Metformin HCl

Catalog No.S1950

Metformin HCl  Chemical Structure

Molecular Weight(MW): 165.62

Metformin HCl decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis).

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2 Customer Reviews

  • Cropped immunoblot analyses for downstream effector proteins of the MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways for NRASQ61 mutant lung carcinoma and neuroblastoma cell lines. Dual pathway inhibition can be achieved by combining metformin and trametinib, as evidenced by the abolishment of p-ERK and p-S6.

    Oncotarget, 2015, 6(2): 969-78 . Metformin HCl purchased from Selleck.

    Metformin added to atorvastatin therapy has no additional lipid-lowering effect. At the beginning of the experiment, rabbits were fed a high-cholesterol diet. After 2 weeks, rabbits were randomly stratified into the normal sodium (Ctrl group), atorvastatin (AT group), metformin (MT group), or atorvastatin/metformin combination therapy (AT + MT group) for a period of 10 weeks. Lipid levels were measured at −2, 0, 2, 6, 10 weeks after drug administration. Time-dependent changes and their AUC values of serum TC levels (A,B) are presented. Data are mean ± SD, n = 7 for each group. *P < 0.05, compared with Ctrl group. AUC, area under the curve; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TC, total cholesterol.

    Sci Rep, 2017, 7(1):2169. Metformin HCl purchased from Selleck.

Purity & Quality Control

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Biological Activity

Description Metformin HCl decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis).
Targets
AMPK [1]
(Hepatocytes)
In vitro

Metformin (500 μM) activates AMPK in hepatocytes, as a result, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity is reduced, fatty acid oxidation is induced, and expression of lipogenic enzymes is suppressed. Metformin (2 mM) activates muscle AMPK and promotes glucose uptake. Metformin (500 μM) or AICAR strongly suppresses SREBP-1 mRNA expression in rat hepatocytes. Metformin ameliorates hyperglycemia without stimulating insulin secretion, promoting weight gain, or causing hypoglycemia. Metformin has beneficial effects on circulating lipids linked to increased cardiovascular risk. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production and increases skeletal myocyte glucose uptake. [1] Metformin requires LKB1 in the liver to lower blood glucose levels. [2] Metformin (2 mM) leads to a significant increase in the activity of both α1- and α2-containing complexes in muscle cells. Metformin (2 mM) also increases threonine 172 phosphorylation in muscle cells. [3]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
human HepG2 cells MmrQSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NVG5SldDOjRiaB?= MlvaTY5kemWjc3WgbY4h\2y3Y3;z[UBkd26|dX3weIlwdiCrbjDpcpN2dGmwLYLld4l{fGGwdDDoeY1idiCKZYDHNkBk\WyuczDh[pRmeiB{NDDodpMtKEWFNUC9NE4zPyEQvF2u NIDO[4UzOTh3NkC0PC=>
human MDA-MB-231 cells M1XlbmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NXjyXJBMOSC2bzCyNEBuVQ>? NY\XfI1bOjRiaB?= MlvwRY51cXC{b3zp[oVz[XSrdnWgZYN1cX[rdImgZYdicW6|dDDoeY1idiCPRFGtUWIuOjNzIHPlcIx{KGG2IEGgeI8hOjBibV2gZYZ1\XJiMkSgbJJ{KGK7IF3UWEBie3OjeT6= NVfJ[pJmOjJ2NUmyNFg>
human HepG2 cells NXnQOVQ5TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MUCxJI1O Mn7LNlQhcA>? MmjUVoVlfWO2aX;uJI9nKGeudXPvd4Uh[2:wc4XtdJRqd25iaX6gbY5{fWyrbj3y[ZNqe3SjboSgbJVu[W5iSHXwS|Ih[2WubIOgZZQhOSCvTTDh[pRmeiB{NDDodpMh[nliZ3z1Z49{\SCxeHnkZZNmKG2ndHjv[EBqdiCycnXz[Y5k\SCxZjCyNk4zKG2PIH;mJIdtfWOxc3W= NFP2S2ozOzB{NUK0OC=>
mouse 3T3L1 cells NIn4fXRHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MY[xJI1O NXfhb4NZUW6mdXP0bY9vKG:oIFHNVGsheGixc4Doc5J6dGG2aX;uJIlvKG2xdYPlJFNVO0xzIHPlcIx{KGG2IEGgcW0h[nliV3XzeIVzdiCkbH;0JIFv[Wy7c3nz MUWyOVIyPjN5OR?=
human HepG2 cells MoqwSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MXGxJI1O MVGyOEBp NIPnWmpC[3SrdnH0bY9vKG:oIFHNVGshcW5iaIXtZY4hUGWyR{KgZ4VtdHNiYYPz[ZN{\WRiYYOgdoVlfWO2aX;uJI9nKGeudXPvcoVw\2WwZYPpd{BifCBzIH3NJIFnfGW{IEK0JIhzeyCkeTDlcpp6dWG2aXOgZ49td3KrbXX0dolkKGG|c3H5 NF\XOG4zPjR5MUC5NC=>

... Click to View More Cell Line Experimental Data

In vivo Metformin (100 mg/ml, po) treatment produces significant decreases in hepatic expression of mRNAs for SREBP-1, FAS, and S14 in SD rats that are consistent with effects documented in cells. Metformin also decreases hepatic lipids in obese mice. [1] Metformin (250 mg/kg, i.p.) increases AMPK phosphorylation in livers of wild-type mice. Metformin (250 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment reduces blood glucose by more than 50% in the wild-type mice on a high-fat diet. Metformin (250 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment also loweres blood glucose in the ob/ob mice by 40%. [2]

Protocol

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro Water 33 mg/mL warmed (199.25 mM)
DMSO Insoluble warmed
Ethanol Insoluble

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 165.62
Formula

C4H11N5.HCl

CAS No. 1115-70-4
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms N/A

Bio Calculators

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Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT03467763 Recruiting Metformin Adverse Reaction|Tolerance Weill Medical College of Cornell University|Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) February 9 2018 Phase 4
NCT03686722 Completed Diabetes Mellitus Type 2|Hepatitis C|Drug Interactions Mohamed Raslan|Ain Shams University|Drug Research Centre Cairo Egypt September 9 2017 Phase 1
NCT03202563 Active not recruiting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus LG Chem August 9 2017 Phase 4
NCT02836704 Completed Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Sanofi September 9 2016 Phase 4
NCT02623998 Active not recruiting Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Population Health Research Institute|Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. July 9 2016 Phase 3
NCT02738879 Completed Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. May 9 2016 Phase 3

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

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Autophagy Signaling Pathway Map

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID