against 250 other protein kinases observed. MK-2206 2HCl induces autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells. Phase 2.

S1060

Olaparib (AZD2281)

Olaparib (AZD2281, KU0059436) is a selective inhibitor of PARP1/2 with IC50 of 5 nM/1 nM in cell-free assays, 300-times less effective against tankyrase-1. Olaparib induces significant autophagy that is associated with mitophagy in cells with BRCA mutations.

S1267

Vemurafenib (PLX4032)

Vemurafenib (PLX4032, RG7204) is a novel and potent inhibitor of B-RafV600E with IC50 of 31 nM in cell-free assay. 10-fold selective for B-RafV600E over wild-type B-Raf in enzymatic assays and the cellular selectivity can exceed 100-fold. Vemurafenib (PLX4032, RG7204) induces autophagy.

S1047

Vorinostat (SAHA)

Vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA) is an HDAC inhibitor with IC50 of ~10 nM in a cell-free assay. Vorinostat abrogates productive HPV-18 DNA amplification.

S6797New

QX77

QX77 is a novel activator of chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA). QX77 induces the up-regulation of Rab11 expression and up-regulates LAMP2A expression.

S6650New

EN6

EN6 is a novel covalent autophagy activator and targets cysteine 277 in the ATP6V1A subunit of the lysosomal v-ATPase with an IC50 of 1.7 μM for recombinant human ATP6V1A protein.

S1002

ABT-737

ABT-737 is a BH3 mimetic inhibitor of Bcl-xL, Bcl-2 and Bcl-w with EC50 of 78.7 nM, 30.3 nM and 197.8 nM in cell-free assays, respectively; no inhibition observed against Mcl-1, Bcl-B or Bfl-1. ABT-737 induces mitochondrial pathway apoptosis and mitophagy. Phase 2.

S1049

Y-27632 2HCl

Y-27632 2HCl is a selective ROCK1 (p160ROCK) inhibitor with Ki of 140 nM in a cell-free assay, exhibits >200-fold selectivity over other kinases, including PKC, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, MLCK and PAK.

S2619

MG-132

MG132 is a potent cell-permeable proteasome and calpain inhibitor with IC50s of 0.1 μM and 1.2 μM for the inhibition of proteasome and calpain, respectively. MG132 activates autophagy and induces apoptosis in tumor cells.

S1009

Dactolisib (BEZ235)

Dactolisib (BEZ235, NVP-BEZ235) is a dual ATP-competitive PI3K and mTOR inhibitor for p110α/γ/δ/β and mTOR(p70S6K) with IC50 of 4 nM /5 nM /7 nM /75 nM /6 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Inhibits ATR with IC50 of 21 nM in 3T3TopBP1-ER cell. Dactolisib induces autophagy and suppresses HIV-1 replication. Phase 2.

S1040

Sorafenib Tosylate

Sorafenib Tosylate is a multikinase inhibitor of Raf-1 and B-Raf with IC50 of 6 nM and 22 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Sorafenib Tosylate inhibits VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, PDGFR-β, Flt-3 and c-KIT with IC50 of 90 nM, 20 nM, 57 nM, 59 nM and 68 nM, respectively. Sorafenib Tosylate induces autophagy and apoptosis and activates ferroptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S1021

Dasatinib

Dasatinib is a novel, potent and multi-targeted inhibitor that targets Abl, Src and c-Kit, with IC50 of <1 nM, 0.8 nM and 79 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Dasatinib induces autophagy and apoptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S1039

Rapamycin (Sirolimus)

Rapamycin (Sirolimus) is a specific mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of ~0.1 nM HEK293 cells.

S1068

Crizotinib (PF-02341066)

Crizotinib (PF-02341066) is a potent inhibitor of c-Met and ALK with IC50 of 11 nM and 24 nM in cell-based assays, respectively. It is also a potent ROS1 inhibitor with Ki value less than 0.025 nM. Crizotinib induces autophagy through inhibition of the STAT3 pathway in multiple lung cancer cell lines.

S1023

Erlotinib HCl (OSI-744)

Erlotinib HCl (OSI-744) is an EGFR inhibitor with IC50 of 2 nM in cell-free assays, >1000-fold more sensitive for EGFR than human c-Src or v-Abl.

S1120

Everolimus (RAD001)

Everolimus (RAD001) is an mTOR inhibitor of FKBP12 with IC50 of 1.6-2.4 nM in a cell-free assay. Everolimus induces cell apoptosis and autophagy and inhibits tumor cells proliferation.

S1025

Gefitinib (ZD1839)

Gefitinib (ZD-1839) is an EGFR inhibitor for Tyr1173, Tyr992, Tyr1173 and Tyr992 in the NR6wtEGFR and NR6W cells with IC50 of 37 nM, 37nM, 26 nM and 57 nM, respectively. Gefitinib promotes autophagy and apoptosis of lung cancer cells via blockade of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway.

S1004

Veliparib (ABT-888)

Veliparib (ABT-888) is a potent inhibitor of PARP1 and PARP2 with Ki of 5.2 nM and 2.9 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. It is inactive to SIRT2. Veliparib increases autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 3.

S1053

Entinostat (MS-275)

Entinostat (MS-275) strongly inhibits HDAC1 and HDAC3 with IC50 of 0.51 μM and 1.7 μM in cell-free assays, compared with HDACs 4, 6, 8, and 10. Entinostat induces autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 3.

S1065

Pictilisib (GDC-0941)

Pictilisib (GDC-0941) is a potent inhibitor of PI3Kα/δ with IC50 of 3 nM in cell-free assays, with modest selectivity against p110β (11-fold) and p110γ (25-fold). Pictilisib (GDC-0941) induces autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 2.

S2673

Trametinib (GSK1120212)

Trametinib (GSK1120212) is a highly specific and potent MEK1/2 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.92 nM/1.8 nM in cell-free assays, no inhibition of the kinase activities of c-Raf, B-Raf, ERK1/2. Trametinib activates autophagy and induces apoptosis.

S1378

Ruxolitinib (INCB018424)

Ruxolitinib (INCB018424) is the first potent, selective, JAK1/2 inhibitor to enter the clinic with IC50 of 3.3 nM/2.8 nM in cell-free assays, >130-fold selectivity for JAK1/2 versus JAK3. Ruxolitinib kills tumor cells through toxic mitophagy. Ruxolitinib induces autophagy and enhances apoptosis.

S1030

Panobinostat (LBH589)

Panobinostat (LBH589) is a novel broad-spectrum HDAC inhibitor with IC50 of 5 nM in a cell-free assay. Panobinostat (LBH589) induces autophagy and apoptosis. Panobinostat effectively disrupts HIV latency in vivo. Phase 3.

S1026

Imatinib Mesylate (STI571)

Imatinib Mesylate (STI571) is an orally bioavailability mesylate salt of Imatinib, which is a multi-target inhibitor of v-Abl, c-Kit and PDGFR with IC50 of 0.6 μM, 0.1 μM and 0.1 μM in cell-free or cell-based assays, respectively. Imatinib Mesylate (STI571) induces autophagy.

S1250

Enzalutamide (MDV3100)

Enzalutamide (MDV3100) is an androgen-receptor (AR) antagonist with IC50 of 36 nM in LNCaP cells. Enzalutamide is shown to increase autophagy.

S1133

Alisertib (MLN8237)

Alisertib (MLN8237) is a selective Aurora A inhibitor with IC50 of 1.2 nM in a cell-free assay. It has >200-fold higher selectivity for Aurora A than Aurora B. Alisertib induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 3.

S1011

Afatinib (BIBW2992)

Afatinib (BIBW2992) inhibits EGFR/ErbB irreversibly in vitro with IC50 of 0.5, 0.4, 10, 14, 1 nM for EGFRwt, EGFR L858R , EGFR L858R/T790M ErbB2 (HER2) and ErbB4 (HER4), respectively. Afatinib induces autophagy.

S2226

Idelalisib (CAL-101, GS-1101)

Idelalisib (CAL-101, GS-1101) is a selective p110δ inhibitor with IC50 of 2.5 nM in cell-free assays; shown to have 40- to 300-fold greater selectivity for p110δ than p110α/β/γ, and 400- to 4000-fold more selectivity to p110δ than C2β, hVPS34, DNA-PK and mTOR. Idelalisib also stimulates autophagy.

S1555

AZD8055

AZD8055 is a novel ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 0.8 nM in MDA-MB-468 cells with excellent selectivity (∼1,000-fold) against PI3K isoforms and ATM/DNA-PK. AZD8055 induces caspase-dependent apoptosis and also induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S1006

Saracatinib (AZD0530)

Saracatinib (AZD0530) is a potent Src inhibitor with IC50 of 2.7 nM in cell-free assays, and potent to c-Yes, Fyn, Lyn, Blk, Fgr and Lck; less active for Abl and EGFR (L858R and L861Q). Saracatinib induces autophagy. Phase 2/3.

S1057

Obatoclax Mesylate (GX15-070)

Obatoclax Mesylate (GX15-070) is an antagonist of Bcl-2 with Ki of 0.22 μM in a cell-free assay, can assist in overcoming MCL-1 mediated resistance to apoptosis. Phase 3.

S1141

Tanespimycin (17-AAG)

Tanespimycin (17-AAG) is a potent HSP90 inhibitor with IC50 of 5 nM in a cell-free assay, having a 100-fold higher binding affinity for HSP90 derived from tumour cells than HSP90 from normal cells. Tanespimycin (17-AAG) induces apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy and mitophagy. Phase 2.

S1166

Cisplatin

Cisplatin is an inorganic platinum complex, which is able to inhibit DNA synthesis by conforming DNA adducts in tumor cells. Cisplatin activates ferroptosis and induces autophagy. Solutions are best fresh-prepared.

S1033

Nilotinib (AMN-107)

Nilotinib (AMN-107) is a selective Bcr-Abl inhibitor with IC50 less than 30 nM in Murine myeloid progenitor cells. Nilotinib induces autophagy through AMPK activition.

S1044

Temsirolimus (CCI-779)

Temsirolimus (CCI-779, NSC 683864) is a specific mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 1.76 μM in a cell-free assay. Temsirolimus induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1038

PI-103

PI-103 is a multi-targeted PI3K inhibitor for p110α/β/δ/γ with IC50 of 2 nM/3 nM/3 nM/15 nM in cell-free assays, less potent to mTOR/DNA-PK with IC50 of 30 nM/23 nM.

S1069

Luminespib (NVP-AUY922)

Luminespib (AUY-922, NVP-AUY922) is a highly potent HSP90 inhibitor for HSP90α/β with IC50 of 13 nM /21 nM in cell-free assays, weaker potency against the HSP90 family members GRP94 and TRAP-1, exhibits the tightest binding of any small-molecule HSP90 ligand. Luminespib (AUY-922, NVP-AUY922) effectively downregulates and destabilizes the IGF-1Rβ protein and results in growth inhibition, autophagy and apoptosis. Phase 2.

S1149

Gemcitabine HCl

Gemcitabine HCl is a DNA synthesis inhibitor with IC50 of 50 nM, 40 nM, 18 nM and 12 nM in PANC1, MIAPaCa2, BxPC3 and Capan2 cells, respectively.

S1122

Mocetinostat (MGCD0103)

Mocetinostat (MGCD0103) is a potent HDAC inhibitor with most potency for HDAC1 with IC50 of 0.15 μM in a cell-free assay, 2- to 10- fold selectivity against HDAC2, 3, and 11, and no activity to HDAC4, 5, 6, 7, and 8. Mocetinostat (MGCD0103) induces apoptosis and autophagy. Phase 2.

S1178

Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506)

Regorafenib (BAY 73-4506) is a multi-target inhibitor for VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFRβ, Kit, RET and Raf-1 with IC50 of 13 nM/4.2 nM/46 nM, 22 nM, 7 nM, 1.5 nM and 2.5 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Regorafenib induces autophagy.

S1129

SRT1720 HCl

SRT1720 HCl is a selective SIRT1 activator with EC50 of 0.16 μM in a cell-free assay, but is >230-fold less potent for SIRT2 and SIRT3. SRT1720 induces autophagy.

S1014

Bosutinib (SKI-606)

Bosutinib (SKI-606) is a novel, dual Src/Abl inhibitor with IC50 of 1.2 nM and 1 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Bosutinib also effectively decreases the activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR, MAPK/ERK and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways by blocking the phosphorylation levels of p-ERK, p-S6, and p-STAT3. Bosutinib promotes autophagy.

S1077

SB202190 (FHPI)

SB202190 (FHPI) is a potent p38 MAPK inhibitor targeting p38α/β with IC50 of 50 nM/100 nM in cell-free assays, sometimes used instead of SB 203580 to investigate potential roles for SAPK2a/p38 in vivo. SB202190 inhibits endothelial cell apoptosis via induction of autophagy and heme oxygenase-1. SB202190 significantly suppresses Erastin‐dependent ferroptosis.

S2853

Carfilzomib (PR-171)

Carfilzomib (PR-171) is an irreversible proteasome inhibitor with IC50 of <5 nM in ANBL-6 cells, displayed preferential in vitro inhibitory potency against the ChT-L activity in the β5 subunit, but little or no effect on the PGPH and T-L activities. Carfilzomib activates prosurvival autophagy and induces cell apoptosis.

S1191

Fulvestrant

Fulvestrant is an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist with IC50 of 0.94 nM in a cell-free assay. Fulvestrant also induces autophagy and apoptosis and has antitumor activity.

S1075

SB216763

SB216763 is a potent and selective GSK-3 inhibitor with IC50 of 34.3 nM for GSK-3α and equally effective at inhibiting human GSK-3β. SB216763 activates autophagy.

S1135

Pemetrexed

Pemetrexed is a novel antifolate and antimetabolite for TS, DHFR and GARFT with Ki of 1.3 nM, 7.2 nM and 65 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Pemetrexed induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S2218

Torkinib (PP242)

Torkinib (PP242) is a selective mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 8 nM in cell-free assays; targets both mTOR complexes with >10- and 100-fold selectivity for mTOR than PI3Kδ or PI3Kα/β/γ, respectively.

S1225

Etoposide

Etoposide is a semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin, which inhibits DNA synthesis via topoisomerase II inhibition activity. Etoposide induces autophagy, mitophagy and apoptosis.

S2248

Silmitasertib (CX-4945)

Silmitasertib (CX-4945) is a potent and selective inhibitor of CK2 (casein kinase 2) with IC50 of 1 nM in a cell-free assay, less potent to Flt3, Pim1 and CDK1 (inactive in cell-based assay). Silmitasertib induces autophagy and promotes apoptosis. Phase 1/2.

S8048

Venetoclax (ABT-199)

Venetoclax (ABT-199, GDC-0199) is a Bcl-2-selective inhibitor with Ki of <0.01 nM in cell-free assays, >4800-fold more selective versus Bcl-xL and Bcl-w, and no activity to Mcl-1. Venetoclax is reported to induce cell growth suppression, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy in triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Phase 3.

S1230

Flavopiridol (Alvocidib)

Flavopiridol (Alvocidib) competes with ATP to inhibit CDKs including CDK1, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and CDK9 with IC50 values in the 20-100 nM range. It is more selective for CDK1, 2, 4, 6, 9 versus CDK7. Flavopiridol is initially found to inhibit EGFR and PKA. Flavopiridol induces autophagy and ER stress. Flavopiridol blocks HIV-1 replication. Phase 1/2.

S2111

Lapatinib

Lapatinib, used in the form of Lapatinib Ditosylate, is a potent EGFR and ErbB2 inhibitor with IC50 of 10.8 and 9.2 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Lapatinib induces ferroptosis and autophagic cell death.

S1237

Temozolomide

Temozolomide is a monofunctional SN-1 alkylating agent that can modify nitrogen atoms in the DNA ring and the extracyclic oxygen group, chemically converted to MTIC and degrades to methyldiazonium cation, which transfers methyl groups to DNA at physiologic pH. A DNA damage inducer in L-1210 and L-1210/BCNU cells. Temozolomide induces apoptosis and exhibits antitumor activity.

S5003

Tacrolimus (FK506)

Tacrolimus (FK506) is a 23-membered macrolide lactone, it reduces peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity in T cells by binding to the immunophilin FKBP12 (FK506 binding protein) creating a new complex. Tacrolimus also inhibits the phosphatase activity of calcineurin. Tacrolimus induces vascular endothelial autophagy.

S1950

Metformin HCl

Metformin HCl decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis). Metformin promotes mitophagy in mononuclear cells. Metformin induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through activating JNK/p38 MAPK pathway and GADD153.

S1573

Fasudil (HA-1077) HCl

Fasudil(HA-1077), a potent and selective inhibitor of Rho kinase, displays less potent inhibiton over PKA, PKG, PKC and MLCK with Ki of 1.6, 1.6, 3.3, and 36 μM in cell-free assays, respectively. Fasudil is also a calcium channel blocker.

S1224

Oxaliplatin

Oxaliplatin is a DNA alkylating agent that activates autophagy. Oxaliplatin inhibits DNA synthesis by conforming DNA adducts in RT4, TCCSUP, A2780, HT-29, U-373MG, U-87MG, SK-MEL-2, and HT-144 cells. DMF is recommended for dissolution. Solutions are best fresh-prepared.

S7110

(+)-JQ1

(+)-JQ1 is a BET bromodomain inhibitor, with IC50 of 77 nM/33 nM for BRD4(1/2) in cell-free assays, binding to all bromodomains of the BET family, but not to bromodomains outside the BET family. (+)-JQ1 suppresses cell proliferation via inducing autophagy.

S1972

Tamoxifen Citrate

Tamoxifen Citrate is an antagonist of the estrogen receptor by competitive inhibition of estrogen binding.

S2827

Torin 1

Torin 1 is a potent inhibitor of mTORC1/2 with IC50 of 2 nM/10 nM in cell-free assays; exhibits 1000-fold selectivity for mTOR than PI3K.

S1782

Azacitidine (5-Azacytidine)

Azacitidine is a nucleoside analogue of cytidine that specifically inhibits DNA methylation by trapping DNA methyltransferases. Azacitidine induces mitochondrial apoptosis and autophagy.

S2180

Ixazomib (MLN2238)

Ixazomib (MLN2238) inhibits the chymotrypsin-like proteolytic (β5) site of the 20S proteasome with IC50 and Ki of 3.4 nM and 0.93 nM in cell-free assays, respectively, also inhibits the caspase-like (β1) and trypsin-like (β2) proteolytic sites, with IC50 of 31 and 3500 nM. Ixazomib (MLN2238) induces autophagy. Phase 3.

S1590

TWS119

TWS119 is a GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 30 nM in a cell-free assay; capable of inducing neuronal differentiation and may be useful to stem cell biology. GSK-3β inhibition triggers autophagy.

S1396

Resveratrol

Resveratrol has a wide spectrum of targets including cyclooxygenases(i.e. COX, IC50=1.1 μM), lipooxygenases(LOX, IC50=2.7 μM), kinases, sirtuins and other proteins. It has anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, blood-sugar-lowering and other beneficial cardiovascular effects.

S1322

Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid drugs, and an interleukin receptor modulator that has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects. Dexamethasone induces autophagy and mitophagy. Dexamethasone is tested in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and is found to have benefits for critically ill patients.

S1648

Cytarabine

Cytarabine is an antimetabolic agent and DNA synthesis inhibitor with IC50 of 16 nM in wild-type CCRF-CEM cells. Cytarabine induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1792

Simvastatin

Simvastatin is a competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase with Ki of 0.1-0.2 nM in cell-free assays. Simvastatin induces ferroptosis, mitophagy, autophagy and apoptosis.

S1714

Gemcitabine

Gemcitabine, a nucleic acid synthesis inhibitor, is a very potent and specific deoxycytidine analogue, used as chemotherapy. Gemcitabine induces a potent p53-dependent apoptosis.

S2163

PF-4708671

PF-4708671 is a cell-permeable inhibitor of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (S6K1 isoform) with Ki/IC50 of 20 nM/160 nM in cell-free assays, 400-fold greater selectivity for S6K1 than S6K2, and 4- and >20-fold selectivity for S6K1 than MSK1 and RSK1/2, respectively. PF-4708671 induces autophagy. First S6K1-specific inhibitor to be reported.

S2817

Torin 2

Torin 2 is a potent and selective mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 0.25 nM in p53−/− MEFs cell line; 800-fold greater selectivity for mTOR than PI3K and improved pharmacokinetic properties. Inhibition of ATM/ATR/DNA-PK with EC50 of 28 nM/35 nM/118 nM,in PC3 cell lines respectively. Torin 2 decreases cell viability and induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S1582

H 89 2HCl

H 89 2HCl is a potent PKA inhibitor with Ki of 48 nM in a cell-free assay, 10-fold selective for PKA than PKG,500-fold greater selectivity than PKC, MLCK, calmodulin kinase II and casein kinase I/II. H 89 2HCl induces autophagy.

S2713

Geldanamycin

Geldanamycin is a natural existing HSP90 inhibitor with Kd of 1.2 μM, specifically disrupts glucocorticoid receptor (GR)/HSP association.

S2449

Forskolin

Forskolin is a ubiquitous activator of eukaryotic adenylyl cyclase (AC) in a wide variety of cell types, commonly used to raise levels of cAMP in the study and research of cell physiology. Forskolin also activates PXR and FXR activity. Forskolin stimulates autophagy.

S7306

Dorsomorphin (Compound C) 2HCl

Dorsomorphin 2HCl is a potent, reversible, selective AMPK inhibitor with Ki of 109 nM in cell-free assays, exhibiting no significant inhibition of several structurally related kinases including ZAPK, SYK, PKCθ, PKA, and JAK3. Also inhibits type Ⅰ BMP receptor activity. Dorsomorphin induces autophagy in cancer cell line.

S2505

Rosiglitazone maleate

Rosiglitazone maleate, a member of the thiazolidinedione class of antihyperglycaemic agents, is a high-affinity selective agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) with IC50 of 42 nM. Rosiglitazone maleate also modulates TRP channels and induces autophagy. Rosiglitazone prevents ferroptosis.

S2799

Daporinad (FK866, APO866)

Daporinad (FK866, APO866) effectively inhibits nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NMPRTase; Nampt) with IC50 of 0.09 nM in a cell-free assay. Daporinad (FK866, APO866) triggers autophagy. Phase 1/2.

S2929

Pifithrin-α (PFTα) HBr

Pifithrin-α is an inhibitor of p53, inhibiting p53-dependent transactivation of p53-responsive genes. Pifithrin-α is also a potent agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR).

S7164

GSK343

GSK343 is a potent and selective EZH2 inhibitor with IC50 of 4 nM in a cell-free assay, showing 60 fold selectivity against EZH1, and >1000 fold selectivity against other histone methyltransferases. GSK343 induces autophagy.

S8059

Nutlin-3a

Nutlin-3a, the active enantiomer of Nutlin-3, inhibits the p53/MDM2 interaction with IC50 of 90 nM in a cell-free assay. Nutlin-3a induces autophagy and apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner.

S7007

Binimetinib (MEK162)

Binimetinib (MEK162, ARRY-162, ARRY-438162) is a potent inhibitor of MEK1/2 with IC50 of 12 nM in a cell-free assay. Binimetinib induces G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human NSCLC cell lines and induces autophagy. Phase 3.

S2751

Milciclib (PHA-848125)

Milciclib (PHA-848125) is a potent, ATP-competitive CDK inhibitor for CDK2 with IC50 of 45 nM. It is >3-fold more selective for CDK2 than CDK1, 2, 4, 5, and 7. Milciclib (PHA-848125) induces cell death through autophagy. Phase 2.

S7397

Sorafenib

Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor of Raf-1 and B-Raf with IC50 of 6 nM and 22 nM in cell-free assays, respectively. Sorafenib inhibits VEGFR-2, VEGFR-3, PDGFR-β, Flt-3 and c-KIT with IC50 of 90 nM, 20 nM, 57 nM, 59 nM and 68 nM, respectively. Sorafenib induces autophagy and apoptosis and activates ferroptosis with anti-tumor activity.

S2556

Rosiglitazone

Rosiglitazone is a potent antihyperglycemic agent and a potent thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizer with IC50 of 12, 4 and 9 nM for rat, 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes, respectively. Rosiglitazone is a pure ligand of PPAR-gamma, and has no PPAR-alpha-binding action. Rosiglitazone modulates TRP channels and induces autophagy. Rosiglitazone prevents ferroptosis.

S3030

Niclosamide

Niclosamide can inhibit DNA replication and inhibit STAT3 with IC50 of 0.7 μM in a cell-free assay. Niclosamide selectively inhibited the phosphorylation of STAT3 and had no obvious inhibition against the activation of other homologues (e.g., STAT1 and STAT5).

S8047

Dynasore

Dynasore is a cell-permeable, reversible non-competitive dynamin inhibitor of GTPase activity of dynamin 1/2, with IC50 of 15 μM in a cell-free assay, also inhibits the mitochondrial dynamin Drp1, with no effect against other small GTPase. Dynasore suppresses mTORC1 activity and induces autophagy. Dynasore inhibits the entry of several viruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV).

S1263

CHIR-99021 (CT99021)

CHIR-99021 (CT99021) is a GSK-3α and GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM and 6.7 nM, respectively. CHIR99201 does not exhibit cross-reactivity against cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and shows a 350-fold selectivity toward GSK-3β compared to CDKs. CHIR99021 functions as a Wnt/β-catenin activator and induces autophagy.

S8075

GANT61

GANT61 is an inhibitor for GLI1 as well as GLI2-induced transcription, inhibits hedgehog with IC50 of 5 μM in GLI1 expressing HEK293T cell, displays selectivity over other pathways, such as TNF and glucocorticoid receptor gene transactivation. GANT61 induces apoptosis and activates protective autophagy in LX-2 cells.

S1389

Omeprazole

Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor, used to treat dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, laryngopharyngeal reflux, and Zollinger–Ellison syndrome.

S1979

Amiodarone HCl

Amiodarone HCl is a sodium/potassium-ATPase inhibitor and an autophagy activator, used to treat various types of cardiac dysrhythmias.

S2480

Loperamide HCl

Loperamide HCl is a selective μ-opioid receptor agonist opioid with Ki of 3.3 nM, 15-fold and 350-fold selective over the δ subtype and the κ subtype of the opioid receptor, used against diarrhea resulting from gastroenteritis or inflammatory bowel disease.

S4028

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate

Dexamethasone is a potent synthetic member of the glucocorticoid class of steroid drugs, and an interleukin receptor modulator that has anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant effects.

S1693

Carbamazepine

Carbamazepine (Carbatrol) is a sodium channel blocker with IC50 of 131 μM in rat brain synaptosomes.

S2458

Clonidine HCl

Clonidine HCl is a direct-acting α2 adrenergic agonist with an ED50 of 0.02±0.01 mg/kg.

S1837

Flubendazole

Flubendazole is an autophagy inducer by targeting Atg4B, used to treat internal parasite and worm infection.

S1747

Nimodipine

Nimodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker and an autophagy inhibitor, used in the treatment of high blood pressure.

S7067

Tepotinib (EMD 1214063)

Tepotinib (EMD 1214063) is a potent and selective c-Met inhibitor with IC50 of 4 nM, >200-fold selective for c-Met than IRAK4, TrkA, Axl, IRAK1, and Mer. Tepotinib (EMD 1214063) induces autophagy. Phase 1.

S7177

PF-543

PF-543, a novel sphingosine-competitive inhibitor of SphK1, inhibits SphK1 with IC50 and Ki of 2.0 nM and 3.6 nM, exhibits >100-fold selectivity over the SphK2 isoform. PF-543 induces apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy.

S2491

Nitrendipine

Nitrendipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with an IC50 of 95 nM.

S5243

Ruxolitinib Phosphate

Ruxolitinib Phosphate is the phosphate salt form of Ruxolitinib. Ruxolitinib is the first potent, selective, JAK1/2 inhibitor to enter the clinic with IC50 of 3.3 nM/2.8 nM in cell-free assays, >130-fold selectivity for JAK1/2 versus JAK3. Ruxolitinib kills tumor cells through toxic mitophagy. Ruxolitinib induces autophagy and enhances apoptosis.

S7781

Sunitinib

Sunitinib is a multi-targeted RTK inhibitor targeting VEGFR2 (Flk-1) and PDGFRβ with IC50 of 80 nM and 2 nM, and also inhibits c-Kit. Sunitinib is also a dose-dependent inhibitor of the autophosphorylation activity of IRE1α. Sunitinib induces autophagy and apoptosis.

S7786

Erlotinib

Erlotinib is an EGFR inhibitor with IC50 of 2 nM, >1000-fold more sensitive for EGFR than human c-Src or v-Abl. Erlotinib induces autophagy.

S8595

Tat-beclin 1 (Tat-BECN1)

Tat-beclin 1 (Tat-BECN1), a peptide known to stimulate autophagy through mobilization of endogenous Beclin 1, induces autophagy in vitro and in vivo and improves clinical outcomes.

S5715

atorvastatin

Atorvastatin is a lipid lowering agent. It is a competitive inhibitor of hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the rate-determining enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis via the mevalonate pathway. Atorvastatin activates autophagy.

S7655

CB-839(Telaglenastat)

CB-839(Telaglenastat) is a potent, selective, and orally bioavailable glutaminase inhibitor with IC50 of 24 nM for recombinant human GAC. CB-839(Telaglenastat) inudces autophagy and has antitumor activity. Phase 1.

S3653

Spermidine trihydrochloride

Spermidine, a natural polyamine produced from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM) by spermidine synthase, is a novel autophagy inducer and negatively modulates N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA).

S9027

Corynoxine

Corynoxine, a natural oxindole alkaloid, is a new autophagy enhancer.

S4081

Sulfacetamide Sodium

Sulfacetamide Sodium is an anti-biotic.

S7483

DMOG

DMOG is an antagonist of α-ketoglutarate cofactor and inhibitor for HIF prolylhydroxylase, leading to stabilisation and accumulation of HIF-1α protein in the nucleus. DMOG enhances autophagy.

S8240

SMER28

SMER28 is a small-molecule enhancer (SMER) of autophagy, inducing autophagy independently of rapamycin in mammalian cells.

S4546

Xylitol

Xylitol is a sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.

S7840

Dorsomorphin (Compound C)

Dorsomorphin is a potent, reversible, selective AMPK inhibitor with Ki of 109 nM in cell-free assays, exhibiting no significant inhibition of several structurally related kinases including ZAPK, SYK, PKCθ, PKA, and JAK3. Dorsomorphin selectively inhibits the BMP type I receptors ALK2, ALK3 and ALK6. Dorsomorphin is used in promoting specific cell differentiation and inducing cancer cell line autophagy.

S9310

Isorhychophylline

Isorhynchophylline is a major tetracyclic oxindole alkaloid isolated from the Chinese herbal medicine Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.)Jacks (Gouteng in Chinese). It acts as a neuronal autophagy inducer with therapeutic potential for cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases.

S1238

Tamoxifen

Tamoxifen is an antagonist of the estrogen receptor in breast tissue. Tamoxifen enhances the Hsp90 molecular chaperone ATPase activity. Tamoxifen induces apoptosis.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S8597

LYN-1604

LYN-1604 is a potential ULK1 agonist with IC50 of 1.66 μM against MDA-MB-231 cells and it binds to wild-type ULK1 with a binding affinity in the nanomole range (Kd=291.4 nM). The ULK1 (Y89A) mutant protein caused a sharp decrease in binding affinity with lower response and Kd than wild-type ULK1, ULK1 (K50A) and ULK1 (L53A) mutants.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S2924

CHIR-99021 (CT99021) HCl

CHIR-99021 (CT99021) HCl is hydrochloride of CHIR-99021, which is a GSK-3α/β inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM/6.7 nM; CHIR-99021 shows greater than 500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 versus its closest homologs Cdc2 and ERK2. CHIR-99021 is a potent pharmacological activators of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. CHIR-99021 significantly rescues light-induced autophagy and augments GR, RORα and autophagy-related proteins.

S2215

DAPT (GSI-IX)

DAPT (GSI-IX) is a novel γ-secretase inhibitor, which inhibits Aβ production with IC50 of 20 nM in HEK 293 cells. DAPT enhances the apoptosis of human tongue carcinoma cells and regulates autophagy.

S1241

Vincristine sulfate

Vincristine sulfate is an inhibitor of polymerization of microtubules by binding to tubulin with IC50 of 32 μM in a cell-free assay. Vincristine sulfate induces apoptosis.

S1168

Valproic acid sodium salt (Sodium valproate)

Valproic acid sodium salt (Sodium valproate) is a HDAC inhibitor by selectively inducing proteasomal degradation of HDAC2, used in the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and prevention of migraine headaches.

S1041

STF-62247

STF-62247 is a molecule targeting VHL-deficient renal cell carcinoma that induces autophagy. STF-62247 shows selective toxicity and growth inhibition of renal cells lacking VHL; 25-fold greater sensitivity observed for cells with VHL deficiency compared to wild-type (VHL+).

S7980

VPS34-IN1

Vps34-IN1 is a potent and highly selective Vps34 inhibitor with IC50 of 25 nM invitro,which does not significantly inhibit the isoforms of class I as well as class II PI3Ks. Vps34-IN1 modulates autophagy.

Catalog No. Information Product Use Citations Product Validations
S4750

Sulfacetamide sodium salt hydrate

Sulfacetamide is a sulfonamide antibiotic that blocks the synthesis of dihydrofolic acid by inhibiting the enzyme dihydropteroate synthase(DHPS) with IC50 of 9.5 μM. Sulfacetamide is a competitive inhibitor of bacterial para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), which is required for bacterial synthesis of folic acid.