Brefeldin A

Catalog No.S7046 Synonyms: BFA, Cyanein, Decumbin

For research use only.

Brefeldin A is a lactone antibiotic and ATPase inhibitor for protein transport with IC50 of 0.2 μM in HCT 116 cells, induces cancer cell differentiation and apoptosis. It could also improve the HDR(homology-directed repair) efficiency and be an enhancer of CRISPR-mediated HDR. Brefeldin A is also an inhibitor of autophagy and mitophagy.

Brefeldin A  Chemical Structure

CAS No. 20350-15-6

Selleck's Brefeldin A has been cited by 52 publications

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Biological Activity

Description Brefeldin A is a lactone antibiotic and ATPase inhibitor for protein transport with IC50 of 0.2 μM in HCT 116 cells, induces cancer cell differentiation and apoptosis. It could also improve the HDR(homology-directed repair) efficiency and be an enhancer of CRISPR-mediated HDR. Brefeldin A is also an inhibitor of autophagy and mitophagy.
Targets
ATPase (HCT 116) [1]
0.2 μM
In vitro

Brefeldin A is a fungal metabolite and blocks the forward transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, Brefeldin A causes an impaired distribution of the membrane proteins. When HCT 116 human colon cancer cell is treated with Brefeldin A, morphological changes indicating cell differentiation are observed. Brefeldin A exerts its cytotoxic effects mainly by inducing differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells. [1] The treatment of the strips with 20 μg/mL Brefeldin A for 6 hours completely abolishes the relaxation induced by bradykinin in the presence of 10mM indomethacin and 30 μM L-NOARG. The treatment with 20 μg/mL Brefeldin A substantially abolishes the bradykinin-induced decreases in [Ca2+]i and tension in the range of concentrations between 1 nM and 1 mM. Brefeldin A has no effect on the [Ca2+]i elevation in endothelial cells induced by bradykinin or substance P. [2] Addition of the fungal metabolite Brefeldin A does not affect the spontaneous phospholipid-dependent GTPS binding to myr-rARF1 but totally abolishs the retinal isotonic extract (RIE)-catalyzed exchange, with half-maximal inhibition at 2 μM Brefeldin A. Brefeldin A prevents a wide variety of membrane traffic pathways. Brefeldin A inhibits an ADP-ribosylation factor-specific guanine nucleotide exchange activity present in Golgi membranes or in brain cytosol. The complete prevention by Brefeldin A strongly suggests that the retinal extract contains an ARF-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Retinal isotonic extract (RIE)-catalyzed GTPS release from both ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) is only partly inhibited by Brefeldin A, even at 300 μM. [3] Brefeldin A induces fusion of the Golgi apparatus with the ER. Brefeldin A abolishes the inhibitory effect of the CERT inhibitor HPA-12. Brefeldin A treatment, which induces fusion of the Golgi apparatus and the ER, rescues the limonoid-induced prevention of sphingomyelin biosynthesis. BFA treatment of CHO cells causes a 2 to 3 fold increase in sphingomyelin synthesis. [4] Apart from B-CLL cells, Brefeldin A reportedly causes apoptosis in multiple myeloma (U266, NCI-H929), Jurkat, HeLa, leukaemia (HL60, K562, BJAB), colon (HT-29) and prostate, as well as adenoid cystic sarcoma cells. The administration of 25 ng/mL of Brefeldin A completely blocks growth of HF4.9 and HF28RA cells, whereas higher Brefeldin A doses (75 ng/mL) are required to achieve the same effect in HF1A3 cells. Cell proliferation is inhibited within 24 hours in a dose-dependent manner and, depending on the cell line, almost complete cessation of 3H-thymdine incorporation is observed at 50-75 ng/mL of Brefeldin A (26%, 76%, 87% inhibition at 50 ng/ml and 75%, 87%, 92% inhibition at 75 ng/mL for HF1A3, HF4.9 and HF28RA cells respectively. Brefeldin A-induced cell killing is in a dose-dependent manner using YO-PRO 1/PI assay. [5] Brefeldin A could improve the HDR(homology-directed repair) efficiency. It is an enhancer of CRISPR-mediated HDR[6].

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
PC12 MUPGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MXeyJO69VQ>? M3nRTlEhcA>? MYnpcohq[mm2czD0bIUhVC2GT2DBJEgzOMLizszNLU1qdmS3Y3XkJJRz[W6|aXXueEBGWktzL{KgdIhwe3Cqb4L5cIF1cW:wwrC= M4j3[|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4M{[zNVkyLz5{NkO2N|E6OTxxYU6=
C2C12 MkCxSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MnvGNeKh|rypL33s NFPGblAyyqCq MlLLZYJwdGm|aHXzJIN6fG:taX7lJJJmdGWjc3Wg[pJwdSCFMlOxNkBugW:2dXLldy=> NVjUNJBYRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[yPVEzPzlpPkK2NlkyOjd7PD;hQi=>
MEFs WT NEXnN3dHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MkfFOeKh|ryP NICzOYgzOCCvaX6= M3;CbYNifXOnczDy[ZNq\GWwdDDlcpp6dWW|IIP1Z4gh[XNiTlHHWE1ITlBuIITvJIRq\m[3c3WgZoFkcyC2bzD0bIUhTVJ? NIr1fJM9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkG5OlAzOyd-Mk[xPVYxOjN:L3G+
MEFs VAMP7 KO NXuxWVZiTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MW[1xsDPxE1? M1jnXFIxKG2rbh?= MnG3Z4F2e2W|IILld4ll\W62IHXufplu\XNic4XjbEBieyCQQVfUMWdHWCxidH:g[Iln\nW|ZTDiZYNsKHSxIITo[UBGWg>? MUO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPjF7NkCyN{c,OjZzOU[wNlM9N2F-
SMCs MVXGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MkHYNVDDqML3Zz;tcC=> M{DZelAuOTJiaB?= M4\TZ2ROW09? NGnZdVV{cG:5czDhJJRz\W6mIITve4Fz\HNiYTDobYdp\XJiY3;uZ4VvfHKjdHnvckBw\iC2aHWgSXIwW1JibnX0e49zcyCrbjD0bIUheGW{aX71Z4xm[XJiYYLlZeKh M{PmSVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4MUeyNFgxLz5{NkG3NlA5ODxxYU6=
SMCs Mn73SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MlS4NVDDqML3Zz;tcC=> M1T6dFAuOTJiaB?= NVXHNWlRTE2VTx?= NELxVJhk[XW|ZYOgZUB1emGwc3nlcpQhS2F{K9MgdoVt\WG|ZTDmdo9uKHSqZTDFVk9UWsLi NIju[3U9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkG3NlA5OCd-Mk[xO|IxQDB:L3G+
HEMC-1 NGDw[mVHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MWewMlHDqML3Zz;tcC=> NXjERY85OjUEoHi= Mmf4Z4F2e2W|IHGgbIlocGW{IHnubIljcXSxcomg[YZn\WO2IH;uJIV5d2O7dH;zbZMhfGijbjDuc4Nw\GG8b3zl NHHEe5Q9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUm3Nlc2QSd-MkW5O|I4PTl:L3G+
HUVEC M3frc2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 Mkf6NVDDqM7:TR?= NX\WV5dPOcLiaB?= M{[yV2ROW09? NXXMOHpG[WKxbHnzbIV{KGi7cH;4bYEucW6mdXPl[EBz\WynYYPlJI9nKEGWUDDmdo9uKGGyaXPhcEBidmRiYnHzc4xifGW{YXygd5Vz\mGlZYO= MXe8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTl3Nkm4PEc,OjV7NU[5PFg9N2F-
HUVEC M3LPdWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MmXsNVDDqM7:TR?= MYKxxsBp MUHEUXNQ NVqyU3R6cW6lcnXhd4V{yqC2aHWgcpVu[mW{IHHu[EBqdnSnboPpeJkhd2ZiZnz1c5Jme2OnboSgZZJm[XNiZYPw[YNq[WyueTDpckBx\XKrboXjcIVieiC|cHHj[S=> Mn3jQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV7NU[5PFgoRjJ3OUW2PVg5RC:jPh?=
Caco-2 NEXw[GhHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M2TuSVIvPSEQvF2= Mke5N|AhdWmw M37rboF1fGWwdXH0[ZMhfGinIGTHSk3PujFvbXXkbYF1\WRiaX7jdoVie2ViaX6gV2VTXCCodX7jeIlwdg>? M3XYdFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3OUW0PVMyLz5{NUm1OFk{OTxxYU6=
NRK MULGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NHrBPGYzODEkgJXu[{9udA>? MX605qCGcA>? NWWxWnJbTE2VTx?= NXXIdXl1emW|Y4Xld{BucXSxdHnjJJBzd2e{ZYPzbY9v NHXVO|Y9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUm0PFU5Pid-MkW5OFg2QDZ:L3G+
HeLa MY\GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NGPJeHkzODEkgJXu[{9udA>? NH65UFA{KGh? M{jtR2ROW09? M2P0R4lv\HWlZYOgeIhmKGG{dHnmbYNq[WxiYoLlZYsufXBib3[geIhmKEexbHfpJINwdXCuZYi= MoPCQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV7NEi1PFYoRjJ3OUS4OVg3RC:jPh?=
COS NUnlN|RSTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NYrCWIZPOSEQvHevcYw> M{LLNlMhcA>? MkPuZ49ueGyndHXsfUBlcXOyZYLz[ZMhfGinIFHQMVEhe2mpbnHsxsA> MX28ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTlzNUmwNEc,OjV7MUW5NFA9N2F-
DF1  NHP1VJRHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NITjdY4yyqEQvF5CpC=> M3uzeFQ5KGh? MXPEUXNQ NIW4bYxlcXOyZYLz[ZPDqHSqZTDlfI9o\W6xdYOgR3NI[WyQQXPUNkBxem:2ZXnu MWK8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPThyN{C1OEc,OjV6MEewOVQ9N2F-
nHDFs  MWjGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NWjLOVA5OcLizszNxsA> NULZcoRZOsLiaB?= MXrwdoV3\W62czD0bIUh[XO|ZX3icJkhd2ZiY4n0c5NwdGmlIHPvZZQheHKxdHXpcpMhd262bzDHc4xocSCvZX3idoFv\XN? NXP4Z|NKRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW3O|I3OTZpPkK1O|czPjF4PD;hQi=>
FRT  NYDyeJFtTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M2jzTVUh|rypL33s MkjMNuKhcA>? MnLPZoxw[2u|IITyZYZncWOtaX7nJJRpem:3Z3igeIhmKEexbHfpJINwdXCuZYigZpkhcW6qaXLpeIlv\yCHUj30c{1Id2ypaTD0doFve3CxcoS= MYK8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTd4N{GxOUc,OjV5NkexNVU9N2F-
FRT  MXzGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NGfSOHo2KM7:Zz;tcC=> MVOyxsBp MlPmdJJmfmWwdIOgeIhmKGmwY4LlZZNmKGmwIHPs[YF3\WRizsGgd5VjfW6rdIOge4hmdiCdTnGrYYnDqHejczDy[YR2[2Wm NIKxfXI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUe2O|EyPSd-MkW3OlcyOTV:L3G+
HepG2  Mm\4SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MUSx5qCKyrWPwrC= Mm\sNlQhcA>? M13CRmROW09? MVnk[YNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKGyndnXsJI9nKFC[UjDtVm5C NVvYd3RwRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW2NVY2QTdpPkK1OlE3PTl5PD;hQi=>
SMCs MWTGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NUT1SGVpOc7:Zz;tUC=> NW\SfXQ{OyCq NUPoXo9D[WOldX31cIF1\XNiQ17QXVIheHKxdHXpckBqdiC2aHWgSXIh[2:vcHHyeI1mdnRiYX7kJI5wKGyxbnfldkBkdy2ub3PhcIl7\WRid3n0bEB1cGViR3;s[4khdWG{a3XyxsA> MWK8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTV6OUSyOUc,OjV3OEm0NlU9N2F-
OB-6 M3nXOGFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= MnLaNk44yqEQvF2= NX\JO2ZJPDhiaB?= MXvpcoR2[2W|IHHwc5B1d3Orcx?= MYe8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTV|MkS4NEc,OjV3M{K0PFA9N2F-
iPSC-CMs  MYfGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MojDOVAxKG6pL33s NFf0ZWI1QCCq NUTa[ldZcW6lcnXhd4V{KHSqZTDpcpRmdnOrdImgc4YhfGinIHjp[4hmeiCvb3LpcIl1gSCOQV3Qd{BifCC2aHWgZ49{fCCxZjD0bIUhdG:5ZYKgcY9jcWyrdImgd5Bm[2mncx?= MYe8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTR6OE[2Okc,OjV2OEi2OlY9N2F-
SP-Nluc NV\jeIF2TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MYC1JI1oN22O NYfBVXNvPiCq NIDZVGlFVVORwrC= MXvjZZV{\XNiYX6gbY5kemWjc3WgbY4hemWyb4L0[ZIh[WO2aY\peJkhcW5idHjlJJBiemG|aYTl NG\mN209[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUO5Nlk6QCd-MkWzPVI6QTh:L3G+
PEXEL-Nluc MorSSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NX7Wc484PSCvZz;tUC=> NX7PNodoPiCq NWHFeIhnTE2VT9Mg MlLGZ4F2e2W|IHHuJIlv[3KnYYPlJIlvKHKncH;yeIVzKGGldHn2bZR6KGmwIITo[UBx[XKjc3n0[S=> M4naXlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3M{myPVk5Lz5{NUO5Nlk6QDxxYU6=
H1299 MoDHSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MXixNEDPxGdxbXy= MXmyOEBp NYDWOWRucW6mdXPld{BifXSxcHjh[5nDqA>? MWq8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTN6OEm3NEc,OjV|OEi5O|A9N2F-
MDA-MB-231 M2fDPGNmdGxiVnnhZoltcXS7IFHzd4F6 MUSw5qCUPTBizsznM41N NHnET5k1QCCq M2POW2VEPTEEoE2gNE4xOTZiwsXnM41N NXe4cJc5RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWzOVY2PjdpPkK1N|U3PTZ5PD;hQi=>
MDA-MB-231 NFf6emVCeG:ydH;zbZMhSXO|YYm= M2DFZVAvOSEQvHevcWw> M{H6ZlQhcA>? MlP6bY5lfWOnczDhdI9xfG:|aYO= Mlr6QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV|NU[1OlcoRjJ3M{W2OVY4RC:jPh?=
MDA-MB-231 MlvyS5Jwf3SqIFnubIljcXSrb36gRZN{[Xl? NFn2fIcxNjBzL{CuNFUh|rypL33M MXSyOEBp Mkn0bY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SCocnHjeIlwdiCxZjDzeYIuTzFiY3XscEBl\WK{aYO= M4XwbFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3M{W2OVY4Lz5{NUO1OlU3PzxxYU6=
MDA-MB-231 NHXmSHBCeG:ydH;zbZMhSXO|YYm= NHHVW4sxNjB34pETNUDPxGdxbVy= Ml\lNlQhcA>? M1voW4lv\HWlZYOgVGFTWCBqcH;sfUBCTFBvcnnic5NmKHCxbInt[ZJie2VvMTmgZ4xm[X[jZ3W= NWP5Rpp[RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWzOVY2PjdpPkK1N|U3PTZ5PD;hQi=>
MDA-MB-231 MkPSSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? Mk\pNQKBmzVyIN88[{9uVA>? NI\nO|gzPCCq MYjpcohq[mm2czD0bIUh\m:{bXH0bY9vKG:oIEPEJIFv\CB{RDDjc4xwdmmncx?= NWDTZ|RiRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWzOVY2PjdpPkK1N|U3PTZ5PD;hQi=>
A172 MlTtSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NFG2fWYyOMLizsznM41t NWHIdFhHPMLiaB?= NWPxOYVCTE2VT9Mg M4q1epJme3WudIOgbY4hfGinIILleJJw\3KjZHWgeJJidnOyb4L0JI9nKG[udX;y[ZNk\W62IHfyZY52dGW| NXS3ZYh4RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWyN|k2ODdpPkK1NlM6PTB5PD;hQi=>
KMS-6 NGHx[|RHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= Ml\ZNeKh|ryPwrC= NUPiRZZkOjRiaB?= NFX2eHdmgGirYnn0d{Bp[WyoIITo[UB{\WO{ZYTpc44hd2ZiZ3HsZY5qdi2OSTDhd{BlcWRidHjlJINwdnS{b3y= MUi8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTJ{OUGyOkc,OjV{MkmxNlY9N2F-
MEC NUfzR2V1TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M4HPdFEh|ryP MmGyNU42KGh? MYPjZZV{\XNiYTDkdoFu[XSrYzDk[YNz\WG|ZTDpckB1cGVic4Xy[oFk\SCYRVfGVlI> M4PIblxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3MkK4PFE2Lz5{NUKyPFgyPTxxYU6=
HEK293/hERG M3XMSGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M2jjR|ExyqEQvF2= NGT2OmsyyqCq NUjLVmlIemW|dXz0d{BqdiCjIITpcYUu\GWyZX7k[Y51KHKnZIXjeIlwdiCvYYT1doUhcEWURzDwdo91\WmwwrC= NHjCV2o9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUKxPFQ3QSd-MkWyNVg1Pjl:L3G+
RBE4 MUDBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? NWnwdmRVOsLizszN NIKyVXU{6oDVMkVCpIg> NH[xOHFqdmS3Y3XzJIFxd3C2b4Ppd{B1cW2nIHTldIVv\GWwdHz5 NFP3[Yk9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUGyPFAzPSd-MkWxNlgxOjV:L3G+
RBE4 NFToVm1HfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M3f2blLDqM7:TR?= M2PFc|PjiJN{NNMgbC=> NV7LSIE2cW6lcnXhd4V{KHSqZTDYRnAyKHC{b4TlbY4hdGW4ZXzzJIFnfGW{IEOgZY5lKDcEoHigc4YhfHKnYYTt[Y51 MmX2QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjVzMkiwNlUoRjJ3MUK4NFI2RC:jPh?=
RBE4 MUTGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MkflNuKh|ryP M2DZS|PjiJN{NNMgbC=> NVr0[ItUcW6lcnXhd4V{KGGldHn2[UBk[XOyYYPlMVEzKGmwIHGgeIlu\S2mZYDlcoRmdnRibXHucoVzyqB? M33PTFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3MUK4NFI2Lz5{NUGyPFAzPTxxYU6=
RBE4 NYO4UYR[TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M{\sVVLDqM7:TR?= MWSz5qCUOjUEoHi= MUDpcoNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKGyndnXsd{Bw\iCUT2OgeIlu\S2mZYDlcoRmdnSueR?= Mn;6QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjVzMkiwNlUoRjJ3MUK4NFI2RC:jPh?=
RBE4 NV36UZJoTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NYLuXpFzOsLizszN MmLZN-KBmzJ2wrDo M{TKWolv\HWlZYOgZUBl\WyjeXXkJIRmeGyndHnvckBw\iC2aHWgSXIhS2F{K9MgZ49vfGWwdDDheEA3yqCqIH;mJIlv[3WkYYTpc44he2mpbnnmbYNidnSueR?= MkGyQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjVzMkiwNlUoRjJ3MUK4NFI2RC:jPh?=
RBE4 NF:xTJhHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MmHuNuKh|ryP MVqz5qCUOjUEoHi= NWrtd4RpcW6mdXPld{BidiCxdnXycI9i\CCxZjDDZVIsyqCrbjD0bIUhdWm2b3Poc45lemmjIHnuJJRp\SCoaYLzeEA3yqCqIH;mJIlv[3WkYYTpc44hMHEkgJm85qCKOC5yMEGpJIJ2fCCFYUKrxsBt\X[nbIOgbY4hfGirczDvdodidmWubHWg[IVkemWjc3XkJIFnfGW{IEGyxsBpKG:oIHnuZ5Vj[XSrb36= NV[0TFAyRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWxNlgxOjVpPkK1NVI5ODJ3PD;hQi=>
Huh-7  M12wc2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 Mn7lNe69\y:vTB?= NF7zU5c{6oDVMkVCpIg> NI[yNFBqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhfGinIHzleoVtKG:oIFHQSVEhcW5iYTD0bY1mNWSncHXu[IVvfCCvYX7u[ZI> NIDZWnE9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUCyOlE4PCd-MkWwNlYyPzR:L3G+
HepG2  MlfJSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M{n6dFHPxGdxbVy= MmXON-KBmzJ2wrDo Mn76bY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SCuZY\lcEBw\iCDUFWxJIlvKGFidHnt[U1l\XCnbnTlcpQhdWGwbnXy MYG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTB{NkG3OEc,OjVyMk[xO|Q9N2F-
H838-LKB1 MkLRSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MmnNN|DDqG6pL33s NHPJbWQyOi9zODDo MkLubY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SCycn;0[YlvKGyndnXsd{Bw\iCEaWFCpC=> NYe1TYpqRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWwNVExQDJpPkK1NFEyODh{PD;hQi=>
H838-KDLKB1  M2\mb2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NUX3UYVnOzEEoH7nM41t MoX5NVIwOThiaB?= MXfpcoNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKHC{b4TlbY4hdGW4ZXzzJI9nKEKrUNMg MVu8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTBzMUC4Nkc,OjVyMUGwPFI9N2F-
H838-KDLKB1  NYLLUZlxTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MYizNOKhdmdxbXy= MXixNk8yQCCq NHq4eVFqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhfGinIHzleoVteyCxZjDwbI9{eGixconsZZRm\CCnSV[y{tEhMHCqb4PwbI8u\UmIMt8xLS=> M1i3eFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3MEGxNFgzLz5{NUCxNVA5OjxxYU6=
3T3-L1 M3LncWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NFPxNHg2KM7:Zz;tcC=> NFWxdm4{OCCvaX6= NFnLWoJucW2rY4OgeIhmKGWoZnXjeJMhd2ZiaX7zeYxqdiCjbnSgZ4F2e2W|IILvZpV{fCCyaH;zdIhwenmuYYTpc44hd2ZiQXv0JEhU\XJiNEezLUBidmRicHjvd5Bpd3K7bHH0bY9vKG:oIFHTNVYxKCiWaIKgOlQzKGGwZDDT[ZIhPTh6KR?= MUG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDh2M{iyO{c,OjR6NEO4Nlc9N2F-
3T3-L1 NFP0eZVHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MnLYOUDPxGdxbXy= M1TWS|MxKG2rbh?= Mne0doVk[XCrdIXsZZRmeyCrboP1cIlvKGGldHnvckB4cXSqIILld5Bm[3RidH:gdoVofWyjdHnu[{BCc3RiYXP0bZZqfHliYX7kJGFUOTZyIIDoc5NxcG:{eXzheIlwdg>? M4[4d|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2OESzPFI4Lz5{NEi0N|gzPzxxYU6=
3T3-L1 MmfjSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? Mm\yOUDPxGdxbXy= MU[zNEBucW5? MmfoZ4F2e2W|IILleoVze2mkbHWgdoVlcXO2cnnieZRqd25ib3[gS2xWXDR? MlHZQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR6NEO4NlcoRjJ2OESzPFI4RC:jPh?=
3T3-L1 M4TybmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NVnCenZVPSEQvHevcYw> NX3UUGU5OcLiaB?= NHP3N25k[XW|ZYOgdoVlcXO2cnnieZRqd25ib3[gS2xWXDRiYoX0JI5wfCCrbnPy[YF{\SCrbjDncJVkd3OnIIXweIFs\Q>? MYm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDh2M{iyO{c,OjR6NEO4Nlc9N2F-
3T3-L1 NW\BNmpCTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MYC1JO69\y:vbB?= MYexxsBp MnTqZ4F2e2W|IIDoc5NxcG:{eXzheIlwdiCxZjD0bIUhTm:6T{GgeJJidnOlcnnweIlwdiCoYXP0c5I> M3HjV|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2OESzPFI4Lz5{NEi0N|gzPzxxYU6=
HeLa  MkPpSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MVu1JO69\y:vbB?= NGTm[5c{KGh? M3XzbINifXOnczDueYNt\WG{IHX4Z4x2e2mxbjDv[kB1cGViRn;4U|EhfHKjboPjdolxfGmxbjDmZYN1d3JiYX7kJIRm[3KnYYPld{B1emGwc3PybZB1cW:wIH;mJGZwgE9zLYLl[5Vt[XSnZDDn[Y5mew>? MorsQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR6NEO4NlcoRjJ2OESzPFI4RC:jPh?=
HEK293 MkTzSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NXHyXXVxPcLizsznM41t NHfU[XkyOsLiaB?= NIjIdlhi[m:uaYPo[ZMhS02DLXnu[JVk\WRiQ2LFUGQzKHOnY4LleIlwdg>? MlW3QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR4OEe0N|EoRjJ2Nki3OFMyRC:jPh?=
COS-1 NVG5NFdNTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M3\IVFUhyrWpL33s NH;1XGkzPCCqwrC= MkjWdoV{fHKrY4TzJIxw[2GuaYrheIlwdiCxZjDORkBqdiC2aHWgdIVzcW63Y3zlZZIhemWpaX;uxsA> NX6yOo5FRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS2O|E4PTFpPkK0OlcyPzVzPD;hQi=>
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RAW264.7 MnnzRZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 MVW0JO69VQ>? Mlq3OFghcA>? M1TxOIF1fGWwdXH0[ZMhfGinIHnubIljcXSrb36gc4Yhd3hvTFTMMYlv\HWlZXSgZZBweHSxc3nzJIFv\CC2aHWg[oFkcWyrdHH0bY9vKG:oIHPoc4xme3Sncn;sJIVn\my3eDDifUBC[y2qRT2xPGEuVkh{ NGXrb449[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NE[zPVA{Oid-MkS2N|kxOzJ:L3G+
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PMHs  MofzSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M3nWN|Ex6oDVMkFihKnPxGdxbXy= Mm[xNlTjiImq NV7WenZqTE2VTx?= MnLGbY5lfWOnZDDFVkB{fHKnc4O= NXXKVIpRRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS0NFczPDJpPkK0OFA4OjR{PD;hQi=>
PMHs  M4Sy[2Fxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= NInDbGUyOOLCk{Kw5qCK|rypL33s MkLRNlTjiImq NHTnN3VFVVOR MUXpcoNz\WG|ZYOgZ4VtdCCmZXH0bC=> M2XaTlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2NEC3NlQzLz5{NESwO|I1OjxxYU6=
HEK293/tau MV;GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MWe1JO69VQ>? Mn3FNU8zNzRiaB?= M4PFWYlv\HWlZYOgS49t\2liZoLh[41mdnSjdHnvcuKh NH;Sc4k9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEO2PFA5QSd-MkSzOlgxQDl:L3G+
HEK293/tau NHm1R5lHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MnSwOUDPxE1? MXyzJIg> NF7KO21qdmS3Y3XzJJRifSCqeYDldpBpd3OyaH;yfYxifGmxbh?= M1joTFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2M{[4NFg6Lz5{NEO2PFA5QTxxYU6=
ADF MV7GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NEPXVFUyOCEQvF2= NXL2[mZOOTZiaB?= MX\pcohq[mm2czD0bIUhYm6FbEKtbY5lfWOnZDD0doFve2yxY3H0bY9vKG:oIFPSWC=> NEHxWYM9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEKyPFI{Oid-MkSyNlgzOzJ:L3G+
U373  MlPTSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NEf2VIoyOCEQvF2= NXrsOo1LOTZiaB?= NInT[VNqdmirYnn0d{B1cGViWn7DcFIucW6mdXPl[EB1emGwc3zvZ4F1cW:wIH;mJGNTXA>? M3\WcFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2MkK4NlMzLz5{NEKyPFI{OjxxYU6=
RKO-HIPK2i M37rRmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MlyyNVAh|ryP NGjXW2QyPiCq MUnpcohq[mm2czD0bIUhYm6FbEKtbY5lfWOnZDD0doFve2yxY3H0bY9vKG:oIFPSWC=> NWjIS|NtRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkSyNlgzOzJpPkK0NlI5OjN{PD;hQi=>
ADF  MYPGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NFPD[|YyOCEQvF5CpC=> MYS2JIg> MkHxbY1x[Wm{czD0bIUhTENiYXP0bZZifGmxbh?= NFfXdmI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEKyPFI{Oid-MkSyNlgzOzJ:L3G+
Huh7 M1[5NGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NWXnXnFGPSEQvHevcYw> MV60JIg> NV3SR5pK[WKxbHnzbIV{KHSqZTDz[YNz\XSrb36gc4YhKGmwdILhZ4VtdHWuYYKgRZBwSg>? M164T|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2MUCwNVQxLz5{NEGwNFE1ODxxYU6=
Huh7 MlzzSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? Mon1OUDPxGdxbXy= M1PqclEhcA>? M{H6ZYNifXOnczDhJJNq\26rZnnjZY51KGmwY4LlZZNmKGmwIFHwc2Iu[3Knc3PlcpR{ MUK8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDFyMEG0NEc,OjRzMECxOFA9N2F-
Huh7 NXy1RlV4TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= Mnq0OgKBmzFywrDu[{9udA>? MYGxNkBp NF72bGFqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhSXCxQj3jdoV{[2WwdIOge4l1cG:3dDDpcohq[mm2aX7nJJNm[3KndHnvci=> MVm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDFyMEG0NEc,OjRzMECxOFA9N2F-
BAECs NH\R[ZNHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NH7lWFc2KM7:Zz;tcC=> NFz3UZkxNTRiaB?= Mkm4bY5lfWOnczD0bIUhemGyaXSg[IVxcG:|cHjvdplt[XSrb36gc4Yh\U6RUzDheEBU\XJzMUe5 NEHXTZQ9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEC4OVIzPSd-MkSwPFUzOjV:L3G+
Macrophages M1fGc2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NWD3TGZXPzFiwsXN NXzUSnZOPiCq MXjpcohq[mm2czDseY5ie2mwIHnueIVzdmGuaYrheIlwdsLi M{TLRVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2MEO5O|QxLz5{NECzPVc1ODxxYU6=
Colo 205 NYHKclZxT3Kxd4ToJGlvcGmkaYTpc44hSXO|YYm= MnPVNE02KM7:Zz;tUC=> M3vGcVQ5KGh? MWLpcohq[mm2czDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEBqdiC|dYPw[Y5{cW:wIHP1cJR2emW|IIfpeIgh[W5iZYP0bY1ifGWmIFnDOVAhd2ZifkG1JI5oN22O M2nKPVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ|OUezPVk3Lz5{M{m3N|k6PjxxYU6=
Colo 205 MoCxSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MYWwMlAyOi1yLkCyOUDPxGdxbVy= MmXQNVQh\A>? NXfBbGt4emWmdXPld{B1cGViY3zvco9o\W6rY3n0fUBw\iCFb3zvJFIxPSCFU1Pz Mkm4QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjN7N{O5PVYoRjJ|OUezPVk3RC:jPh?=
Colo 205 MV;BdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? NEPvTYoxNjFizsznM41N NU[xN2J{OC1{NDDo MWLpcoR2[2W|IHHwc5B1d3OrczDv[kBEd2yxIEKwOUBk\WyuczDpckB{fXOyZX7zbY9vKGO3bIT1doV{ MkfpQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjN7N{O5PVYoRjJ|OUezPVk3RC:jPh?=
Colo 205 MoPmSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NWX1fGxtOC5yMUWg{txoN22O MWGyOEBp NXTGN457cW6mdXPld{B1cGViZYjwdoV{e2mxbjDv[kBGWiC|dILld5MuemWuYYTl[EBo\W6ncx?= NVnlSIl4RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkO5O|M6QTZpPkKzPVc{QTl4PD;hQi=>
Colo 205 NFjSPHVHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MWqwMlAyPSEQvHevcWw> M3vMblI1KGh? NXrZeJI{cW6qaXLpeJMhfGinIHHjeIl3cXS7IH;mJG1OWHN? NHTSWoI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{M{m3N|k6Pid-MkO5O|M6QTZ:L3G+
IBRS2 M3HM[mZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NYTtRXV[PSEQvHevcYw> MkLSNE42KGh? NHe2TWlFVVOR NYTXSmhV\Gm|coXweJMhfGinIFXSS2lEKGGwZDDHc4xoccLi NVTqZpBiRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkO5OlM2OzRpPkKzPVY{PTN2PD;hQi=>
IBRS2 NVm3OnpZTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NFj0Ulk2KM7:Zz;tcC=> NYHCUZc3OC53IHi= NF3IdHZFVVOR MX\lcohidmOnczDGUWRXKGmwZnXjeIlwdg>? MWG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOzl4M{WzOEc,OjN7NkO1N|Q9N2F-
HeLa MVzGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MmLkNkDPxE1? MYqyJIjDqA>? MW\heJRmdnWjdHXzJJRp\SCWTl[tbY5lfWOnZDDz[YNz\XSrb36gc4YhUUxvMUW= MVK8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOzl3MEi5Nkc,OjN7NUC4PVI9N2F-
HFS  M1vZV2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NV:zRmMxOC1zIN88[{9udA>? NGXDT4gzPCCq MVvHUHRRKGW6cILld5Nqd25icnXhZ4hmeyCjIIDsZZRm[XViYYSgZ49v[2WwdILheIlwdnNiYYOgcI94KGG|IECuNFEhyrWpL33s MXy8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOzh7NE[zN{c,OjN6OUS2N|M9N2F-
HFS  NV7IR4RzTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NVj4Rnl6OC5yMTFCuYcwdWx? M1uxR|I1KGh? NXPLcWh[cW6lcnXhd4V{KHSqZTDlfJBz\XO|aX;uJI9nKGeueXPvd5BpcW6pb3zpdIllKHO7boToZZNmKGenbnXzJIF1KDZiaB?= M1nvNlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ|OEm0OlM{Lz5{M{i5OFY{OzxxYU6=
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OVCAR-3 MX3GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NHG0bpQy6oDVMUZCpO69VcLi M4PSXlI1yqCq MlG0bY5lfWOnczDueYNt\WG{IHThcYFo\Q>? MWm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOzh{Nkm2OEc,OjN6Mk[5OlQ9N2F-
OVCAR-3 M3HzcmFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= M{[3cFEuOTEEoN88US=> M3XORlQhcA>? MlHUbY5lfWOnczD0bIUh[WO2aY\heIlwdiCxZjDhdI9xfG:|aYOtdoVt[XSnZDDwdo91\Wmwcx?= NYfKVpBURGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkO4NlY6PjRpPkKzPFI3QTZ2PD;hQi=>
OVCAR-3 M1KxbGFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= M133SVExyqEQvF2= MmjrNlTDqGh? Mny2bY5lfWOnczDhZ5RqfmG2aX;uJI9nKGOjc4Dhd4V{ NFfRRlk9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{M{iyOlk3PCd-MkO4NlY6PjR:L3G+
OVCAR-3 NFL6VmdHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MmLvNgKBmzFywrFOwG0> NHzxXG4zPMLiaB?= Mk\hbY5lfWOnczDkbZNzfXC2aX;uJI9nKHSqZTDtbZRw[2ixbnTybYFtKHS{YX7zcYVu[nKjbnWgdI91\W62aXHs MWm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOzh{Nkm2OEc,OjN6Mk[5OlQ9N2F-
OVCAR-3 M37yemZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M2f1RlHjiJNzMNMg{txO NGDQ[4IzPMLiaB?= MY\pcoR2[2W|IH\vdo1ifGmxbjDv[kBz\WGldHn2[UBwgHmpZX6gd5Bm[2mncx?= NWfEbXJoRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkO4NlY6PjRpPkKzPFI3QTZ2PD;hQi=>
OVCAR-3 Mlu0SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MYSx5qCUOTEEoN88US=> NWPKSIU2OjUEoHi= MWfpcohq[mm2czDj[YxtKGGmaHXzbY9vKGGwZDDtbYdz[XSrb36= NXfyVHRLRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkO4NlY6PjRpPkKzPFI3QTZ2PD;hQi=>
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LOVO NIH4PI5Iem:5dHigTY5pcWKrdHnvckBCe3OjeR?= Mn3RTWM2OD1yLkGyJO69\y:vbB?= NFnhfok9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{M{e5N|M1Oid-MkO3PVM{PDJ:L3G+
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MDA-MB-435 NGryemtIem:5dHigTY5pcWKrdHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NVXpOW5lUUN3MEywMlAxOSEQvHevcYw> NFe4dHI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{M{e5N|M1Oid-MkO3PVM{PDJ:L3G+
HepG2 NHjuOppIem:5dHigTY5pcWKrdHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M3H2XGlEPTB:MD6wNFEh|rypL33s NU\qVoF1RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkO3PVM{PDJpPkKzO|k{OzR{PD;hQi=>
HL-60 M4T1OWdzd3e2aDDJcohq[mm2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MUDJR|UxRDBwMECxJO69\y:vbB?= MYK8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOzd7M{O0Nkc,OjN5OUOzOFI9N2F-
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HT-29 NHvnXVJCdnSrcILvcIln\XKjdHn2[UBie3OjeR?= NYPSfW5yPzJiaILz MmTVRY51cXC{b3zp[oVz[XSrdnWgZYN1cX[rdImgZYdicW6|dDDoeY1idiCKVD2yPUBk\WyuczDh[pRmeiB5MjDodpMh[nliTWTUJIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTBwMUdOwG0v Mn;NQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjh2OUSyOVEoRjJ6NEm0NlUyRC:jPh?=
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LO2 M1XIe2FvfGmycn;sbYZmemG2aY\lJIF{e2G7 NWHXTYJEPzJiaILz NWTzbnYxSW62aYDyc4xq\mW{YYTpeoUh[WO2aY\peJkh[WejaX7zeEBpfW2jbjDMU|Ih[2WubIOgZYZ1\XJiN{KgbJJ{KGK7IF3UWEBie3OjeTygTWM2ODxyLkCwNe69VS5? MU[8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zQTV{NEeyPEc,Ojl3MkS3Nlg9N2F-
Bel7402 M1vkN2FvfGmycn;sbYZmemG2aY\lJIF{e2G7 NGTIcnI4OiCqcoO= MmrTRY51cXC{b3zp[oVz[XSrdnWgZYN1cX[rdImgZYdicW6|dDDoeY1idiCEZXy3OFAzKGOnbHzzJIFnfGW{IEeyJIhzeyCkeTDNWHQh[XO|YYmsJGlEPTB;MD6wNlTPxE1w MYG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zQTV{NEeyPEc,Ojl3MkS3Nlg9N2F-
HL60 NViyOGhLSW62aYDyc4xq\mW{YYTpeoUh[XO|YYm= NXLaWpQ2PzJiaILz NGHE[HFCdnSrcILvcIln\XKjdHn2[UBi[3Srdnn0fUBi\2GrboP0JIh2dWGwIFjMOlAh[2WubIOgZYZ1\XJiN{KgbJJ{KGK7IF3UWEBie3OjeTygTWM2OD1yLkCyOe69VS5? NUXNXnlKRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkm1NlQ4OjhpPkK5OVI1PzJ6PD;hQi=>
PC3 MkfoRY51cXC{b3zp[oVz[XSrdnWgZZN{[Xl? MmnCO|IhcHK| MXrBcpRqeHKxbHnm[ZJifGm4ZTDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDh[4FqdnO2IHj1cYFvKFCFMzDj[YxteyCjZoTldkA4OiCqcoOgZpkhVVSWIHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwQVAvODZ6zszNMi=> MnS3QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjl3MkS3NlgoRjJ7NUK0O|I5RC:jPh?=
Bel7402/5-FU MkDFRY51cXC{b3zp[oVz[XSrdnWgZZN{[Xl? NX7xelA4PzJiaILz NILIR|VCdnSrcILvcIln\XKjdHn2[UBi[3Srdnn0fUBi\2GrboP0JIh2dWGwIFLlcFc1ODJxNT3GWUBk\WyuczDh[pRmeiB5MjDodpMh[nliTWTUJIF{e2G7LDDJR|UxRTBwOENOwG0v M4f2WlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ7NUK0O|I5Lz5{OUWyOFczQDxxYU6=
HeLa NEf6bVRHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MVOxPEB2VQ>? M2HpeFMhcHK| M1XZfmlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiYXzrZYxqdmVicHjvd5Bp[XSjc3Wgd4VkemW2aX;uJIlvKGi3bXHuJGhmVGFiY3XscJMh[XRiMUigeW0hcW6ldXLheIVlKG[xcjCzJIhzew>? MlnuQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOzF2MkG5OlUoRjNzNEKxPVY2RC:jPh?=
VERO-E6 MkSySpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NF3ufVU1QCCqcoO= NFSyO4lF\XSncn3pcoF1cW:wIH;mJGlEPTBidnHseYV{KG[xcjDpcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKFODUmOtR49XNTJiaX7keYNm\CCleYTveI95cWOrdImgc4YhXkWUTz3FOkBk\WyuczDh[pRmeiB2ODDoc5VzeyBiZYjwc5N2emVidH:gNE4xOSCPT1mgV2FTWyCFb2[tNkB3cXK3czDifUBpcWeqIHPvcpRmdnRiaX3h[4lv\yxiSVO1NF0xNjB{zszNMi=> MYm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:5d4eu[YJqNmGlLoXrM4Np\W2kbD;jc41xd3WwZG;y[ZBwenShY3Hy[E9EUEWPQlyxPVk5OC9pPlPoSW1DVDxxYU6=
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Assay
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot p53 / GRP78 22859938
Immunofluorescence FMNL1 / GM130 ; ErbB3 / Calnexin ; MTP / GBF1 21868368 21576364 26267806
Growth inhibition assay Cell viability 28462831

Protocol (from reference)

Cell Research:

[5]

  • Cell lines: Human follicular lymphoma cell lines HF1A3, HF4.9 and HF28RA
  • Concentrations: 0 ng/mL -75 ng/mL
  • Incubation Time: 5 days
  • Method:

    HF1A3, HF4.9 cell viability upon the treatments is tested using double staining of cells with YO-PRO 1/PI and SYTO16/PI probes. To access cell proliferation, cells are treated with 0–100 ng/mL Brefeldin A in complete medium for 20 hours before adding 1 μCi/mL [methyl-3H]-thymidine for additional 4 hours at 37 °C. The incorporated radioactive thymidine is quantified by scintillation counting with Microbeta counter. To examine long-term effects of Brefeldin A treatment, cells are seeded at initial concentration 105 cells/mL and treated with 0-75 ng/mL Brefeldin A for up to 5 days. At the time indicated, a sample of cells is removed and viable cell number is assessed by standard Trypan Blue exclusion assay.

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 280.36
Formula

C16H24O4

CAS No. 20350-15-6
Storage 3 years -20°C powder
2 years -80°C in solvent
Smiles CC1CCCC=CC2CC(CC2C(C=CC(=O)O1)O)O

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)

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% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O
%DMSO %

Calculation results:

Working concentration: mg/ml;

Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO ( Master liquid concentration mg/mL, Please contact us first if the concentration exceeds the DMSO solubility of the batch of drug. )

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300, mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80, mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O, mix and clarify.

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next add μL Corn oil, mix and clarify.

Note: 1. Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2. Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such
as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.

Molarity Calculator

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Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

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