(R)-(-)-Gossypol acetic acid

Catalog No.S2812 Synonyms: AT-101 acetic acid, (-)-Gossypol acetic acid, (R)-Gossypol acetic acid

For research use only.

(R)-(-)-Gossypol (AT-101) acetic acid, the R-(-) enantiomer of Gossypol acetic acid, binds with Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 with Ki of 0.32 μM, 0.48 μM and 0.18 μM in cell-free assays; does not inhibit BIR3 domain and BID. AT-101 simultaneously triggers apoptosis and a cytoprotective type of autophagy. Phase 2.

(R)-(-)-Gossypol acetic acid Chemical Structure

CAS No. 866541-93-7

Selleck's (R)-(-)-Gossypol acetic acid has been cited by 14 publications

Purity & Quality Control

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Biological Activity

Description (R)-(-)-Gossypol (AT-101) acetic acid, the R-(-) enantiomer of Gossypol acetic acid, binds with Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 with Ki of 0.32 μM, 0.48 μM and 0.18 μM in cell-free assays; does not inhibit BIR3 domain and BID. AT-101 simultaneously triggers apoptosis and a cytoprotective type of autophagy. Phase 2.
Mcl-1 [1]
(Cell-free assay)
Bcl-2 [1]
(Cell-free assay)
Bcl-xL [1]
(Cell-free assay)
0.18 μM(Ki) 0.32 μM(Ki) 0.48 μM(Ki)
In vitro

AT-101 inhibits a panel of different lymphoproliferative malignancies with IC50 ranged from 1.2 μM to 7.4 μM. AT-101 (10 μM) disrupts the Δψm in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in a diffuse large B-cell and in mantle cell lymphoma lines. AT-101 (1 μM or 2 μM) combined with carfilzomib (6 nM or 10 nM) induces apoptosis in HBL-2 and Granta cell lines. [2] AT-101 (20 μM for 24 hours) results in a median 72% apoptosis and down-regulation of Mcl-1 in CLL lymphocytes in both suspension culture as well as stromal coculture. Stromal cells express undetectable levels of antiapoptotic but high levels of activated ERK and AKT proteins and has low or no apoptosis with AT-101. [3] AT-101 induces apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, with ED50 values of 1.9 mM and 2.4 mM in Jurkat T and U937 cells, respectively. AT-101 (10 μM) combined with radiation (32 Gy) induces more apoptosis than radiation alone and exceeds the sum of the effects caused by the single agent treatments. AT-101 activates SAPK/JNK in a dose- and time-dependent manner. [4] AT-101 (10 µM) induces apoptosis through activation of caspase-9, -3, and -7 in VCaP Cells. AT-101 (10 µM) decreases Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 expression in VCaP cells. [5] AT-101 (< 20 μM) is able to inhibit the growth of multiple myeloma cells despite the stimulatory growth effects provided by stromal cells in the bone marrow milieu. AT-101 (10 μM) induces apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells via the activation of caspases 3, caspases 9 and PARP. AT-101 (10 μM) promotes apoptosis in multiple myeloma cells by disrupting the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the mitochondrial membrane potential. [6]

Methods Test Index PMID
Growth inhibition assay Cell viability 24824755
Western blot BNIP3 ; Smac / Cyt C ; p53 / Cox IV ; p-AKT / AKT ; APE1 / Bcl-2 / p53 / p-p53 / NF-κB 24824755 22052903 27144437
In vivo AT-101 is still detectable in plasma with average concentrations of 0.49 μM for the 35 mg/kg group and 0.39 μM for the 200 mg/kg group in SCID beige mice bearing RL-DLBCL xenograft. AT-101 peak plasma concentration is observed after 30 minutes of administration of the drug in both the dose levels, with the 200 mg/kg group showing a plasma average concentration almost 4 times greater than the 35 mg/kg group (7.88 μM and 27.78 μM respectively) in SCID beige mice. AT-101 (25 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg, orally) indefinitely results in earlier onset of weight loss equivalent to more than 10% of the pretreatment weight and death in SCID beige mice. AT-101 (35 mg/kg, orally per day for 10 days) plus intraperitoneal cyclophosphamide (Cy) and intraperitoneal rituximab (R) show significantitumor volume control compared to any other treatment group. [2] AT-101 (15 mg/kg, p.o., 5 days/week) as a single agent in intact mice significantly reduces the development of VCaP tumor growth compared to untreated tumors at weeks 2 to 6. AT-101 in combination with surgical castration delays the onset of androgen-independent VCaP tumor growth compared to castration-only or AT-101-only groups in mice. [5]

Protocol (from reference)

Kinase Assay:[1]
  • Fluorescence-Polarization-Based Binding Assay:

    For competitive binding experiments, Bcl-2 protein (40 nM) and FAM-Bid peptide (2.5 nM) are preincubated in the assay buffer (100 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.5; 100 μg/mL bovine gamma globulin; 0.02% sodium azide, 5 μL of a solution in DMSO of AT101 is added to the Bcl-2/FAM-Bid solution in Dynex 96-well, black, round-bottom plates to produce a final volume of 125 μL. For each experiment, a control containing Bcl-2 and Flu-Bid peptide (equivalent to 0% inhibition), and another control containing only FAM-Bid, are included on eachassay plate. After 4 hours incubation, the polarization values in milipolarization units (mP) weremeasured at an excitation wavelength at 485 nm and an emission wavelength at 530 nm using the Ultra plate reader. IC50,the inhibitor concentration at which 50% of bound peptide is displaced, is determined from the plot using nonlinear leastsquares analysis and curve fitting performed using GraphPad Prizm 4 software. The unlabeled Bid BH3 peptide is used as the positive control. PF for Bcl-xL protein, Bak BH3 peptide labeled with 6-carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (FAM-Bak) instead of the FAM-Bim to maximize the signal. It is determined that FAM-Bak has a Kd of 6 nM to Bcl-xL protein. The competitive binding assay for Bcl-xL is same as that for Bcl-2 with the following exceptions. 30 nM of Bcl-xL protein and 2.5 nM of FAM-Bak peptide in the following assay buffer: 50 mM Tris-Bis, pH 7.4 and 0.01% bovine gamma globulin. PF for Mcl-1 protein, FAM-Bid peptide and human Mcl-1 protein are used. It is determined that FAM-Bid peptide binds to human Mcl-1 protein with a Kd of 1.71 nM. The competitive binding assays for Mcl-1 are performed in the same manner as that for Bcl-2 with the following exceptions. 5 nM Mcl-1 and 1 nM Flu-Bid peptide in the following assay buffer: 25 mM Tris, pH 8.0; 150 mM NaCl and 0.05% Pluronic acid

Cell Research:[2]
  • Cell lines: RL, H9, SKI, HBL-2, Granta and JJN-3 cell lines
  • Concentrations: ~10 μM
  • Incubation Time: 72 hours
  • Method: Cells are counted and resuspended at an approximate concentration of 3×105 cells/well in a 24-well plate. AT-101 is diluted in DMSO that is maintained at a final concentration of less than 0.5%. Concentrations of AT-101 from 1 nM to 10 μM are used in most experiments. Following incubation at 37 ℃ in a 5% CO2 humidified incubator, 100 μL from each well is transferred to a 96-well opaque-walled plate; cell-Titer-Glo Reagent is added in a 1:1 ratio. Contents are mixed for 2 minutes on an orbital shaker to induce cell lysis. The plates are allowed to incubate at room temperature for 10 minutes before recording luminescence with a Synergy HT Multi-Detection Microplate Reader. In the schedule dependency experiments, serial dilutions of each drug are prepared in ratios relative to their IC50. Cells are preincubated with AT-101 for up to 72 hours, while 4-HC is added for a 24-hour period, being added at time 0, 24 hours, and 48 hours from the start of incubation. Each experiment is performed in triplicate and repeated at least twice.
Animal Research:[2]
  • Animal Models: SCID beige mice bearing RL-DLBCL xenograft
  • Dosages: 100 mg/kg
  • Administration: Oral gavage

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro

In vivo

Add solvents to the product individually and in order
(Data is from Selleck tests instead of citations):
2% DMSO+30% PEG 300+2% Tween 80+ddH2O
For best results, use promptly after mixing.


Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 578.61


CAS No. 866541-93-7
Storage 3 years -20°C powder
2 years -80°C in solvent
Smiles CC1=CC2=C(C(=C(C(=C2C(C)C)O)O)C=O)C(=C1C3=C(C4=C(C=C3C)C(=C(C(=C4C=O)O)O)C(C)C)O)O.CC(=O)O

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)

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Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation (This is only the calculator, not formulation. Please contact us first if there is no in vivo formulation at the solubility Section.)

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Calculation results:

Working concentration: mg/ml;

Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO ( Master liquid concentration mg/mL, Please contact us first if the concentration exceeds the DMSO solubility of the batch of drug. )

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300, mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80, mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O, mix and clarify.

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next add μL Corn oil, mix and clarify.

Note: 1. Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2. Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such
as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.

Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT00934076 Withdrawn Drug: Tarceva plus AT-101 Carcinoma Non Small Cell Lung University of Alabama at Birmingham|Ascenta Therapeutics February 2010 Phase 1
NCT00561197 Terminated Drug: AT-101 Locally Advanced Esophageal or GE Junction Cancer Ascenta Therapeutics August 2007 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT00286793 Completed Drug: AT-101 Prostate Cancer Ascenta Therapeutics February 2006 Phase 1|Phase 2

(data from https://clinicaltrials.gov, updated on 2022-01-17)

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

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Frequently Asked Questions

Question 1:
Is S2812 (-)-gossypol or another enantiomer?

S2812 AT101 is R-(–)-gossypolacetic acid.

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