3-Methyladenine (3-MA)

Catalog No.S2767 Synonyms: NSC 66389

For research use only.

3-Methyladenine (3-MA, NSC 66389) is a selective PI3K inhibitor for Vps34 and PI3Kγ with IC50 of 25 μM and 60 μM in HeLa cells; blocks class I PI3K consistently, whereas suppression of class III PI3K is transient, and also blocks autophagosome formation. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is successfully used to suppress mitophagy. Solutions of 3-MA are best fresh-prepared by heating.

3-Methyladenine (3-MA) Chemical Structure

CAS No. 5142-23-4

Selleck's 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) has been cited by 693 publications

Purity & Quality Control

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Biological Activity

Description 3-Methyladenine (3-MA, NSC 66389) is a selective PI3K inhibitor for Vps34 and PI3Kγ with IC50 of 25 μM and 60 μM in HeLa cells; blocks class I PI3K consistently, whereas suppression of class III PI3K is transient, and also blocks autophagosome formation. 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) is successfully used to suppress mitophagy. Solutions of 3-MA are best fresh-prepared by heating.
Targets
Vps34 [1]
(HeLa cells)
PI3Kγ [1]
(HeLa cells)
25 μM 60 μM
In vitro

The slight preference for Vps34 prevention by 3-Methyladenine probably arises from a hydrophobic ring specific to Vps34, which encircles the 3-methyl group of 3-Methyladenine. [1] 3-Methyladenine has been reported to cause cancer cell death under both normal and starvation conditions. 3-Methyladenine could also suppress cell migration and invasion independently of its ability to inhibit autophagy, implying that 3-Methyladenine possesses functions other than autophagy suppression. 3-Methyladenine elicits caspase-dependent cell death that is independent of autophagy inhibition. Treatment with 5 mM 3-Methyladenine reduces the percentage of glucose-starved HeLa cells displaying GFP-LC3 puncta to 23%. The levels of LC3-I are increasing and the levels of LC3-II are decreasing between 12 and 48 hours in cells that are treated with 3-Methyladenine. Conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II is suppressed by 3-Methyladenine. Treatment of HeLa cells with 3-Methyladenine at 2.5 mM or 5 mM for one day does not affect cell viability, whereas treatment with 10 mM 3-Methyladenine for one day causes a 25.0% decrease in cell viability. Treatment of cells with 2.5, 5 or 10 mM 3-Methyladenine for two days causes 11.5%, 38.0% and 79.4% decrease in viability, respectively. 3-Methyladenine decreases cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. 3-Methyladenine significantly shortens the duration of nocodazole-induced-prometaphase arrest. [2] Suppression of autophagy by 3-Methyladenine inhibits SU11274-induced cell death. [3] Prolonged treatment with 3-Methyladenine (up to 9 hours) induces significant LC3 I to II conversion in wild type MEFs. Prolonged treatment with 3-Methyladenine, but not wortmannin, markedly increases GFP-LC3 punctuation/aggregation. 3-Methyladenine-induced LC3 conversion and free GFP liberation are ATG7-dependent. 3-Methyladenine treatment leads to evident increase of p62 protein level. 3-Methyladenine increases the p62 level even in Atg5−/− MEFs as well as in cells with DOX-mediated deletion of ATG5. 3-Methyladenine inhibits class I and class III PI3K in different temporal patterns. 3-Methyladenine-induced LC3 I to LC3 II conversion is dramatically compromised in Tsc2−/− cells compared with wild type cells.3-Methyladenine disrupts the anti-autophagic function of mTOR complex 1. [4]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
K562 NXXLXHFNTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NVy5fIRxOTCvTR?= MXixbC=> MULk[YNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKGW6cILld5Nqd25ib3[gUGM{NUmLIHHu[EB1cGViZn;ycYF1cW:wIH;mJIF2fG:yaHHnc5NwdWW| NUDrTIhzRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkG4OlQxOzdpPkKxPFY1ODN5PD;hQi=>
Jurkat Mn\0SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MWOxNI1O MV2xbC=> MXzk[YNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKGW6cILld5Nqd25ib3[gUGM{NUmLIHHu[EB1cGViZn;ycYF1cW:wIH;mJIF2fG:yaHHnc5NwdWW| MVO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOTh4NECzO{c,OjF6NkSwN|c9N2F-
HeLa  NF7qOXJEgXSxdH;4bYNqfHliQYPzZZk> MYSycW0> MUKyOIg> MkS0bY5pcWKrdHXzJJRp\SCleYTveI95cWOrdImgc4Yhe2muaXLpcolvKHSxIFjlUIEh[2WubIOu MlqzQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjF6N{WzPFUoRjJzOEe1N|g2RC:jPh?=
PC12/TetOn MmD5SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MWCwMlEwOW2P NV;ifVc5OTiq NIq3Nmht\WGmczD0c{DPuS2|eX6oW3QqKGGlY4XteYxifGmxbjygeI95cWOrdImsJIFv\CCxbHnnc41meiCob4LtZZRqd28EoB?= MnqxQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjF7ME[2OVkoRjJzOUC2OlU6RC:jPh?=
RMPI8226  MWjGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MmCzOY1O NHq4fnEycA>? MoXKd5VxeHKnc4Pld{B1cGVibHX2[Ywhd2ZiYYX0c5Bp[We7IIXu[IVzKG63dILp[Y51KGSncHzleIlwdg>? MYq8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOTlzNU[yNEc,OjF7MUW2NlA9N2F-
MCF-7 M13FWmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NXTleIJDOTCvTR?= MVi0PIg> M37hfIJtd2OtczDheZRweGijZ4mgbY5lfWOnZDDifUBjd3K2ZYrvcYlj MkLvQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjF7M{G5N|coRjJzOUOxPVM4RC:jPh?=
HBx  MoDBRZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 NXT4cY9FOTCvTR?= M2jBVVQ5cA>? NIS1UHdFVVOR M1\IUIlv[3KnYYPld{Bk\WyuIHTlZZRp NV2wXXh1RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkKwNlAxPzhpPkKyNFIxODd6PD;hQi=>
Marc-145 M2XDb2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NVXsPIh5PW2P NILTcJgyOi9{ND:zOog> M13p[JJm\HWlZYOgeIhmKFCUUmPWJJRqfGW{czDhcoQhfGinIIDyc5RmcW5iZYjwdoV{e2mxbh?= M37pUlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ{MUG5PVAxLz5{MkGxPVkxODxxYU6=
U937 Mnv1SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NHL1blQzdU1? MV:xNog> MXjk[YNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKGG3dH;wbIFogSC{YYTpc:Kh MU[8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOjF3NUG1NEc,OjJzNUWxOVA9N2F-
BGC-823 Mm\GSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MYS1cW0> MkDrNog> NU\SSmszcW6qaXLpeJMhfGinIILheIUhd2ZiYYX0c5Bp[WerYzDj[Yxtew>? NGjkdZc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MkOyNlE2Oid-MkKzNlIyPTJ:L3G+
A549 M4e0[mZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MXiwMlFuVQ>? MoDENlRp NWe3NnY{e3WycILld5NmeyCVVUGxNlc1NWmwZIXj[YQh[2WubDDk[YF1cA>? NVHVO5lsRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkK0OlY6PjBpPkKyOFY3QTZyPD;hQi=>
pDCs M4S5fWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MnP4NVBuVQ>? MVSwMlVp NILrZ4LDqHKnZIXj[ZMhfGinIHnu[JVkfGmxbjDv[kBKTk5vzsGgZpkhe3OUTlG0NC=> NHj5NnQ9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MkO5OlU6QSd-MkKzPVY2QTl:L3G+
HeLa  MWLBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? MYC1cW0> MUeyOIg> M3vMWIlv\HWlZYOgZ4F{eGG|ZT3k[ZBmdmSnboSgZ4VtdCCmZXH0bC=> M3j4Z|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ{NUS1NVI5Lz5{MkW0OVEzQDxxYU6=
U251  NXu3bnFGSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 M4Tjb|VuVQ>? MlfsNlRp NXTvSYhGcW6lcnXhd4V{KFNzLXnu[JVk\WRiY3XscEBl\WG2aB?= NHvtcWU9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MkW3PVc5QCd-MkK1O|k4QDh:L3G+
MCF-7  NW\oWlhmSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 MV:wMlFuVQ>? MXq2bC=> M4riSYVvcGGwY3XzJJNqenSrbn;sMYlv\HWlZXSgZZBweHSxc3nz M3LCVVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ{N{WxPVg6Lz5{Mke1NVk5QTxxYU6=
PC-3  M2TRNWFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= MkXuNo1O MWGybC=> MoLDbY5kemWjc3XzJG9TUS2rbnT1Z4VlKGOnbHyg[IVifGh? MlSzQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjJ5NEW1PFAoRjJ{N{S1OVgxRC:jPh?=
HCT116 MVnBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? NVHqRXVFPW2P NHPtV|AzPGh? MVvEUXNQ NX\PU4My\W6qYX7j[ZMh[XCrZ3XubY4ucW6mdXPl[EBk\WyuIHTlZZRp M1zEdVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2NkK2OVIzLz5{NE[yOlUzOjxxYU6=
U2OS MWPHdo94fGhiSX7obYJqfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NH\aZYQyOG2P NYC2cY5EOjSq NHjUTGhqdnSnboPp[olmeyC2aHWg[5Jwf3SqIHnubIljcXSrb36gbY5lfWOnZDDifUBFd3h? Mn3MQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR4M{mwNVMoRjJ2NkO5NFE{RC:jPh?=
A2780cp Mne1RZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 NYLnSVRxOi53bV2= MmPLNYg> NUf3bnk4\GSKMl:= NVrSRphm\W6qYX7j[ZMh[2m|cHzheIlvNWmwZIXj[YQh[2WubDDk[YF1cA>? NGP6R2o9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEixO|k1Pid-MkS4NVc6PDZ:L3G+
HepG2 MoPqSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MV61cW0> M1HneFRp MnjYbY5kemWjc3XzJINmdGy3bHHyJIxmfmWuczDv[kBJVMLi NIfGV5A9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEexN|U5Pyd-MkS3NVM2QDd:L3G+
Microglia  MYnBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? MYm1cW0> NFLCdIszPGh? MVTk[YNz\WG|ZYOgbJlxd3irYT3pcoR2[2WmIHPlcIwh\GWjdHi= NH7SN4s9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEixPFYxOSd-MkS4NVg3ODF:L3G+
MDA-MB 231 NETPSJFCeG:ydH;zbZMhSXO|YYm= MWm1cW0> NIPTbpIxNjWq M3K3dI1w\HWuYYTld{BVd2OxbXnuxs7DqGmwZIXj[YQh[XCxcITvd4l{ NUC4VnRqRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS4N|A4QDFpPkK0PFMxPzhzPD;hQi=>
PANC-1  Ml[4RZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 NGi4ZYoydU1? NFjweWg1QGh? NXTpN2puTE2VTx?= MnzI[Y5p[W6lZYOgZo9zfGW8b33pZk1qdmS3Y3XkJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHzvd5M> NG[2V2k9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEi0NlE2QCd-MkS4OFIyPTh:L3G+
MDA-MB-231 NGHPRm5HfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MVOycW0> MlzMOFhp NUizSoVneHKxbX;0[ZMhXE1vaX7keYNm\CClZXzsJIRm[XSq M13GZlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2OUewOlc3Lz5{NEm3NFY4PjxxYU6=
MDA-MB-231 MkT4SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M4\tVVJuVQ>? NHfkRZIzPGh? NUDhWVF5cW6qaXLpeJMh[XW2b4DoZYd6KGmwZIXj[YQh[nliVF5CpC=> M{m1UlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2OUewOlc3Lz5{NEm3NFY4PjxxYU6=
MCF-7  M3LYVGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 Mnv5No1O M3TKRlQ5cA>? M4C3dJBzd22xdHXzJHRONWmwZIXj[YQh[2WubDDk[YF1cA>? MkjsQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR7N{C2O|YoRjJ2OUewOlc3RC:jPh?=
MCF-7  NV34d5JWTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MWmycW0> M3\XblI1cA>? MUjpcohq[mm2czDheZRweGijZ4mgbY5lfWOnZDDifUBVVcLi NYXXbJlORGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS5O|A3PzZpPkK0PVcxPjd4PD;hQi=>
HepG2 MVPBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? MXmzcW0> Mn7BOYg> Mk\4doVlfWOnczDj[YxtKGGyb4D0c5NqeyCrbnT1Z4VlKGK7IGHEdy=> MoC2QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjJ6M{[1PVUoRjJ{OEO2OVk2RC:jPh?=
HeLa M4n5PGFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= MUGxNI1O NXrUVlU3Omh? M{XXSYRm[3KnYYPld{Bk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTDjc{11emWjdH3lcpQhf2m2aDDQSWk> MlrpQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjNyMECxN|UoRjJ|MECwNVM2RC:jPh?=
SK-HEP-1 MUnBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? NVPV[nFkOTCvTR?= NH6zUXMycA>? MVPwdo91\WO2czDh[4FqdnO2IHH1eI9xcGGpeTDhcoQhcW6mdXPld{BieG:ydH;zbZMhcW5iYoXmZYxqdi22cnXheIVlKGOnbHzz NIr2NVQ9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{Mki1PFY1QSd-MkK4OVg3PDl:L3G+
MDA-MB231 NYfKSY1mTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NG\PS5k2dU1? NW\DSJdXOWh? NFPpRVVqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhemW|dnXyZZRzd2xvbXXkbYF1\WRiY3HzdIF{\SCjY4TpeoF1cW:wIHHu[EBk\WyuIHTlZZRp M4TlSVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ|MEi4PFUxLz5{M{C4PFg2ODxxYU6=
PaCa44 NGDmTohCeG:ydH;zbZMhSXO|YYm= NFL0[40zNjWvTR?= NFzoTY0ycA>? Ml3ldoVlfWOnc9Mg[4VvcXCrbj3t[YRq[XSnZDDhdI9xfG:|aYO= NHPpb2Y9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{M{GyOFEyOid-MkOxNlQyOTJ:L3G+
T-47D MWLGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MmezNVBuVQ>? MUWybC=> MnTPbY5pcWKrdIOgZZV1d3CqYXf5JJBzd2Onc4OgZY5lKGmwY4LlZZNmeyC{YYDhcZlkcW5iaX7keYNm\CCjcH;weI9{cXN? NES4V4M9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{M{OwNFAzPid-MkOzNFAxOjZ:L3G+
GTL-16  NXLuR2lISXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 MmOyOY1O MlPGNlRp M4PMSJJm\HWlZYOgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYOgZ49ueGG{ZXSgeI8h[2WubIOgeJJm[XSnZDD3bZRpKE2HVDDpcohq[mm2b4Lz NUTLOY85RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkOzNVM1QTBpPkKzN|E{PDlyPD;hQi=>
U251MG  NYX6TIhxTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NGfKNFM{dU1? NHG0TmgycA>? M3;uWZN2eHC{ZYPz[ZMhVEN|LVnJJJBzd3SnaX6g[ZhxemW|c3nvci=> M2ntcVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ|M{O4OlE5Lz5{M{OzPFYyQDxxYU6=
T24 NXPFV4x5TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MUKxNI1O NXH4Sok{OWh? NWTQUIdKemWmdXPld{B1cGViY3zlZZZi\2Vib3[gUGM{KGGodHXyJIJicWOjbHnuJJRz\WG2bXXueC=> MlSyQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjN|NUSwPFAoRjJ|M{W0NFgxRC:jPh?=
HUVECs NIrySW5HfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MWGzcW0> NVXN[Yd7OjSq MXjicI9kc3NidHjlJJBzd3SnY4TpeoUh\W[oZXP0JI9nKHKnc4\ldoF1em:uIHL5JIlvcGmkaYTpcoch[XW2b4DoZYd6 M1v6e|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ|M{W4PVI5Lz5{M{O1PFkzQDxxYU6=
MCF-7  M1vhTWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NUnrUIpVPW2P NFH2[GkzPGh? MkXwbY5pcWKrdIOgd5Rien[jdHnvck1qdmS3Y3XkJIF2fG:yaHHnfS=> MV:8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOzN7NU[3PUc,OjN|OUW2O|k9N2F-
Hela  M1K0c2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MmnSOY1O NYXvS4tnOjSq NU[1R3BKcW6qaXLpeJMhe3Sjco\heIlwdi2rbnT1Z4VlKGG3dH;wbIFogQ>? NWSxcFJzRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkOzPVU3PzlpPkKzN|k2Pjd7PD;hQi=>
OR6 MlnTSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MYqxNI1O MkHGO|Jp MWjzeZBxemW|c3XzJGhEXiC{ZYDsbYNifGmxbjDhcoQh\m:{bXH0bY9vKG:oIHH1eI9xcGGpb4PvcYV{ NHLjTpg9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{M{O5OVg4PSd-MkOzPVU5PzV:L3G+
HT-29  M{DRRmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MknwNY1O NYj3S2Q3PDhxOU\o Mn3hbY5pcWKrdIOgRW1RUyCrbnT1Z4V{KGG3dH;wbIFocWNiY3XscEBl\WG2aB?= MnXiQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjN3MEiyO|IoRjJ|NUC4NlczRC:jPh?=
SH-SY5Y MkLaR5l1d3SxeHnjbZR6KEG|c3H5 NUnafFM4PW2P NI\qU4EzPGh? NHLqVFZqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhWEOQIITvfIlkcXS7 NHTHTlU9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{M{WyOVI3PSd-MkO1NlUzPjV:L3G+
Saos-2  NXvJSW1SSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 M4DOXlFuVQ>? NInIbY86Pmh? NGnuSXZqdmO{ZXHz[ZMh[2WubDDk[YF1cCCrbnT1Z4VlKGK7IGDDXC=> Ml7oQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjN3NkOxO|EoRjJ|NU[zNVcyRC:jPh?=
1321N1 M{nEZmN6fG:2b4jpZ4l1gSCDc4PhfS=> MoixOY1O MViyOIg> NHHhPFVxem:2ZXP0d{Bk\WyuIHHnZYlve3RiUFPOMYlv\HWlZXSgeI95cWOrdIm= MYW8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOzV{NUK2OUc,OjN3MkWyOlU9N2F-
A2780 MmnCRZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 M2f2NlVuVQ>? MUiyOIg> NUO0OJh1[2:wdnXyeJMhTlS\N{KwJJdqfGhiQ1TEVEBqdnSxIHHuJIFl\Gm2aY\lJIVn\mWldDD0c5diemS|IHvpcIxqdmdib4\hdolidiClYX7j[ZIh[2WubIO= MlvwQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjN3OUKyPFEoRjJ|NUmyNlgyRC:jPh?=
OV2008 NIPHUY1CeG:ydH;zbZMhSXO|YYm= MkLBOY1O MX6yOIg> MV3jc453\XK2czDGWHk4OjBid3n0bEBETESSIHnueI8h[W5iYXTkbZRqfmViZX\m[YN1KHSxd3Hy[JMhc2mubHnu[{BwfmG{aXHuJINidmOncjDj[Yxtew>? NWDNWY0yRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkO1PVIzQDFpPkKzOVkzOjhzPD;hQi=>
PC12  MYHGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NVqyeYlQOTCvTR?= MnvTNlRp M1PXZZdifGW{ NF3ITXrDqGmwaHnibZR{KGOqeX3veJJ6eHOrbj3sbYtmKHC{b4TlZZNwdWGuIHHjeIl3cXS7Lh?= NHv2R4U9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{M{[wN|k4QSd-MkO2NFM6Pzl:L3G+
SH-SY5Y MWHBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? NYjpfZo6PW2P M1;VTlFp MoHFZYJwdGm|aHXzJINmdGG|dILvcEBv\XW{b4Dyc5Rm[3SrdnWg[YZn\WO2 NWfBWJlbRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkO2NVk{QTVpPkKzOlE6Ozl3PD;hQi=>
SH-SY5Y M1\LRmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MkfyNY1O NFv6WpUzPGh? NXnlXlNHcW6qaXLpeJMhfGinIHH1eI9xcGGpeTDpcoR2[2WmIHL5JHRQS1B? Mo\zQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjN5NEOxOFgoRjJ|N{SzNVQ5RC:jPh?=
HepG2 MUjGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? M{fNdlExdU1? MmTtNlRp NH[yTZdqdmirYnn0d{B{cVSLR1HSMUBidmRiSFLTV{1qdmS3Y3XkJIF2fG:yaHHnfS=> NYDyfoxuRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkO4NVcxPDBpPkKzPFE4ODRyPD;hQi=>
HeLa NUno[YJ6TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MXWxNI1O MYSybC=> Mnr1d5VxeHKnc4Pld{BNSzNiSVmg[ZhxemW|c3nzc44> NUfTXIN[RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkO4OlQ4OzhpPkKzPFY1PzN6PD;hQi=>
HONE-1  M{XSXGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 Ml21OY1O Mnj4NYg> NVzoUFlYemWycnXzd4V{KD[{LX3l[IlifGWmIGLPV{Bxem:mdXP0bY9v MlfUQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjN6OUKzOVgoRjJ|OEmyN|U5RC:jPh?=
MCF7 NX[1W|hrTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NWfPV5NEPW2P M1TsUlI1cA>? M{\CW4lv[3KnYYPld{BEfU9iaX7keYNm\CClZXzsJIRm[XSq NIDiN4k9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{M{m2NlYzQSd-MkO5OlI3Ojl:L3G+
HO8910 NGnrT5JCeG:ydH;zbZMhSXO|YYm= NHH3U2QyOG2P NFTMeGgyOmh? MYDlcohidmOnczDCNVkucW6mdXPl[EBieG:ydH;zbS=> M3v0OVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ|OUizOlExLz5{M{m4N|YyODxxYU6=
SMMC-7721 MWfBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? NWD5VnpmPW2P MmnRNlRp MojaZZR1\W63YYTld{BVVkZvzsGgdJJwfGWldHnvckBi\2GrboP0JJNmenWvIIP0ZZJ3[XSrb36tcYVlcWG2ZXSgZZBweHSxc3nz M2fhRlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2ME[2Olk{Lz5{NEC2OlY6OzxxYU6=
Hep3B MoG2RZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 MVi1cW0> NUTkXGdkOjSq MlnOZZR1\W63YYTld{BVVkZvzsGgdJJwfGWldHnvckBi\2GrboP0JJNmenWvIIP0ZZJ3[XSrb36tcYVlcWG2ZXSgZZBweHSxc3nz NUH6ZZdRRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkSwOlY3QTNpPkK0NFY3Pjl|PD;hQi=>
H460 NED6XpFHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NULJS4xVOTCvTR?= NHnwNms1cA>? M32wOIlv[3KnYYPld{BkcXOybHH0bY4ucW6mdXPl[EBk\WyuIHTlZZRp MYS8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDF5M{KwPEc,OjRzN{OyNFg9N2F-
A549 M1XycWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NGDte48yOG2P MnnsOIg> M2njN4lvcGmkaYTzJIF2fG:yaHHnfUBqdmS3Y3XkJIJ6KGm{cnHkbYF1cW:w Mn3xQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjRzNEK3N|UoRjJ2MUSyO|M2RC:jPh?=
H1299  M3T2OmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NF23SJAyOG2P MUW0bC=> MljobY5kemWjc3XzJINqe3CuYYTpck1qdmS3Y3XkJINmdGxiZHXheIg> M3fLS|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2MUezNlA5Lz5{NEG3N|IxQDxxYU6=
WiDr MmLzSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? Mo\mNVBuVQ>? NHfVXIYycA>? NVrWSXMxcW6qaXLpeJMhWEOETD3pcoR2[2WmIFzDN{BKUSCneIDy[ZN{cW:w NEjqfY09[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEG5NFQ5QSd-MkSxPVA1QDl:L3G+
LoVo  M1myNWFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= NXrRSnlmPW2P M4rXSVQ5cA>? NYe0e5dY\W6qYX7j[ZMhTEODLXnu[JVk\WRiYYDvdJRwe2m|Lh?= MUC8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDJyMUixNkc,OjR{MEG4NVI9N2F-
HepG2 E47 M1nxTGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NXj6XHRqOi53bV2= M3O4dlQ5cA>? NHXSZndqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhfGinIITvfIlkcXS7IH;mJGFCNCCEU1:sJIFv\CCFQ3y0 MkHMQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR{N{O3N|goRjJ2MkezO|M5RC:jPh?=
RKO M4X2VmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NG\4foczdU1? M3rkXVFp MYnEUXNQ M3j0fYVvcGGwY3XzJINmdGxiZHXheIgh[nliZ3Xs[IFv[W27Y3nu MWS8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDJ7MUe3O{c,OjR{OUG3O|c9N2F-
Hep3B NF3YN3pCeG:ydH;zbZMhSXO|YYm= MnX2No1O Mn[yNVJp M1i5RmROW09? NF:zOXhqdmirYnn0d{BCYkR6MEW1MYlv\HWlZXSgZ4VtdCCmZXH0bC=> NXv1S4dyRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkSyPVc{ODBpPkK0Nlk4OzByPD;hQi=>
ACHN-5968 NYrCd45zSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 NHHQO5g2dU1? MYWzbC=> MWDlcohidmOnczDwZYNtcXSjeHXsMY1m\GmjdHXkJIFxd3C2b4Ppd:Kh MlzxQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR|MEW2NFQoRjJ2M{C1OlA1RC:jPh?=
Huh7 MYHBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? M1vsTVJuVQ>? MYixNog> M{fVcGROW09? NIrCdVlqdmirYnn0d{BCYkR6MEW1MYlv\HWlZXSgZ4VtdCCmZXH0bC=> MVW8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDJ7N{OwNEc,OjR{OUezNFA9N2F-
UOK257 MnfORZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 NGL0ZpY2dU1? NH:ydWI{cA>? MXjlcohidmOnczDwZYNtcXSjeHXsMY1m\GmjdHXkJIFxd3C2b4Ppd:Kh NVjIWJBJRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkSzNFU3ODRpPkK0N|A2PjB2PD;hQi=>
ECSCs  NUTXR3lSSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 Mn3QNVBuVQ>? M{CxTVRp NUfRVVJu\GWlcnXhd4V{KHKjcHHtfYNqdi22cnXheIVlKGGyb4D0c5Nqew>? NIXQZ2c9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEOxPVExQSd-MkSzNVkyODl:L3G+
MCF-7  NGnuTVRHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NIPmSVAyOG2P NHP2XnozPGh? M1rQXolvcGmkaYTzJJRp\SCjdYTvdIhi\3liaX7keYNm\CCkeTDjbIVud3SqZYLhdJkh\HK3Z4O= NVPWfm9IRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkSzNVU2PzhpPkK0N|E2PTd6PD;hQi=>
SGC-7901  NUHhUmVmSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 MoPrNo1O NID6XFcycA>? MWXpcoNz\WG|ZYOgR2EuPCCrbnT1Z4VlKGGyb4D0c5Nqew>? M4S3SVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2M{KxN|QxLz5{NEOyNVM1ODxxYU6=
SMMC-7721 MWTBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? NHPxbIgzdU1? MWqxbC=> M2jL[Ilv[3KnYYPld{BESS12IHnu[JVk\WRiYYDvdJRwe2m| MlPBQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR|MkGzOFAoRjJ2M{KxN|QxRC:jPh?=
T24 M1jMTmFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= NGXhfZY2dU1? NYfQ[3ZYOS53aB?= Mn\RdI91\W62aXH0[ZMh[2WuZXPvfIljNWmwZIXj[YQh[XCxcITvd4l{ NEfXVHg9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEO0PVE4Pid-MkSzOFkyPzZ:L3G+
NTUB1 NXTSdIJLSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 NYLuNGxkPW2P MVSxMlVp NGDvR2Vxd3SnboTpZZRmeyClZXzlZ495cWJvaX7keYNm\CCjcH;weI9{cXN? NWPzU4VDRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkSzOFkyPzZpPkK0N|Q6OTd4PD;hQi=>
MG-63 MVLBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? M{LWN|ExdU1? NHG3blYyOmh? NX;kSoJr\W6qYX7j[ZMhTFBvaX7keYNm\CCjcH;weI9{cXN? MkXVQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR|NUizNFEoRjJ2M{W4N|AyRC:jPh?=
MG-63 NYXOWIJSSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 M3XZdFAvPS9zbV2= M3PKflMzcA>? MVflcohidmOnczDzZYxqdm:veXPpck1qdmS3Y3XkJINmdGxiYYDvdJRwe2m| MofzQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR|NUizOFIoRjJ2M{W4N|QzRC:jPh?=
MG-63 NH;E[VVHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M33HSlAvPS9zbV2= MVq0PIg> NE[wUIxqdmS3Y3XzJJNidGmwb335Z4lvNWmwZIXj[YQh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgcI9{ew>? M2rRZ|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2M{W4N|QzLz5{NEO1PFM1OjxxYU6=
U2OS  NUXj[5BiTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NVXiW3RDOC53L{HtUS=> MmC3OFhp MVvpcoR2[2W|IIPhcIlvd227Y3nuMYlv\HWlZXSgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHlibH;zdy=> MoTUQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR|NUizOFIoRjJ2M{W4N|QzRC:jPh?=
HGC-27 NEi0PVZHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NF3mVFgyOG2P MmHiNYg> MYLpcohq[mm2czD0bIUh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdImgcI9{eyCkeTDSRWQxODFib4KgUWsuOjJyNh?= MmXFQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR2MU[zOFkoRjJ2NEG2N|Q6RC:jPh?=
HCT116  MkToRZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 MoWxOY1O MXWyOIg> M3XXeYVvcGGwY3XzJJRp\SCjcH;weI9{cXNiaX7keYNm\CCkeTDhdIlo\W6rbh?= NY\hTVFpRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS2NlY2OjJpPkK0OlI3PTJ{PD;hQi=>
A549 MVTBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? MXyxNI1O MmDKOFhp MYLhZ4NmdGW{YYTld{B1cGVicnXkeYN1cW:wIH;mJINmdGxidnnhZoltcXS7IHnu[JVk\WRiYomgVHRZ NIf0N3I9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NE[yOlczOid-MkS2NlY4OjJ:L3G+
Saos-2 NVzuWYw4SXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 NX;VT21KOTCvTR?= NVO1V3hWOjSq Ml;pbY51\W6|aX\p[ZMhfGinIHfyc5d1cCCrbnjpZol1cW:wIH;mJJRp\SCXMl;TJINmdGy|IHnu[JVk\WRiYomgSI95 MXm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDZ|OUCxN{c,OjR4M{mwNVM9N2F-
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HepG2 M3;pSWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M17xNlVuVQ>? NXHZbFAzPGh? MWDpcoNz\WG|ZYOgTGwhemWuZXHz[S=> NVKycVNjRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS3NVM2QDdpPkK0O|E{PTh5PD;hQi=>
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Assay
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot α-SMA / TGF-β / LC-3BI / LC-3B II / Beclin-1 / NF-κB p65 ; caspase-3 / caspase-9 / PARP ; VEGF ; APP / BACE1 / ADAM17 / Presenilin 1 / Presenilin 2 / Nicastrin / APH-1 / Pen-2 / LC3-1 / LC3-2 29296191 25891159 26316755
Immunofluorescence LC3 / Hif-α / COX2 29039446
Growth inhibition assay Cell viability 26934124
In vivo 3-Methyladenine blocks autophagy through its effect on class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). 3-Methyladenine treatment does not alter the degree of hemorrhage compared with the subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) group. 3-Methyladenine pretreatment significantly aggravates neurological symptoms when compared with the SAH + vehicle group. Autophagy is decreased when 3-Methyladenine treatment is applied. Conversely, cleaved caspase-3 is markedly up-regulated in the SAH + 3-Methyladenine group. In line with the up-regulation of cleaved caspase-3 expression, the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the right cortex is significantly increased in the SAH + 3-Methyladenine group compared with the SAH + vehicle group. [5]

Protocol (from reference)

Kinase Assay:[4]
  • Protein degradation assay:

    HeLa cells are radiolabeled for 24 hours with 0.05 mCi/mL l-[U- 14C]valine. At the end of the labeling period, cells are rinsed three times with PBS. Cells are incubated for the designated times in either full medium or EBSS with or without the presence of 10 mM 3-Methyladenine.

Cell Research:[2]
  • Cell lines: HeLa cell line
  • Concentrations: 1-10 mM
  • Incubation Time: 24, 48 or 72 hours
  • Method: Cell (such as HeLa cell) viability is determined by a trypan blue exclusion assay. Briefly, after treated with 3-Methyladenine, both adherent and floating cells are collected and suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) at a final density of 1-2 × 106/mL. An equal volume of 0.4% trypan blue solution (w/v, in PBS) is added to the cell suspension and mixed thoroughly. After incubation at room temperature for 3 min, cell counting is performed using a hemacytometer.
Animal Research:[5]
  • Animal Models: Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 300-350 g
  • Dosages: 400 nM
  • Administration: Intracerebral ventricular

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 149.15
Formula

C6H7N5

CAS No. 5142-23-4
Storage 3 years -20°C powder
Smiles CN1C=NC(=N)C2=C1N=CN2

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)

mg/kg g μL

Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation (This is only the calculator, not formulation. Please contact us first if there is no in vivo formulation at the solubility Section.)

% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O
%DMSO %

Calculation results:

Working concentration: mg/ml;

Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO ( Master liquid concentration mg/mL, Please contact us first if the concentration exceeds the DMSO solubility of the batch of drug. )

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300, mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80, mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O, mix and clarify.

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next add μL Corn oil, mix and clarify.

Note: 1. Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2. Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such
as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.

Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

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Frequently Asked Questions

Question 1:
I'm also wondering whether it can be dissolved in water,or maybe something like culture medium,normal saline solution to form 10mM solution

Answer:
As the reference (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal. pone.0035665), 3-MA, which was found to inhibit autophagy at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mM was directly dissolved into the culture medium at the indicated concentrations. And we tested the solubility of S2767, and found the solubility of 3-MA in DMEM is 31 mg/mL at about 40°C.

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