Metformin HCl

Catalog No.S1950 Synonyms: 1,1-Dimethylbiguanide HCl

For research use only.

Metformin HCl (1,1-Dimethylbiguanide HCl) decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis). Metformin promotes mitophagy in mononuclear cells. Metformin induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through activating JNK/p38 MAPK pathway and GADD153.

Metformin HCl  Chemical Structure

CAS No. 1115-70-4

Selleck's Metformin HCl has been cited by 67 publications

Purity & Quality Control

Choose Selective Carbohydrate Metabolism Inhibitors

Biological Activity

Description Metformin HCl (1,1-Dimethylbiguanide HCl) decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis). Metformin promotes mitophagy in mononuclear cells. Metformin induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through activating JNK/p38 MAPK pathway and GADD153.
Targets
AMPK [1]
(Hepatocytes)
In vitro

Metformin (500 μM) activates AMPK in hepatocytes, as a result, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity is reduced, fatty acid oxidation is induced, and expression of lipogenic enzymes is suppressed. Metformin (2 mM) activates muscle AMPK and promotes glucose uptake. Metformin (500 μM) or AICAR strongly suppresses SREBP-1 mRNA expression in rat hepatocytes. Metformin ameliorates hyperglycemia without stimulating insulin secretion, promoting weight gain, or causing hypoglycemia. Metformin has beneficial effects on circulating lipids linked to increased cardiovascular risk. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production and increases skeletal myocyte glucose uptake. [1] Metformin requires LKB1 in the liver to lower blood glucose levels. [2] Metformin (2 mM) leads to a significant increase in the activity of both α1- and α2-containing complexes in muscle cells. Metformin (2 mM) also increases threonine 172 phosphorylation in muscle cells. [3]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
human HepG2 cells MUfGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NWPhNYE{OSCvTR?= MmDONlQhcA>? MVnBZ5RqfmG2aX;uJI9nKEGPUFugbY4hcHWvYX6gTIVxTzJiY3XscJMh[XO|ZYPz[YQh[XNicnXkeYN1cW:wIH;mJIdtfWOxbnXv[4Vv\XOrczDheEAyKG2PIHHmeIVzKDJ2IHjyd{BjgSCnbor5cYF1cWNiY3;sc5JqdWW2cnnjJIF{e2G7 NHriW|g9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkS3NVA6OCd-Mk[0O|ExQTB:L3G+
mouse 3T3L1 cells M3n5OGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M1T0[FEhdU1? MWHJcoR2[3Srb36gc4YhSU2SSzDwbI9{eGixconsZZRqd25iaX6gcY92e2ViM2SzUFEh[2WubIOgZZQhOSCvTTDifUBY\XO2ZYLuJIJtd3RiYX7hcJl{cXN? Ml2xQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV{MU[zO|koRjJ3MkG2N|c6RC:jPh?=
human HepG2 cells MmHXSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MX[xJI1O M3L2O|I1KGh? M3;mNnJm\HWldHnvckBw\iCpbIXjc5NmKGOxboP1cZB1cW:wIHnuJIlve3WuaX6tdoV{cXO2YX70JIh2dWGwIFjldGczKGOnbHzzJIF1KDFibV2gZYZ1\XJiMkSgbJJ{KGK7IHfseYNwe2Vib4jp[IF{\SCvZYToc4QhcW5icILld4Vv[2Vib3[gNlIvOiCvTTDv[kBodHWlb4Pl MlrDQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjNyMkWyOFQoRjJ|MEK1NlQ1RC:jPh?=
human MDA-MB-231 cells M4nqd2Z2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MUCxJJRwKDJyIH3N NET4bIUzPCCq M13lWWFvfGmycn;sbYZmemG2aY\lJIFkfGm4aYT5JIFo[Wmwc4SgbJVu[W5iTVTBMW1DNTJ|MTDj[YxteyCjdDCxJJRwKDJyIH3NJIFnfGW{IEK0JIhzeyCkeTDNWHQh[XO|YYmu NWr5TlU6RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkK0OVkzODhpPkKyOFU6OjB6PD;hQi=>
human HepG2 cells NIPWWVJHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M3nONFI1KGh? M13G[Wlv[3KnYYPlJIlvKGeudXPvd4Uh[2:wc4XtdJRqd25iaX6gbY5{fWyrbj3y[ZNqe3SjboSgbJVu[W5iSHXwS|Ih[2WubIOgZYZ1\XJiMkSgbJJ{NCCHQ{WwQVAvOjdizszNMi=> MUi8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOTh3NkC0PEc,OjF6NU[wOFg9N2F-
Hs575T MVHGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M13YSVIxKG2P MorHNlQhcHK| M{nQeGlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZibWTPVkBxcG:|cHjvdplt[XSrb36gbY4hfHKrcHzlMY5m\2G2aY\lJIh2dWGwIFjzOVc2XCClZXzsd{BifCB{MDDtUUBi\nSncjCyOEBpenNiYomgbY1ufW6xYnzveEBidmGueYPpdy=> MXK8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOzR7MEG0PEc,OjN2OUCxOFg9N2F-
Hs578T Mm\pRY51cWmwdnHzbZZmKGG|c3H5 NWn3eZhJOjBibV2= NXrCcYR[OTdiaILz MVPBcpRqcW64YYPpeoUh[WO2aY\peJkh[WejaX7zeEB1emmybHWtcoVo[XSrdnWgbJVu[W5iSIO1O|hVKGOnbHzzJIF1KDJyIH3NJIFnfGW{IEG3JIhzeyCkeTDsbYdpfCCvaXPyc5Nkd3CrYzDhcoFtgXOrcx?= NYnySVEyRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkO0PVAyPDhpPkKzOFkxOTR6PD;hQi=>
Hs575T MUXGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MXKyNEBuVQ>? MWOyOEBpenN? NUjUXXM3SWO2aY\heIlwdiCxZjDBUXBMKGmwIITybZBt\S2wZXfheIl3\SCqdX3hckBJezV5NWSgZ4VtdHNiYYSgNlAhdU1iYX\0[ZIhOjRiaILzJIJ6KGmvbYXuc4Jtd3RiYX7hcJl{cXN? NIr0UnQ9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{M{S5NFE1QCd-MkO0PVAyPDh:L3G+
L6 MV\GeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NYXMOnNrOiCvTR?= NWnV[pFPPCCqcoO= MVPJcoNz\WG|ZTDpckBodHWlb4PlJJVxfGGtZTDpckBz[XRiTE[gZ4VtdHNiYYSgNkBuVSC2cnXheIVlKG[xcjC0JIhzeyCyb4P0JFMxKG2rboOgRW1RUyCrbnjpZol1d3JiY3;tdI92dmRiQzD0doVifG2nboS= NIPObVE9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{OUGyPFE3Oyd-MkmxNlgyPjN:L3G+
HepG2 M1y2XWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M4T4blEhdU1? M3LVVVI1KGi{cx?= NXnRR5ROUW6mdXP0bY9vKG:oIHfseYNwe2ViY3;ud5VueHSrb36gbY4hcHWvYX6gTIVxTzJiY3XscJMh[XRiMTDtUUBqdmO3YnH0[YQh\m:{IEK0JIhzew>? Mm\uQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjh4NUG5PFQoRjJ6NkWxPVg1RC:jPh?=
Assay
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot p-AMPK / AMPK / p-mTOR / mTOR / p-S6K / S6K ; TTP / p-STAT3 / STAT3 / c-Myc ; pACC / ACC / pS6 / S6 ; pSTAT3 (Ser727) / STAT3 / Jak2 / Cdk5 / pNFκB / Bcl-2 / Bcl-XL / c-Myc 24505341 26956973 26172303 28114390
Immunofluorescence LKB1 ; PAR ; CD86 / CD206 ; beta-catenin / AMPK 29601127 21422199 30899369 30854043
Growth inhibition assay Cell viability 26956973
In vivo Metformin (100 mg/ml, po) treatment produces significant decreases in hepatic expression of mRNAs for SREBP-1, FAS, and S14 in SD rats that are consistent with effects documented in cells. Metformin also decreases hepatic lipids in obese mice. [1] Metformin (250 mg/kg, i.p.) increases AMPK phosphorylation in livers of wild-type mice. Metformin (250 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment reduces blood glucose by more than 50% in the wild-type mice on a high-fat diet. Metformin (250 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment also loweres blood glucose in the ob/ob mice by 40%. [2]

Protocol (from reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 165.62
Formula

C4H11N5.HCl

CAS No. 1115-70-4
Storage 3 years -20°C powder
2 years -80°C in solvent
Smiles CN(C)C(=N)N=C(N)N.Cl

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)

mg/kg g μL

Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation (This is only the calculator, not formulation. Please contact us first if there is no in vivo formulation at the solubility Section.)

% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O
%DMSO %

Calculation results:

Working concentration: mg/ml;

Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO ( Master liquid concentration mg/mL, Please contact us first if the concentration exceeds the DMSO solubility of the batch of drug. )

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300, mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80, mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O, mix and clarify.

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next add μL Corn oil, mix and clarify.

Note: 1. Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2. Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such
as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.

Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT04169243 Not yet recruiting Behavioral: New Nordic Diet|Other: Control Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Göteborg University|Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research September 2022 Not Applicable
NCT04931017 Not yet recruiting Drug: Extended Release Metformin Hydrochloride Lung Carcinoma National Cancer Institute (NCI) April 20 2022 Phase 2
NCT05131828 Not yet recruiting Drug: Metformin and clemastine in combination|Drug: Placebo Multiple Sclerosis Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust|University of Cambridge February 2022 Phase 2
NCT05181449 Not yet recruiting Behavioral: Twin Precision Treatment Type 2 Diabetes The Cleveland Clinic|Twin Health January 3 2022 Not Applicable

(data from https://clinicaltrials.gov, updated on 2022-01-17)

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

Tel: +1-832-582-8158 Ext:3
If you have any other enquiries, please leave a message.

* Indicates a Required Field

Please enter your name.
Please enter your email. Please enter a valid email address.
Please write something to us.
Tags: buy Metformin HCl | Metformin HCl ic50 | Metformin HCl price | Metformin HCl cost | Metformin HCl solubility dmso | Metformin HCl purchase | Metformin HCl manufacturer | Metformin HCl research buy | Metformin HCl order | Metformin HCl mouse | Metformin HCl chemical structure | Metformin HCl mw | Metformin HCl molecular weight | Metformin HCl datasheet | Metformin HCl supplier | Metformin HCl in vitro | Metformin HCl cell line | Metformin HCl concentration | Metformin HCl nmr