Valproic acid (VPA)
For research use only.
Catalog No.S3944 Synonyms: 2-Propylvaleric Acid, Valproate
CAS No. 99-66-1
Valproic acid (VPA, 2-Propylvaleric Acid, Valproate) is a fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. It is also a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and is under investigation for treatment of HIV and various cancers. Valproic acid (VPA) induces autophagy and mitophagy by upregulation of BNIP3 and mitochondrial biogenesis by upregulating PGC-1α. Valproic acid activates Notch-1 signaling.
Selleck's Valproic acid (VPA) has been cited by 20 publications
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|Description||Valproic acid (VPA, 2-Propylvaleric Acid, Valproate) is a fatty acid with anticonvulsant properties used in the treatment of epilepsy. It is also a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and is under investigation for treatment of HIV and various cancers. Valproic acid (VPA) induces autophagy and mitophagy by upregulation of BNIP3 and mitochondrial biogenesis by upregulating PGC-1α. Valproic acid activates Notch-1 signaling.|
Valproic acid (VPA), like lithium, activates Wnt-dependent gene expression, but unlike lithium, VPA does not inhibit GSK-3β in vivo. VPA can inhibit GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of a CREB peptide in vitro. VPA may activate Wnt-dependent gene expression through inhibition of HDAC, which in turn leads to both increased expression of β-catenin and de-repression of Tcf/Lef (as well as activation of other HDAC-regulated genes). In vitro, VPA can stimulate glutamic acid decarboxylase, which is involved in GABA biosynthesis, and inhibit GABA transaminase, succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, enzymes involved in GABA degradation. Valproic acid relieves HDAC-dependent transcriptional repression and causes hyperacetylation of histones in cultured cells and in vivo. VPA induces differentiation and/or apoptosis of carcinoma cells, PML-RAR-transformed hematopoietic progenitor cells and leukemic blasts from AML patients. In addition to selectively inhibiting the catalytic activity of class I HDACs, VPA also induces proteasomal degradation of HDAC2.
|In vivo||Valproic acid (VPA) increases the level of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), with acute administration causing a 15-45% increase in GABA in the brains of rodents. VPA also inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in animal experiments. It is a well-tolerated drug even during long-term treatment.|
|Density||0.9 g/mL at 25 °C|
|Storage||2 years -20°C liquid|
|Synonyms||2-Propylvaleric Acid, Valproate|
In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)
|Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)|
|Dosage||mg/kg||Average weight of animals||g||Dosing volume per animal||ul||Number of animals|
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Working concentration： mg/ml；
Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: ： mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO (Master liquid concentration mg/mL，)
Method for preparing in vivo formulation：Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300， mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80，mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O，mix and clarify.
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Clinical Trial Information
|NCT Number||Recruitment||interventions||Conditions||Sponsor/Collaborators||Start Date||Phases|
|NCT04671589||Not yet recruiting||Drug: Meropenem Injection||Drug Toxicity||Mabaret Al-Asafara Hospitals||June 2021||Phase 4|
|NCT04384172||Recruiting||Device: Tibial e-stim|Device: Genital e-stim||Female Sexual Dysfunction|Spinal Cord Injuries||University of Michigan|International Society for the Study of Women''s Sexual Health||November 11 2020||Not Applicable|
|NCT03962829||Terminated||Drug: mCPP|Drug: Placebo oral tablet||Eating Behavior|Obesity||University of Birmingham|University Hospital Birmingham||February 1 2019||Not Applicable|
|NCT03681158||Completed||Drug: sodium valproate||Epilepsy||Sanofi||October 5 2018||Phase 1|
Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.
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