For research use only.
Catalog No.S1950 Synonyms: 1,1-Dimethylbiguanide HCl
CAS No. 1115-70-4
Metformin HCl (1,1-Dimethylbiguanide HCl) decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis). Metformin promotes mitophagy in mononuclear cells. Metformin induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through activating JNK/p38 MAPK pathway and GADD153.
Selleck's Metformin HCl has been cited by 49 publications
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|Description||Metformin HCl (1,1-Dimethylbiguanide HCl) decreases hyperglycemia in hepatocytes primarily by suppressing glucose production by the liver (hepatic gluconeogenesis). Metformin promotes mitophagy in mononuclear cells. Metformin induces apoptosis of lung cancer cells through activating JNK/p38 MAPK pathway and GADD153.|
Metformin (500 μM) activates AMPK in hepatocytes, as a result, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity is reduced, fatty acid oxidation is induced, and expression of lipogenic enzymes is suppressed. Metformin (2 mM) activates muscle AMPK and promotes glucose uptake. Metformin (500 μM) or AICAR strongly suppresses SREBP-1 mRNA expression in rat hepatocytes. Metformin ameliorates hyperglycemia without stimulating insulin secretion, promoting weight gain, or causing hypoglycemia. Metformin has beneficial effects on circulating lipids linked to increased cardiovascular risk. Metformin decreases hepatic glucose production and increases skeletal myocyte glucose uptake.  Metformin requires LKB1 in the liver to lower blood glucose levels.  Metformin (2 mM) leads to a significant increase in the activity of both α1- and α2-containing complexes in muscle cells. Metformin (2 mM) also increases threonine 172 phosphorylation in muscle cells. 
|In vivo||Metformin (100 mg/ml, po) treatment produces significant decreases in hepatic expression of mRNAs for SREBP-1, FAS, and S14 in SD rats that are consistent with effects documented in cells. Metformin also decreases hepatic lipids in obese mice.  Metformin (250 mg/kg, i.p.) increases AMPK phosphorylation in livers of wild-type mice. Metformin (250 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment reduces blood glucose by more than 50% in the wild-type mice on a high-fat diet. Metformin (250 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment also loweres blood glucose in the ob/ob mice by 40%. |
|In vitro||Water||33 mg/mL warmed (199.25 mM)|
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Clinical Trial Information
|NCT Number||Recruitment||interventions||Conditions||Sponsor/Collaborators||Start Date||Phases|
|NCT04758000||Recruiting||Drug: Metformin Hydrochloride||Osteosarcoma|Ewing Sarcoma||Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli||March 1 2021||Phase 2|
|NCT04583462||Not yet recruiting||Drug: Metformin|Drug: Placebo||Peripheral Arterial Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes||Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris||December 1 2020||Phase 3|
|NCT02978547||Unknown status||Drug: Metformin Hydrochloride 500Mg Tablet||Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma||British Columbia Cancer Agency|Pancreatic Cancer Canada|BC Cancer Foundation||January 2019||Phase 2|
|NCT03722290||Completed||Drug: Metformin||Fragile X Syndrome||Université de Sherbrooke|FRAXA Research Foundation||September 1 2018||Phase 2|
|NCT02684578||Recruiting||Drug: Metformin||Age-Related Macular Degeneration|Macular Degeneration Age-Related|Dry Macular Degeneration|Geographic Atrophy||University of California San Francisco|San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center|VA Palo Alto Health Care System|University of California Davis|University of California Los Angeles|University of California Irvine|University of California San Diego|Northwestern University|University of Illinois at Chicago|Retinal Consultants Medical Group|Retina Health Center|California Retina Consultants|Oregon Health and Science University||April 2016||Phase 2|
|NCT03361878||Completed||Drug: Metformin Hydrochloride||Diabetes Mellitus Type 2|Metformin Adverse Reaction||NHS Tayside|University of Southern Denmark|University of Dundee|Helmholtz Zentrum München||May 4 2014||Phase 4|
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