Brefeldin A

For research use only.

Catalog No.S7046

36 publications

Brefeldin A  Chemical Structure

CAS No. 20350-15-6

Brefeldin A is a lactone antibiotic and ATPase inhibitor for protein transport with IC50 of 0.2 μM in HCT 116 cells, induces cancer cell differentiation and apoptosis. It could also improve the HDR(homology-directed repair) efficiency and be an enhancer of CRISPR-mediated HDR. Brefeldin A is also an inhibitor of autophagy and mitophagy.

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Selleck's Brefeldin A has been cited by 36 publications

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Choose Selective ATPase Inhibitors

Biological Activity

Description Brefeldin A is a lactone antibiotic and ATPase inhibitor for protein transport with IC50 of 0.2 μM in HCT 116 cells, induces cancer cell differentiation and apoptosis. It could also improve the HDR(homology-directed repair) efficiency and be an enhancer of CRISPR-mediated HDR. Brefeldin A is also an inhibitor of autophagy and mitophagy.
Targets
ATPase (HCT 116) [1]
0.2 μM
In vitro

Brefeldin A is a fungal metabolite and blocks the forward transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, Brefeldin A causes an impaired distribution of the membrane proteins. When HCT 116 human colon cancer cell is treated with Brefeldin A, morphological changes indicating cell differentiation are observed. Brefeldin A exerts its cytotoxic effects mainly by inducing differentiation and apoptosis in tumor cells. [1] The treatment of the strips with 20 μg/mL Brefeldin A for 6 hours completely abolishes the relaxation induced by bradykinin in the presence of 10mM indomethacin and 30 μM L-NOARG. The treatment with 20 μg/mL Brefeldin A substantially abolishes the bradykinin-induced decreases in [Ca2+]i and tension in the range of concentrations between 1 nM and 1 mM. Brefeldin A has no effect on the [Ca2+]i elevation in endothelial cells induced by bradykinin or substance P. [2] Addition of the fungal metabolite Brefeldin A does not affect the spontaneous phospholipid-dependent GTPS binding to myr-rARF1 but totally abolishs the retinal isotonic extract (RIE)-catalyzed exchange, with half-maximal inhibition at 2 μM Brefeldin A. Brefeldin A prevents a wide variety of membrane traffic pathways. Brefeldin A inhibits an ADP-ribosylation factor-specific guanine nucleotide exchange activity present in Golgi membranes or in brain cytosol. The complete prevention by Brefeldin A strongly suggests that the retinal extract contains an ARF-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Retinal isotonic extract (RIE)-catalyzed GTPS release from both ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs) is only partly inhibited by Brefeldin A, even at 300 μM. [3] Brefeldin A induces fusion of the Golgi apparatus with the ER. Brefeldin A abolishes the inhibitory effect of the CERT inhibitor HPA-12. Brefeldin A treatment, which induces fusion of the Golgi apparatus and the ER, rescues the limonoid-induced prevention of sphingomyelin biosynthesis. BFA treatment of CHO cells causes a 2 to 3 fold increase in sphingomyelin synthesis. [4] Apart from B-CLL cells, Brefeldin A reportedly causes apoptosis in multiple myeloma (U266, NCI-H929), Jurkat, HeLa, leukaemia (HL60, K562, BJAB), colon (HT-29) and prostate, as well as adenoid cystic sarcoma cells. The administration of 25 ng/mL of Brefeldin A completely blocks growth of HF4.9 and HF28RA cells, whereas higher Brefeldin A doses (75 ng/mL) are required to achieve the same effect in HF1A3 cells. Cell proliferation is inhibited within 24 hours in a dose-dependent manner and, depending on the cell line, almost complete cessation of 3H-thymdine incorporation is observed at 50-75 ng/mL of Brefeldin A (26%, 76%, 87% inhibition at 50 ng/ml and 75%, 87%, 92% inhibition at 75 ng/mL for HF1A3, HF4.9 and HF28RA cells respectively. Brefeldin A-induced cell killing is in a dose-dependent manner using YO-PRO 1/PI assay. [5] Brefeldin A could improve the HDR(homology-directed repair) efficiency. It is an enhancer of CRISPR-mediated HDR[6].

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
PC12 MmjzSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NInPVGIzKM7:TR?= MUSxJIg> MXLpcohq[mm2czD0bIUhVC2GT2DBJEgzOMLizszNLU1qdmS3Y3XkJJRz[W6|aXXueEBGWktzL{KgdIhwe3Cqb4L5cIF1cW:wwrC= M{XoWFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4M{[zNVkyLz5{NkO2N|E6OTxxYU6=
C2C12 M4fXZmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MWWxxsDPxGdxbXy= MXyxxsBp NV3ET5N[[WKxbHnzbIV{KGO7dH;rbY5mKHKnbHXhd4Uh\nKxbTDDNmMyOiCveX;0eYJmew>? NWTIVIwxRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[yPVEzPzlpPkK2NlkyOjd7PD;hQi=>
MEFs WT M3nGb2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NUnM[I97PcLizszN Mnn4NlAhdWmw MXTjZZV{\XNicnXzbYRmdnRiZX76fY1meyC|dXPoJIF{KE6DR2StS2ZRNCC2bzDkbYZnfXOnIHLhZ4shfG9idHjlJGVT NIG3cZY9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkG5OlAzOyd-Mk[xPVYxOjN:L3G+
MEFs VAMP7 KO NFv5XlZHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M4S5[FXDqM7:TR?= NF3CWFUzOCCvaX6= MmjBZ4F2e2W|IILld4ll\W62IHXufplu\XNic4XjbEBieyCQQVfUMWdHWCxidH:g[Iln\nW|ZTDiZYNsKHSxIITo[UBGWg>? MYW8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPjF7NkCyN{c,OjZzOU[wNlM9N2F-
SMCs M{fyWmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 Ml\lNVDDqML3Zz;tcC=> NFrMfpUxNTF{IHi= NGTCc5FFVVOR NWTDPZhse2ixd4OgZUB1emWwZDD0c5diemS|IHGgbIlocGW{IHPvcoNmdnS{YYTpc44hd2ZidHjlJGVTN1OUIH7leJdwemtiaX6geIhmKHCncnnueYNt\WG{IHHy[YHDqA>? MkX4QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZzN{KwPFAoRjJ4MUeyNFgxRC:jPh?=
SMCs Ml;4SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M4T4WFExyqEEtXevcYw> NH3yUVQxNTF{IHi= NXjmcI53TE2VTx?= M2DiO4NifXOnczDhJJRz[W6|aXXueEBE[TJtwrDy[Yxm[XOnIH\yc40hfGinIFXSM3NTyqB? M{niNlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4MUeyNFgxLz5{NkG3NlA5ODxxYU6=
HEMC-1 NEX2fIpHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MnuwNE4yyqEEtXevcYw> NEjw[40zPMLiaB?= M3TUb4NifXOnczDhJIhq\2incjDpcohq[mm2b4L5JIVn\mWldDDvckBmgG:leYTvd4l{KHSqYX6gco9kd2Sjen;s[S=> M3i3blxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3OUeyO|U6Lz5{NUm3Nlc2QTxxYU6=
HUVEC MVjGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NXPYNlhsOTEEoN88US=> NFHRdYcyyqCq MnLDSG1UVw>? NFTRem9i[m:uaYPo[ZMhcHmyb4jpZU1qdmS3Y3XkJJJmdGWjc3Wgc4YhSVSSIH\yc40h[XCrY3HsJIFv\CCkYYPvcIF1\XKjbDDzeZJn[WOncx?= NF:5cGE9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUm1Olk5QCd-MkW5OVY6QDh:L3G+
HUVEC NX\tV2EyTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MV2xNOKh|ryP NXrre3FNOcLiaB?= NGLOXIFFVVOR NXjZXnRpcW6lcnXhd4V{yqC2aHWgcpVu[mW{IHHu[EBqdnSnboPpeJkhd2ZiZnz1c5Jme2OnboSgZZJm[XNiZYPw[YNq[WyueTDpckBx\XKrboXjcIVieiC|cHHj[S=> NVrIWnQ3RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW5OVY6QDhpPkK1PVU3QTh6PD;hQi=>
Caco-2 NYfGN2s{TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M3TINlIvPSEQvF2= NInUT3o{OCCvaX6= M1TQNoF1fGWwdXH0[ZMhfGinIGTHSk3PujFvbXXkbYF1\WRiaX7jdoVie2ViaX6gV2VTXCCodX7jeIlwdg>? MUi8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTl3NEmzNUc,OjV7NUS5N|E9N2F-
NRK NGLLSXVHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MWeyNFDjiIWwZz;tcC=> NIXZR2016oDHaB?= MknFSG1UVw>? NGqxbmdz\XOldXXzJI1qfG:2aXOgdJJw\3Knc4Ppc44> NYPqR5RJRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW5OFg2QDZpPkK1PVQ5PTh4PD;hQi=>
HeLa MoDOSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NHrYNYkzODEkgJXu[{9udA>? MleyN{Bp MUfEUXNQ M3K0XYlv\HWlZYOgeIhmKGG{dHnmbYNq[WxiYoLlZYsufXBib3[geIhmKEexbHfpJINwdXCuZYi= MlfmQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV7NEi1PFYoRjJ3OUS4OVg3RC:jPh?=
COS NGrRfYNHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MlfnNUDPxGdxbXy= MYKzJIg> MWDjc41xdGW2ZXz5JIRqe3CncoPld{B1cGViQWCtNUB{cWewYX|CpC=> MWK8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTlzNUmwNEc,OjV7MUW5NFA9N2F-
DF1  NH3aeW9HfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NUDXUW01OcLizszNxsA> NX71NYRWPDhiaB?= M1PQO2ROW09? NFTtVGhlcXOyZYLz[ZPDqHSqZTDlfI9o\W6xdYOgR3NI[WyQQXPUNkBxem:2ZXnu MYi8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPThyN{C1OEc,OjV6MEewOVQ9N2F-
nHDFs  MY\GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MUWxxsDPxE4EoB?= MWCyxsBp NWT2ZnZUeHKndnXueJMhfGinIHHzd4Vu[my7IH;mJIN6fG:|b3zpZ{Bkd2G2IIDyc5RmcW6|IH;ueI8hT2:uZ3mgcYVu[nKjbnXz NWLmbZR5RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW3O|I3OTZpPkK1O|czPjF4PD;hQi=>
FRT  NYDLbld{TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= Ml;SOUDPxGdxbXy= MlXrNuKhcA>? M3y5OIJtd2OtczD0doFn\mmla3nu[{B1cHKxdXfoJJRp\SCJb3znbUBkd22ybHX4JIJ6KGmwaHnibZRqdmdiRWKteI8uT2:uZ3mgeJJidnOyb4L0 NW\h[2U3RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW3OlcyOTVpPkK1O|Y4OTF3PD;hQi=>
FRT  MYDGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MWm1JO69\y:vbB?= MUWyxsBp MX\wdoV3\W62czD0bIUhcW6lcnXhd4UhcW5iY3zlZZZm\CEQsTDzeYJ2dmm2czD3bIVvKFuQYTvdbeKhf2G|IILl[JVk\WR? NFX4[3k9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUe2O|EyPSd-MkW3OlcyOTV:L3G+
HepG2  MnPkSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MXWx5qCKyrWPwrC= NEnJWGYzPCCq NIH0TYRFVVOR MWXk[YNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKGyndnXsJI9nKFC[UjDtVm5C NFHOXmE9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NU[xOlU6Pyd-MkW2NVY2QTd:L3G+
SMCs MVTGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? M37aV|HPxGdxbVy= MVmzJIg> NWDNR3F7[WOldX31cIF1\XNiQ17QXVIheHKxdHXpckBqdiC2aHWgSXIh[2:vcHHyeI1mdnRiYX7kJI5wKGyxbnfldkBkdy2ub3PhcIl7\WRid3n0bEB1cGViR3;s[4khdWG{a3XyxsA> NI\LcoU9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUW4PVQzPSd-MkW1PFk1OjV:L3G+
OB-6 Mkn6RZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 MkHWNk44yqEQvF2= NH3QSIU1QCCq NX:5dngzcW6mdXPld{BieG:ydH;zbZM> MVu8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTV|MkS4NEc,OjV3M{K0PFA9N2F-
iPSC-CMs  NXjpNVBbTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NGHzfVU2ODBibnevcYw> M4C5XlQ5KGh? NXKyVZk5cW6lcnXhd4V{KHSqZTDpcpRmdnOrdImgc4YhfGinIHjp[4hmeiCvb3LpcIl1gSCOQV3Qd{BifCC2aHWgZ49{fCCxZjD0bIUhdG:5ZYKgcY9jcWyrdImgd5Bm[2mncx?= MlPZQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV2OEi2OlYoRjJ3NEi4OlY3RC:jPh?=
SP-Nluc NVKxWVh1TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NYizdHNFPSCvZz;tUC=> NXHze5hmPiCq NXuzeWVyTE2VT9Mg MVPjZZV{\XNiYX6gbY5kemWjc3WgbY4hemWyb4L0[ZIh[WO2aY\peJkhcW5idHjlJJBiemG|aYTl MkjXQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV|OUK5PVgoRjJ3M{myPVk5RC:jPh?=
PEXEL-Nluc MkD0SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M1r1Z|UhdWdxbVy= NVrFWm44PiCq M4D2PGROW00EoB?= M17Cc4NifXOnczDhckBqdmO{ZXHz[UBqdiC{ZYDvdpRmeiCjY4Tpeol1gSCrbjD0bIUheGG{YYPpeIU> NV7TdJo2RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWzPVI6QThpPkK1N|kzQTl6PD;hQi=>
H1299 MlTySpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MnLyNVAh|rypL33s Mof5NlQhcA>? Mmq2bY5lfWOnczDheZRweGijZ4pCpC=> M1zNflxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3M{i4PVcxLz5{NUO4PFk4ODxxYU6=
MDA-MB-231 MX\D[YxtKF[rYXLpcIl1gSCDc4PhfS=> NYrMXmw{OOLCk{WwJO69\y:vTB?= NULKe2FUPDhiaB?= M{PRUGVEPTEEoE2gNE4xOTZiwsXnM41N MmKxQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV|NU[1OlcoRjJ3M{W2OVY4RC:jPh?=
MDA-MB-231 Ml;lRZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 M1q3OVAvOSEQvHevcWw> NGjk[I81KGh? NYHZOGN2cW6mdXPld{BieG:ydH;zbZM> NWnCVpU6RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWzOVY2PjdpPkK1N|U3PTZ5PD;hQi=>
MDA-MB-231 M4jXbmdzd3e2aDDJcohq[mm2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NY\COZRvOC5yMT:wMlA2KM7:Zz;tUC=> NHHRWVgzPCCq NVjCcnhRcW6lcnXhd4V{KHSqZTDmdoFkfGmxbjDv[kB{fWJvR{GgZ4VtdCCmZXLybZM> MWK8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTN3NkW2O{c,OjV|NU[1Olc9N2F-
MDA-MB-231 MVnBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? MV6wMlA26oDVMTFOwIcwdUx? MUWyOEBp MUHpcoR2[2W|IGDBVnAhMHCxbImgRWRRNXKrYn;z[UBxd2y7bXXyZZNmNTFrIHPs[YF3[Wen MYC8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTN3NkW2O{c,OjV|NU[1Olc9N2F-
MDA-MB-231 NGnaT4lHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M2TNOFDjiJN3MDFOwIcwdUx? MX[yOEBp NXLMW21KcW6qaXLpeJMhfGinIH\vdo1ifGmxbjDv[kA{TCCjbnSgNmQh[2:ub37p[ZM> MVW8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTN3NkW2O{c,OjV|NU[1Olc9N2F-
A172 NEDyPJFHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NE\EOlMyOMLizsznM41t MnzGOOKhcA>? M{XZfGROW00EoB?= MX;y[ZN2dHS|IHnuJJRp\SC{ZYTyc4dz[WSnIITyZY5{eG:{dDDv[kBndHWxcnXzZ4VvfCCpcnHueYxmew>? MX:8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTJ|OUWwO{c,OjV{M{m1NFc9N2F-
KMS-6 NHzze49HfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NXHrUJFbOcLizszNxsA> MVyyOEBp NIXLTnNmgGirYnn0d{Bp[WyoIITo[UB{\WO{ZYTpc44hd2ZiZ3HsZY5qdi2OSTDhd{BlcWRidHjlJINwdnS{b3y= MlLxQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV{MkmxNlYoRjJ3MkK5NVI3RC:jPh?=
MEC NFLDXo5HfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NWPJUWUxOSEQvF2= M33OUFEvPSCq NH;X[G9k[XW|ZYOgZUBlemGvYYTpZ{Bl\WO{ZXHz[UBqdiC2aHWgd5Vz\mGlZTDWSWdHWjJ? NF7zb4c9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUKyPFgyPSd-MkWyNlg5OTV:L3G+
HEK293/hERG MX\GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NYe4TZRYOTEEoN88US=> MVWxxsBp NIfKRZhz\XO3bITzJIlvKGFidHnt[U1l\XCnbnTlcpQhemWmdXP0bY9vKG2jdIXy[UBpTVKJIIDyc5RmcW8EoB?= NYnqXGFnRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWyNVg1PjlpPkK1NlE5PDZ7PD;hQi=>
RBE4 M4\NOWFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= MlO0NuKh|ryP NXXGSG02O+LCk{K0xsBp MVzpcoR2[2W|IHHwc5B1d3OrczD0bY1mKGSncHXu[IVvfGy7 MoDaQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjVzMkiwNlUoRjJ3MUK4NFI2RC:jPh?=
RBE4 MnmwSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MWmyxsDPxE1? MX[z5qCUOjUEoHi= Mn\RbY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SC[QmCxJJBzd3SnaX6gcIV3\Wy|IHHmeIVzKDNiYX7kJFbDqGhib3[geJJm[XSvZX70 NIjIOFA9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUGyPFAzPSd-MkWxNlgxOjV:L3G+
RBE4 MnrwSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NWLxWlllOsLizszN M1TlT|PjiJN{NNMgbC=> NH34WpZqdmO{ZXHz[ZMh[WO2aY\lJINie3Cjc3WtNVIhcW5iYTD0bY1mNWSncHXu[IVvfCCvYX7u[ZLDqA>? Mlj4QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjVzMkiwNlUoRjJ3MUK4NFI2RC:jPh?=
RBE4 NGnifFhHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= Mm\wNuKh|ryP M16wUFPjiJN{NNMgbC=> MULpcoNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKGyndnXsd{Bw\iCUT2OgeIlu\S2mZYDlcoRmdnSueR?= NGraemc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUGyPFAzPSd-MkWxNlgxOjV:L3G+
RBE4 NGnDWldHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NYjYZppwOsLizszN NIq5eoc{6oDVMkVCpIg> MoS5bY5lfWOnczDhJIRmdGG7ZXSg[IVxdGW2aX;uJI9nKHSqZTDFVkBE[TJtwrDjc451\W62IHH0JFbDqGhib3[gbY5kfWKjdHnvckB{cWewaX\pZ4FvfGy7 NWO2c21NRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWxNlgxOjVpPkK1NVI5ODJ3PD;hQi=>
RBE4 MnHESpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NWLSSnhyOsLizszN NIS1WmI{6oDVMkVCpIg> NIf2eohqdmS3Y3XzJIFvKG:4ZYLsc4FlKG:oIFPhNkvDqGmwIITo[UBucXSxY3jvcoRzcWFiaX6geIhmKG[rcoP0JFbDqGhib3[gbY5kfWKjdHnvckApeOLCiU|ihKkxNjByMTmgZpV1KEOjMjxCpIxmfmWuczDpckB1cGm|IH;y[4Fv\WyuZTDk[YNz\WG|ZXSgZYZ1\XJiMUNCpIghd2ZiaX7jeYJifGmxbh?= MUO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTF{OECyOUc,OjVzMkiwNlU9N2F-
Huh-7  NH\WSFdHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NVK3dlBUOc7:Zz;tUC=> M1juOFPjiJN{NNMgbC=> MY\pcoNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKGyndnXsJI9nKEGSRUGgbY4h[SC2aX3lMYRmeGWwZHXueEBu[W6wZYK= NXS5ToxnRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWwNlYyPzRpPkK1NFI3OTd2PD;hQi=>
HepG2  M1TXeWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MWqx{txoN22O M4PBOlPjiJN{NNMgbC=> NEK1THFqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhfGinIHzleoVtKG:oIFHQSVEhcW5iYTD0bY1mNWSncHXu[IVvfCCvYX7u[ZI> MnTQQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjVyMk[xO|QoRjJ3MEK2NVc1RC:jPh?=
H838-LKB1 NYWzZmhjTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MXqzNOKhdmdxbXy= MmL6NVIwOThiaB?= Mnj2bY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SCycn;0[YlvKGyndnXsd{Bw\iCEaWFCpC=> MmjtQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjVyMUGwPFIoRjJ3MEGxNFgzRC:jPh?=
H838-KDLKB1  MkK3SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? Mm[wN|DDqG6pL33s Mnz5NVIwOThiaB?= NV;nVG5ZcW6lcnXhd4V{KHSqZTDwdo91\WmwIHzleoVteyCxZjDCbXDDqA>? Mmm3QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjVyMUGwPFIoRjJ3MEGxNFgzRC:jPh?=
H838-KDLKB1  M33T[WZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M{fFeVMxyqCwZz;tcC=> MYGxNk8yQCCq NIm0VXZqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhfGinIHzleoVteyCxZjDwbI9{eGixconsZZRm\CCnSV[y{tEhMHCqb4PwbI8u\UmIMt8xLS=> NHTYZnE9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUCxNVA5Oid-MkWwNVExQDJ:L3G+
3T3-L1 MlvpSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NF24d3c2KM7:Zz;tcC=> NGDEbVM{OCCvaX6= NIr4c|FucW2rY4OgeIhmKGWoZnXjeJMhd2ZiaX7zeYxqdiCjbnSgZ4F2e2W|IILvZpV{fCCyaH;zdIhwenmuYYTpc44hd2ZiQXv0JEhU\XJiNEezLUBidmRicHjvd5Bpd3K7bHH0bY9vKG:oIFHTNVYxKCiWaIKgOlQzKGGwZDDT[ZIhPTh6KR?= M134bVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2OESzPFI4Lz5{NEi0N|gzPzxxYU6=
3T3-L1 NWfSVpVbTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NUflPVF3PSEQvHevcYw> NWTBfpNMOzBibXnu NFHJ[|Bz\WOjcHn0eYxifGW|IHnud5VtcW5iYXP0bY9vKHerdHigdoV{eGWldDD0c{Bz\We3bHH0bY5oKEGtdDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDhcoQhSVNzNkCgdIhwe3Cqb4L5cIF1cW:w M4\PRlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2OESzPFI4Lz5{NEi0N|gzPzxxYU6=
3T3-L1 NVrJXnRTTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= Ml:1OUDPxGdxbXy= Ml[zN|AhdWmw MUHjZZV{\XNicnX2[ZJ{cWKuZTDy[YRqe3S{aXL1eIlwdiCxZjDHUHVVPA>? NVO1W41bRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS4OFM5OjdpPkK0PFQ{QDJ5PD;hQi=>
3T3-L1 Ml;5SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MmraOUDPxGdxbXy= M3e2TVHDqGh? MoDKZ4F2e2W|IILl[Il{fHKrYoX0bY9vKG:oIFfMWXQ1KGK3dDDuc5QhcW6lcnXhd4UhcW5iZ3z1Z49{\SC3cIThb4U> NEPwNHI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEi0N|gzPyd-MkS4OFM5Ojd:L3G+
3T3-L1 M3PVb2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M3LrVFUh|rypL33s NYfZcIdxOcLiaB?= Mn35Z4F2e2W|IIDoc5NxcG:{eXzheIlwdiCxZjD0bIUhTm:6T{GgeJJidnOlcnnweIlwdiCoYXP0c5I> M3f2SlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2OESzPFI4Lz5{NEi0N|gzPzxxYU6=
HeLa  M1T6OWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MmS1OUDPxGdxbXy= M37XW|MhcA>? MWrjZZV{\XNiboXjcIVieiCneHPseZNqd25ib3[geIhmKE[xeF:xJJRz[W6|Y4LpdJRqd25iZnHjeI9zKGGwZDDk[YNz\WG|ZYOgeJJidnOlcnnweIlwdiCxZjDGc5hQOS2{ZXf1cIF1\WRiZ3Xu[ZM> NYe3WW5rRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS4OFM5OjdpPkK0PFQ{QDJ5PD;hQi=>
HEK293 M2r4cmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MYq1xsDPxGdxbXy= M3\4PVEzyqCq MmjFZYJwdGm|aHXzJGNOSS2rbnT1Z4VlKEOURVzENkB{\WO{ZYTpc44> M4LRXFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2Nki3OFMyLz5{NE[4O|Q{OTxxYU6=
COS-1 MnnMSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NHLrfVg2KML3Zz;tcC=> NFLYSoQzPCCqwrC= M3ixSJJme3S{aXP0d{Btd2OjbHn6ZZRqd25ib3[gUmIhcW5idHjlJJBmemmwdXPs[YFzKHKnZ3nvcuKh NXPDdYF2RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS2O|E4PTFpPkK0OlcyPzVzPD;hQi=>
PRP M2D2OmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NGn6coQyOCEQvF2= NIK1b|Fi[nKxZ3H0[ZMhW0SILUJOtU1u\WSrYYTl[EBEYEOUNzDlfJRmem6jbHn6ZZRqd28EoB?= M3;3NlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2Nk[4O|UxLz5{NE[2PFc2ODxxYU6=
RAW264.7 NU\qb2c{SXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 NGj4TXY1KM7:TR?= NUfhOIZiPDhiaB?= M3LhToF1fGWwdXH0[ZMhfGinIHnubIljcXSrb36gc4Yhd3hvTFTMMYlv\HWlZXSgZZBweHSxc3nzJIFv\CC2aHWg[oFkcWyrdHH0bY9vKG:oIHPoc4xme3Sncn;sJIVn\my3eDDifUBC[y2qRT2xPGEuVkh{ NGLPU3Y9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NE[zPVA{Oid-MkS2N|kxOzJ:L3G+
MDMs NV:1bpptSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 NG\4elUyOOLCid88[{9udA>? NVzFfYdyOTJxMUWgbC=> M1HQZ4lv\HWlZYOgZZBweHSxc3nz Mn\1QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR3NU[2PVUoRjJ2NUW2Olk2RC:jPh?=
PMHs  NWixS3hkTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NEO0O2wyOOLCk{Kw5qCK|rypL33s MV6yOQKBkWh? NYH5Z2tvTE2VTx?= M{\SXolv\HWlZXSgSXIhe3S{ZYPz Ml;oQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR2MEeyOFIoRjJ2NEC3NlQzRC:jPh?=
PMHs  M1r6dmFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= MYCxNQKBmzJy4pEJ{txoN22u MlPjNlTjiImq NVvV[JM{TE2VTx?= MUjpcoNz\WG|ZYOgZ4VtdCCmZXH0bC=> MofnQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR2MEeyOFIoRjJ2NEC3NlQzRC:jPh?=
HEK293/tau NGLxZXZHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MnTOOUDPxE1? NXXWSINLOS9{L{SgbC=> NYfpfVFPcW6mdXPld{BId2ypaTDmdoFodWWwdHH0bY9vyqB? NIrBXHU9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEO2PFA5QSd-MkSzOlgxQDl:L3G+
HEK293/tau NV2zTnExTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MVO1JO69VQ>? NFzjPYU{KGh? NEjXeXVqdmS3Y3XzJJRifSCqeYDldpBpd3OyaH;yfYxifGmxbh?= M3P6TFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2M{[4NFg6Lz5{NEO2PFA5QTxxYU6=
ADF NHfReHFHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M13DNlExKM7:TR?= MUmxOkBp MV7pcohq[mm2czD0bIUhYm6FbEKtbY5lfWOnZDD0doFve2yxY3H0bY9vKG:oIFPSWC=> MXO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDJ{OEKzNkc,OjR{MkiyN|I9N2F-
U373  MojtSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NE[0b5MyOCEQvF2= NET6foUyPiCq NEK0emJqdmirYnn0d{B1cGViWn7DcFIucW6mdXPl[EB1emGwc3zvZ4F1cW:wIH;mJGNTXA>? NVzxSnNPRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkSyNlgzOzJpPkK0NlI5OjN{PD;hQi=>
RKO-HIPK2i NEjY[pNHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NVTLZmlIOTBizszN Mk\qNVYhcA>? MVzpcohq[mm2czD0bIUhYm6FbEKtbY5lfWOnZDD0doFve2yxY3H0bY9vKG:oIFPSWC=> M3\ESlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2MkK4NlMzLz5{NEKyPFI{OjxxYU6=
ADF  NGDrTIdHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MnLkNVAh|ryPwrC= NWTaSG1wPiCq NWnCUphrcW2yYXnyd{B1cGViRFOgZYN1cX[jdHnvci=> M{XvPVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2MkK4NlMzLz5{NEKyPFI{OjxxYU6=
Huh7 NITPRYlHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M3PydFUh|rypL33s NHr0V2c1KGh? M3rsfYFjd2yrc3jld{B1cGVic3XjdoV1cW:wIH;mJEBqdnS{YXPlcIx2dGG{IFHwc2I> MVm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDFyMEG0NEc,OjRzMECxOFA9N2F-
Huh7 NGLmfJpHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M1PEXVUh|rypL33s NGHtPJkyKGh? MXXjZZV{\XNiYTDzbYdvcW[rY3HueEBqdmO{ZXHz[UBqdiCDcH;CMYNz\XOlZX70dy=> NUnYcZF[RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkSxNFAyPDBpPkK0NVAxOTRyPD;hQi=>
Huh7 MX\GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MXe15qCUOTEEoH7nM41t M4DqSFEzKGh? M33iSYlv[3KnYYPld{BCeG:ELXPy[ZNk\W62czD3bZRpd3W2IHnubIljcXSrbnegd4VkemW2aX;u Ml3IQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjRzMECxOFAoRjJ2MUCwNVQxRC:jPh?=
BAECs M2\s[2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M2LlcFUh|rypL33s MWSwMVQhcA>? MULpcoR2[2W|IITo[UBz[XCrZDDk[ZBpd3OyaH;yfYxifGmxbjDv[kBmVk:VIHH0JHNmejFzN{m= NXjr[FZ4RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkSwPFUzOjVpPkK0NFg2OjJ3PD;hQi=>
Macrophages MWfGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MnniO|EhyrWP NVr3V4l3PiCq MoW0bY5pcWKrdIOgcJVv[XOrbjDpcpRmem6jbHn6ZZRqd28EoB?= NYLhVGM3RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkSwN|k4PDBpPkK0NFM6PzRyPD;hQi=>
Colo 205 NEHxRXFIem:5dHigTY5pcWKrdHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MonJNE02KM7:Zz;tUC=> NEnsXJQ1QCCq MnXPbY5pcWKrdIOgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghcW5ic4XzdIVve2mxbjDjeYx1fXKnczD3bZRpKGGwIHXzeIlu[XSnZDDJR|UxKG:oII6xOUBv\y:vTB?= NEO0dHc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{M{m3N|k6Pid-MkO5O|M6QTZ:L3G+
Colo 205 MoDKSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M2Hmd|AvODF{LUCuNFI2KM7:Zz;tUC=> MoDCNVQh\A>? NWTpdIFNemWmdXPld{B1cGViY3zvco9o\W6rY3n0fUBw\iCFb3zvJFIxPSCFU1Pz M1rHPFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ|OUezPVk3Lz5{M{m3N|k6PjxxYU6=
Colo 205 MmH4RZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 M{THTlAvOSEQvHevcWw> MXuwMVI1KGh? NVq1e2dFcW6mdXPld{BieG:ydH;zbZMhd2ZiQ3;sc{AzODViY3XscJMhcW5ic4XzdIVve2mxbjDjeYx1fXKncx?= MXm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOzl5M{m5Okc,OjN7N{O5PVY9N2F-
Colo 205 MnrvSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MYSwMlAyPSEQvHevcWw> NVPIb3VROjRiaB?= M3rxeYlv\HWlZYOgeIhmKGW6cILld5Nqd25ib3[gSXIhe3S{ZYPzMZJmdGG2ZXSg[4Vv\XN? NVXYUIpuRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkO5O|M6QTZpPkKzPVc{QTl4PD;hQi=>
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PC3 Ml3NRY51cXC{b3zp[oVz[XSrdnWgZZN{[Xl? MVe3NkBpenN? NWLsV3c4SW62aYDyc4xq\mW{YYTpeoUh[WO2aY\peJkh[WejaX7zeEBpfW2jbjDQR|Mh[2WubIOgZYZ1\XJiN{KgbJJ{KGK7IF3UWEBie3OjeTygTWM2OD1yLkC2PO69VS5? M2nwc|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ7NUK0O|I5Lz5{OUWyOFczQDxxYU6=
Bel7402/5-FU NXfTcpRNSW62aYDyc4xq\mW{YYTpeoUh[XO|YYm= MmToO|IhcHK| MkjpRY51cXC{b3zp[oVz[XSrdnWgZYN1cX[rdImgZYdicW6|dDDoeY1idiCEZXy3OFAzNzVvRmWgZ4VtdHNiYX\0[ZIhPzJiaILzJIJ6KE2WVDDhd5NigSxiSVO1NF0xNjh{zszNMi=> MlTGQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjl3MkS3NlgoRjJ7NUK0O|I5RC:jPh?=
HeLa Mn\zSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MmjENVghfU1? MYOzJIhzew>? NUntVlJXUW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDhcItidGmwZTDwbI9{eGijdHHz[UB{\WO{ZYTpc44hcW5iaIXtZY4hUGWOYTDj[YxteyCjdDCxPEB2VSCrbnP1ZoF1\WRiZn;yJFMhcHK| M1X4OlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzNzNEKxPVY2Lz5|MUSyNVk3PTxxYU6=
VERO-E6 MkHwSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NUCyOIZuPDhiaILz NEfodXhF\XSncn3pcoF1cW:wIH;mJGlEPTBidnHseYV{KG[xcjDpcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKFODUmOtR49XNTJiaX7keYNm\CCleYTveI95cWOrdImgc4YhXkWUTz3FOkBk\WyuczDh[pRmeiB2ODDoc5VzeyBiZYjwc5N2emVidH:gNE4xOSCPT1mgV2FTWyCFb2[tNkB3cXK3czDifUBpcWeqIHPvcpRmdnRiaX3h[4lv\yxiSVO1NF0xNjB{zszNMi=> NFnhPJI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;3e5cv\WKrLnHjMpVsN2OqZX3icE9kd22yb4Xu[H9z\XCxcoTfZ4Fz\C:FSFXNRmwyQTl6MD:nQmNpTU2ETEyvZV4>
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... Click to View More Cell Line Experimental Data

Assay
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot
p53 / GRP78 ; 

PubMed: 22859938     


(B) present the dose- and time- dependent effect of ER stress inducer brefeldin A on p53 expression. MCF-7 Cells were exposed to brefeldin A in 10% FBS–supplemented DMEM as time and dose indicated. The cell lysates were analyzed by western blotting with antibodies for p53, GRP78, and α-tubulin. The p53 protein expression level was quantified densitometrically. GRP78 served as an ER stress marker. 

22859938
Immunofluorescence
MTP / GBF1 ; 

PubMed: 26267806     


3T3-L1 cells, plated as above, were treated with brefeldin A (5 μg/ml, 3 hr), fixed and stained for MTP and GBF1. Brefeldin A treatment leads to redistribution of MTP from the juxtanuclear region, similar to what occurs with GBF1. Bars = 10 μm.

ErbB3 / Calnexin ; 

PubMed: 21576364     


293T cells transfected with ErbB3 were treated without (top) or with (bottom) BfA, and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy was used to examine the colocalization of ErbB3 with endogenous calnexin.

FMNL1 / GM130 ; 

PubMed: 21868368     


FMNL1 colocalizes with the cis-Golgi marker GM130 and is dispersed by treatment with brefeldin A (+BFA).

26267806 21576364 21868368
Growth inhibition assay
Cell viability; 

PubMed: 28462831     


Effects of brefeldin A on human prostate cancer cells. LNCaP and PC-3 cells were seeded in cell culture dishes and incubated for 24 h. The cells were then treated with different concentrations of brefeldin A for 72 h. The number of viable cells was determined by the trypan blue exclusion assay. Apoptosis was determined by propidium iodide staining and morphological assessment.

28462831

Protocol

Cell Research:

[5]

- Collapse
  • Cell lines: Human follicular lymphoma cell lines HF1A3, HF4.9 and HF28RA
  • Concentrations: 0 ng/mL -75 ng/mL
  • Incubation Time: 5 days
  • Method:

    HF1A3, HF4.9 cell viability upon the treatments is tested using double staining of cells with YO-PRO 1/PI and SYTO16/PI probes. To access cell proliferation, cells are treated with 0–100 ng/mL Brefeldin A in complete medium for 20 hours before adding 1 μCi/mL [methyl-3H]-thymidine for additional 4 hours at 37 °C. The incorporated radioactive thymidine is quantified by scintillation counting with Microbeta counter. To examine long-term effects of Brefeldin A treatment, cells are seeded at initial concentration 105 cells/mL and treated with 0-75 ng/mL Brefeldin A for up to 5 days. At the time indicated, a sample of cells is removed and viable cell number is assessed by standard Trypan Blue exclusion assay.


    (Only for Reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 4 mg/mL (14.26 mM)
Water Insoluble
Ethanol Insoluble

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 280.36
Formula

C16H24O4

CAS No. 20350-15-6
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms N/A
Smiles CC1CCCC=CC2CC(CC2C(C=CC(=O)O1)O)O

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID