Metformin HCl

Catalog No.S1950

Metformin HCl  Chemical Structure

Molecular Weight(MW): 165.62

Metformin HCl decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis).

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2 Customer Reviews

  • Cropped immunoblot analyses for downstream effector proteins of the MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways for NRASQ61 mutant lung carcinoma and neuroblastoma cell lines. Dual pathway inhibition can be achieved by combining metformin and trametinib, as evidenced by the abolishment of p-ERK and p-S6.

    Oncotarget, 2015, 6(2): 969-78 . Metformin HCl purchased from Selleck.

    Metformin added to atorvastatin therapy has no additional lipid-lowering effect. At the beginning of the experiment, rabbits were fed a high-cholesterol diet. After 2 weeks, rabbits were randomly stratified into the normal sodium (Ctrl group), atorvastatin (AT group), metformin (MT group), or atorvastatin/metformin combination therapy (AT + MT group) for a period of 10 weeks. Lipid levels were measured at −2, 0, 2, 6, 10 weeks after drug administration. Time-dependent changes and their AUC values of serum TC levels (A,B) are presented. Data are mean ± SD, n = 7 for each group. *P < 0.05, compared with Ctrl group. AUC, area under the curve; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TC, total cholesterol.

    Sci Rep, 2017, 7(1):2169. Metformin HCl purchased from Selleck.

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Biological Activity

Description Metformin HCl decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis).
AMPK [1]
In vitro

Metformin (500 μM) activates AMPK in hepatocytes, as a result, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity is reduced, fatty acid oxidation is induced, and expression of lipogenic enzymes is suppressed. Metformin (2 mM) activates muscle AMPK and promotes glucose uptake. Metformin (500 μM) or AICAR strongly suppresses SREBP-1 mRNA expression in rat hepatocytes. Metformin ameliorates hyperglycemia without stimulating insulin secretion, promoting weight gain, or causing hypoglycemia. Metformin has beneficial effects on circulating lipids linked to increased cardiovascular risk. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production and increases skeletal myocyte glucose uptake. [1] Metformin requires LKB1 in the liver to lower blood glucose levels. [2] Metformin (2 mM) leads to a significant increase in the activity of both α1- and α2-containing complexes in muscle cells. Metformin (2 mM) also increases threonine 172 phosphorylation in muscle cells. [3]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
human HepG2 cells MY\GeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NVPXcVlOOjRiaB?= MXfJcoNz\WG|ZTDpckBodHWlb4PlJINwdnO3bYD0bY9vKGmwIHnud5VtcW5vcnXzbZN1[W62IHj1cYFvKEincFeyJINmdGy|IHHmeIVzKDJ2IHjyd{whTUN3ME2wMlI4KM7:TT6= M{HTOVIyQDV4MES4
human MDA-MB-231 cells M3TFbWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M1LiXVEhfG9iMkCgcW0> MWGyOEBp M3XTTWFvfGmycn;sbYZmemG2aY\lJIFkfGm4aYT5JIFo[Wmwc4SgbJVu[W5iTVTBMW1DNTJ|MTDj[YxteyCjdDCxJJRwKDJyIH3NJIFnfGW{IEK0JIhzeyCkeTDNWHQh[XO|YYmu MoGwNlI1PTl{MEi=
human HepG2 cells M3i1VWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NH\sR3oyKG2P M1zs[FI1KGh? MULS[YR2[3Srb36gc4Yh\2y3Y3;z[UBkd26|dX3weIlwdiCrbjDpcpN2dGmwLYLld4l{fGGwdDDoeY1idiCKZYDHNkBk\WyuczDheEAyKG2PIHHmeIVzKDJ2IHjyd{BjgSCpbIXjc5NmKG:6aXThd4UhdWW2aH;kJIlvKHC{ZYPlcoNmKG:oIEKyMlIhdU1ib3[g[4x2[2:|ZR?= NYDp[ZFKOjNyMkWyOFQ>
mouse 3T3L1 cells MnrvSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MVuxJI1O MVfJcoR2[3Srb36gc4YhSU2SSzDwbI9{eGixconsZZRqd25iaX6gcY92e2ViM2SzUFEh[2WubIOgZZQhOSCvTTDifUBY\XO2ZYLuJIJtd3RiYX7hcJl{cXN? NXfPVXJkOjV{MU[zO|k>
human HepG2 cells NHXkWI1HfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M3u1WlEhdU1? NGjZV2wzPCCq NYi2UG01SWO2aY\heIlwdiCxZjDBUXBMKGmwIHj1cYFvKEincFeyJINmdGy|IHHzd4V{e2WmIHHzJJJm\HWldHnvckBw\iCpbIXjc45md2enbnXzbZMh[XRiMTDtUUBi\nSncjCyOEBpenNiYomg[Y57gW2jdHnjJINwdG:{aX3leJJq[yCjc4PhfS=> M2e5[|I3PDdzMEmw

... Click to View More Cell Line Experimental Data

In vivo Metformin (100 mg/ml, po) treatment produces significant decreases in hepatic expression of mRNAs for SREBP-1, FAS, and S14 in SD rats that are consistent with effects documented in cells. Metformin also decreases hepatic lipids in obese mice. [1] Metformin (250 mg/kg, i.p.) increases AMPK phosphorylation in livers of wild-type mice. Metformin (250 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment reduces blood glucose by more than 50% in the wild-type mice on a high-fat diet. Metformin (250 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment also loweres blood glucose in the ob/ob mice by 40%. [2]


Solubility (25°C)

In vitro Water 33 mg/mL warmed (199.25 mM)
DMSO Insoluble warmed
Ethanol Insoluble

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 165.62


CAS No. 1115-70-4
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms N/A

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Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT03686657 Not yet recruiting Type 2 Diabetes|High Blood Pressure|Arthritis|Obesity ARKAY Therapeutics|Albany Medical College August 5 2019 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT03452267 Not yet recruiting Insulin Sensitivity Wayne State University June 2019 Phase 2|Phase 3
NCT02571608 Not yet recruiting Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 McMaster University March 2019 Phase 4
NCT03499704 Not yet recruiting Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Takeda January 15 2019 Phase 4
NCT02978547 Not yet recruiting Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma British Columbia Cancer Agency|Pancreatic Cancer Canada|BC Cancer Foundation January 2019 Phase 2
NCT03710343 Not yet recruiting Cerebral Palsy|Spastic|Spastic Cerebral Palsy|Cerebral Palsy Spastic|Cerebral Palsy Mixed Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital|The Hospital for Sick Children January 1 2019 Phase 2

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Autophagy Signaling Pathway Map

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID