Tubastatin A

For research use only.

Catalog No.S8049

71 publications

Tubastatin A Chemical Structure

CAS No. 1252003-15-8

Tubastatin A is a potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitor with IC50 of 15 nM in a cell-free assay. It is selective against all the other isozymes (1000-fold) except HDAC8 (57-fold). Tubastatin A promotes autophagy and increases apoptosis.

Selleck's Tubastatin A has been cited by 71 publications

Purity & Quality Control

Choose Selective HDAC Inhibitors

Biological Activity

Description Tubastatin A is a potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitor with IC50 of 15 nM in a cell-free assay. It is selective against all the other isozymes (1000-fold) except HDAC8 (57-fold). Tubastatin A promotes autophagy and increases apoptosis.
Targets
HDAC6 [1]
(Cell-free assay)
15 nM
In vitro

Tubastatin A is selective at all isozymes except HDAC8 and maintains over 1000-fold selectivity against all isoforms excluding HDAC8, where it has approximately 57-fold selectivity. Tubastatin A preferentially induces α-tubulin hyperacetylation at 2.5 μM. Slight induction of histone hyperacetylation is seen for Tubastatin A at 10 μM. Tubastatin A displays dose-dependent protection against homocysteic acid-induced neuronal cell death starting at 5 μM with near complete protection at 10 μM. [1] Tubastatin A (10 μM) induces an increase in acetylated-α-tubulin levels and the restoration of primary cilia expression in the cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (18-fold); and the restoration of primary cilia correlated with downregulated Hedgehog (Hh) and MAPK signaling pathways, as well as decreased cell proliferation rates (in average by 50%) and invasion (by 40%). [2] Tubastatin A shows significant inhibition of TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS stimulated human THP-1 macrophages with an IC50 of 272 nM and 712 nM. Tubastatin A inhibits nitric oxide (NO) secretion in murine Raw 264.7 macrophages dose depenndently with an IC50 of 4.2 μM. [3]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
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... Click to View More Cell Line Experimental Data

Assay
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot
EGFR / p-AKT / AKT / p-ERK / ERK ; 

PubMed: 29665050     


In KYSE140 (C) and KYSE180 (D), Tubastatin treatment EGFR, AKT, phosphoAKT and phospho-ERK levels were decreased in tubastatin-treated cells compared with control group.

29665050
Immunofluorescence
α-tubulin / Acetylated tubulin ; 

PubMed: 23798680     


Effects of tubastatin A on microtubules and microtubule acetylation level are shown. MCF-7 cells were treated with different concentrations of tubastatin A for 24 h and processed for immunostaining with antibodies against α-tubulin (green) and acetylated tubulin (red). Scale bars, 10 μm.

HDAC6; 

PubMed: 23798680     


MCF-7 cells are treated with vehicle, 30 μM tubastatin A (TBA), or 240 nM TSA for 24 h and fixed and processed to visualize microtubules (red) and HDAC6 (green). Scale bar, 20 μm.

23798680
In vivo Tubastatin A reduces the growth of cholangiocarcinoma in vivo. Tubastatin A (10 mg/kg) induces a 6-fold lower mean tumor weights in syngeneic rat orthotopic model of cholangiocarcinoma, and reduction of the ratios of tumor weight to liver weight and body weight (5- and 5.6-fold, respectively), as well as a greater frequency of ciliated cholangiocytes compared with controls (29% vs 1.4%). Tubastatin A significantly decreases the amount of PCNA-positive cells in the treated tumors compared with vehicle controls (34% vs 65%). [2] Tubastat A shows significant inhibition of paw volume at 30 mg/kg i.p. in a Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced animal model of inflammation. Tubastat A (30 mg/kg i.p.) significant attenuates clinical scores (~ 70%), and IL-6 expression in paw tissues of collagen induced arthritis DBA1 mouse. [3]

Protocol

Kinase Assay:

[4]

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HDAC enzymatic assays:

Tubastatin A is dissolved and diluted in assay buffer (50 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, 100 mM KCl, 0.001% Tween-20, 0.05% BSA, and 20 μM tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine) to 6-fold of the final concentration. HDAC enzymes are diluted to 1.5-fold of the final concentration in assay buffer and pre-incubated with Tubastatin A for 10 minutes before the addition of the substrate. The amount of FTS (HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3, and HDAC6) or MAZ-1675 (HDAC4, HDAC5, HDAC7, HDAC8, and HDAC9) used for each enzyme is equal to the Michaelis constant (Km), as determined by a titration curve. FTS or MAZ-1675 is diluted in assay buffer to 6-fold the final concentration with 0.3 μM sequencing grade trypsin. The substrate/trypsin mix is added to the enzyme/compound mix and the plate is shaken for 60 seconds and then placed into a SpectraMax M5 microtiter plate reader. The enzymatic reaction is monitored for release of 7-amino-4-methoxy-coumarin over 30 minutes, after deacetylation of the lysine side chain in the peptide substrate, and the linear rate of the reaction is calculated.
Cell Research:

[2]

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  • Cell lines: Human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines HuCCT-1
  • Concentrations: ~10 μM
  • Incubation Time: 21 days
  • Method:

    Anchorage-independent growth is assessed by growing cells in soft agar. About 25,000 cells suspended in 0.4% agar in culture media are layered over a 1% agar layer in a 6-well plate. Media are added twice a week and pictures are taken after 21 days of incubation. The number and size of colonies are analyzed using the Gel-Pro software.


    (Only for Reference)
Animal Research:

[2]

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  • Animal Models: Rat cholangiocarcinoma xenografts BDEneu
  • Dosages: 10 mg/kg
  • Administration: i.p. daily
    (Only for Reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 67 mg/mL warmed (199.76 mM)
Water Insoluble
Ethanol Insoluble
In vivo Add solvents to the product individually and in order(Data is from Selleck tests instead of citations):
5% DMSO+40% PEG 300+5%Tween 80+50% ddH2O
For best results, use promptly after mixing.
1.67mg/mL

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 335.4
Formula

C20H21N3O2

CAS No. 1252003-15-8
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms N/A
Smiles CN1CCC2=C(C1)C3=CC=CC=C3N2CC4=CC=C(C=C4)C(=O)NO

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)
Dosage mg/kg Average weight of animals g Dosing volume per animal ul Number of animals
Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation ()
% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O
CalculateReset

Bio Calculators

Molarity Calculator

Molarity Calculator

Calculate the mass, volume or concentration required for a solution. The Selleck molarity calculator is based on the following equation:

Mass (mg) = Concentration (mM) × Volume (mL) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)

  • Mass
    Concentration
    Volume
    Molecular Weight

*When preparing stock solutions, please always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the via label and SDS / COA (available on product pages).

Dilution Calculator

Dilution Calculator

Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution. The Selleck dilution calculator is based on the following equation:

Concentration (start) x Volume (start) = Concentration (final) x Volume (final)

This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2 ( Input Output )

  • C1
    V1
    C2
    V2

* When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and SDS / COA (available online).

The Serial Dilution Calculator Equation

  • Serial Dilutions

  • Computed Result

  • C1=C0/X C1: LOG(C1):
    C2=C1/X C2: LOG(C2):
    C3=C2/X C3: LOG(C3):
    C4=C3/X C4: LOG(C4):
    C5=C4/X C5: LOG(C5):
    C6=C5/X C6: LOG(C6):
    C7=C6/X C7: LOG(C7):
    C8=C7/X C8: LOG(C8):
Molecular Weight Calculator

Molecular Weight Calculator

Enter the chemical formula of a compound to calculate its molar mass and elemental composition:

Total Molecular Weight: g/mol

Tip: Chemical formula is case sensitive. C10H16N2O2 c10h16n2o2

Instructions to calculate molar mass (molecular weight) of a chemical compound:

To calculate molar mass of a chemical compound, please enter its chemical formula and click 'Calculate'.

Definitions of molecular mass, molecular weight, molar mass and molar weight:

Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u). (1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12)
Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/mol.

Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

Tel: +1-832-582-8158 Ext:3

If you have any other enquiries, please leave a message.

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Frequently Asked Questions

  • Question 1:

    We are planning to order some tubastatin A but I found out there are two versions of it. One has HCl and one does not. Which one do you recommend for live cell use? Will the HCl containing version significantly change the pH?

  • Answer:

    S8049 and S2627 have same molecular structure. The only difference is S2627 containing HCl and has higher solubility in DMSO (74 mg/mL vs. S8049 9 mg/mL). Since they are the same molecule, the biological function should be similar. I would recommend to use S2627 for cell culture study.

  • Question 2:

    What’s the vehicle do you recommend to dissolve the compound for in vivo experiments?

  • Answer:

    S8049 Tubastatin A can be dissolved in 2% DMSO/30% PEG 300/PBS at 2.5 mg/mL as a clear solution, and it is also a clear solution in 2% DMSO/ corn oil at 2.5 mg/mL. The drug in 2% DMSO/0.5% Tween 80/PBS is a homogeneous suspension at 2.5 mg/mL at first. After stay for a while, the precipitation goes out at the bottom of the tube.

HDAC Signaling Pathway Map

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID