Melatonin (NSC 113928)

Catalog No.S1204 Synonyms: NSC 56423, N-Acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine

For research use only.

Melatonin (NSC 113928, NSC 56423, N-Acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a MT receptor agonist, used as a dietary supplement. Melatonin is a selective ATF-6 inhibitor and downregulates COX-2. Melatonin enhances mitophagy and regulates the homeostasis of apoptosis and autophagy.

Melatonin (NSC 113928) Chemical Structure

CAS No. 73-31-4

Selleck's Melatonin (NSC 113928) has been cited by 20 publications

Purity & Quality Control

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Biological Activity

Description Melatonin (NSC 113928, NSC 56423, N-Acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a MT receptor agonist, used as a dietary supplement. Melatonin is a selective ATF-6 inhibitor and downregulates COX-2. Melatonin enhances mitophagy and regulates the homeostasis of apoptosis and autophagy.
Targets
melatonin receptor [1]
In vitro

Melatonin interacts with the highly toxic hydroxyl radical with a rate constant equivalent to that of other highly efficient hydroxyl radical scavengers. Melatonin reportedly neutralizes hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite anion, nitric oxide and hypochlorous acid. [1] Melatonin is believed to scavenge the highly toxic hydroxyl radical, the peroxynitrite anion, and possibly the peroxyl radical. Melatonin reportedly scavenges the superoxide anion radical and it quenches singlet oxygen. Melatonin stimulates mRNA levels for superoxide dismutase and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (all of which are antioxidative enzymes), thereby increasing its antioxidative capacity. [2] Melatonin in cell-free systems has been shown to directly scavenge H2O2, singlet oxygen (1O2) and nitric oxide (NO*), with little or no ability to scavenge the superoxide anion radical (O2*-) in vitro. Melatonin also directly detoxifies the peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-) and/or peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH), or the activated form of this molecule, ONOOH*. Melatonin acts as a direct free radical scavenger with the ability to detoxify both reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. [3] Melatonin inhibits cAMP accumulation in most of the cells examined, but the indole effects on other messengers have been often observed only in one type of the cells or tissue, until now. Melatonin also regulates the transcription factors, namely, phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein and expression of c-Fos. [4]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
CHO MV\GeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NETtb5ZKdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIITo[UAzNVtzMkXJYU0hcW:mb33lcIF1d26rbjDibY5lcW6pIITvJG1mdGG2b37pckBz\WOncITvdkB1gXCnIEHBJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCFSF:gZ4VtdHNuIFvpQVAvODByMElOwG0> MkWyQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwQTR|NUi5NEc,QTR|NUi5NFww[T5?
CHO NEDnZ49HfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MUfJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKHSqZTCyMXsyOjWLXT2gbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCkaX7kbY5oKHSxIF3lcIF1d26rbjDy[YNmeHSxcjD0fZBmKDGEIHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBEUE9iY3XscJMtKEurPUCuNFAxOTMQvF2= M1vhW|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493Nzl2M{W4PVAoRjl2M{W4PVA9N2F-
NIH3T3 NEXXPY1HfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= Mn20Rolv\GmwZzDh[oZqdmm2eTD3ZZMhdWWjc4Xy[YQh[WejaX7zeEBkdG:wZXSgbJVu[W5iTXXsZZRwdmmwIILlZ4VxfG:{IIT5dIUhOUFic4XieJlx\SC|dHHicJkh\XiycnXzd4VlKGmwIILheEBncWK{b3LsZZN1eyCQSVizWFMh[2WubIOsJGtqRTBwMECwNlk2Oc7:TR?= MlKzQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwQTd|M{S4O{c,QTd|M{S4O|ww[T5?
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NIH 3T3 NIn0dXpHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MX3CbY5lcW6pIHHm[olvcXS7IITve4Fz\HNicnXjc41jcW6jboSgbJVu[W5ibXXsZZRwdmmwIILlZ4VxfG:{IIT5dIUhOUFiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJG5KUCB|VEOgZ4VtdHNidYPpcochOi2dMUKxTX1qd2SxbXXsZZRwdmmwIILh[IlwdGmpYX7kJIJqdmSrbnegZZN{[XluIFvpQVAvODByNkdOwG0> NGe1c5M9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zMEezO|c{QCd-MUC3N|c4Ozh:L3G+
HEK293 M{HLXWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M2m3dmJqdmSrbnegZYZncW6rdImg[o9zKGi3bXHuJI1mdGG2b37pckBz\WOncITvdkB1gXCnIEHBMEBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iSFXLNlk{KGOnbHzzJEgzNVtzMkXJYYlw\G:vZXzheI9vcW5iaYOgeZNm\CCjczDyZYRqd2yrZ3Hu[EktKEurPUCuNFAxOs7:TR?= NUfBTpNFRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUGwOlM3ODJpPkGxNFY{PjB{PD;hQi=>
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NIH 3T3 NH[2TZZHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NILQOZZDcW6maX7nJIFn\mmwaYT5JJRwf2G{ZIOgcYVt[XSxbnnuJJJm[2WydH;yJJR6eGViMVGgd5Ri[my7IHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBPUUh|VEOgdoF1KG[rYoLvZoxie3RiY3XscJMhfXOrbnegNk1cOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKChzMECgdG0qKGG|IILh[IlwdGmpYX7kMEBMcT1yLkCwNFI5QDUQvF2= NFr5O4U9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zMUWyNFE6QCd-MUG1NlAyQTh:L3G+
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HEK293 MUXGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MoHsRolv\GmwZzDh[oZqdmm2eTDvckBpfW2jbjDt[YxifG:waX6gdoVk\XC2b4KgeJlx\SBzQjDzeIFjdHlidILhcpNn\WO2ZXSgbY4hcHWvYX6g[Y1jenmxbnnjJItq\G6neTCoTGVMKDJ7MzmgZ4VtdHNidYPpcochOi2dMUK1TX1qd2SxbXXsZZRwdmmwIHHzJJJi\GmxbHnnZY5lNixiS3m9NE4xODB|Md88US=> NF3nR|Q9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zMkC2NVg5OSd-MUKwOlE5QDF:L3G+
CHO NUXXcIgzTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NHz2SmxKdnS{aX7zbYMh[WO2aY\peJkh[XRiaIXtZY4hVWWuYYTvcolvKHKnY3XweI9zKHS7cHWgNWIh\X[jbIXheIVlKG:wIGuzOXNeT1SSLXfhcY1iNVNuIHLpcoRqdmdiaX6gR4hqdmW|ZTDoZY1{fGW{IH;2ZZJq[W5iKFPIU{kh[2WubIOsJGVEPTB;MD6wNFA1P87:TR?= M1:1PVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF{ME[xPFgyLz5zMkC2NVg5OTxxYU6=
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CHO MWXGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MYTBZoltcXS7IITvJIlvcGmkaYSgNk1cOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKHOyZXPp[olkKGKrbnTpcochfG9iaIXtZY4hdWWuYYTvcolvKHKnY3XweI9zKHS7cHWgNWEhME2WMTmg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEOKTzDj[Yxtey5uIFvpQVAvODByMEiyN:69VQ>? M4XWe|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF{MkGzNFYzLz5zMkKxN|A3OjxxYU6=
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NIH3T3 MoXQSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? M{jwZ2lvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIJqdmSrbnegeI8hcHWvYX6gcYVt[XSxbnnuJJJm[2WydH;yJJR6eGViMVKgLG1VOiliZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJG5KUDOWMzDyZZQh\mmkcn;icIF{fCClZXzsd{AtKEurPUCuNFAxOjhzON88US=> NWjscVVHRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUW5OFM1PzhpPkG1PVQ{PDd6PD;hQi=>
NIH3T3 M4XuSmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NFu2eY9KdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIEKtX|EzPUmfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBjcW6maX7nJJRwKGi3bXHuJI1mdGG2b37pckBz\WOncITvdkB1gXCnIEHBJEhOXDFrIHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBPUUh|VEOgdoF1KG[rYoLvZoxie3RiY3XscJMtKEurPUCuNFAxOjh6NN88US=> NEnid2M9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zNUm0N|Q4QCd-MUW5OFM1Pzh:L3G+
NIH3T3 NU[4cGRlTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MY\EbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4hemWlb33ibY5idnRiTWSyJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCQSVizWFMh[2WubIOsJGtqRTBwMECwN|XPxE1? M3LVXlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF4N{W5NFk1Lz5zNke1PVA6PDxxYU6=
NIH3T3 NFjET|BHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NFHCfpVFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gNk1cOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5icnXjc41jcW6jboSgUXQyKHKnY3XweI9zKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDOTWg{XDNiY3XscJMtKEurPUCuNFAxOzoQvF2= MoTSQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTZ5NUmwPVQoRjF4N{W5NFk1RC:jPh?=
NIH3T3 M1jzO2Z2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NHvsOGYyKG6P M3Xic2FkfGm4aYT5JIF1KE2WMTDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hVkmKM2SzJINmdGy|IHHzd4V{e2WmIHHzJIlvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiZn;yd4twdGmwLYP0bY12dGG2ZXSgZ2FOWCC|eX70bIV{cXNiYYSgNUBvVQ>? M4fuNFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF4N{W5NFk1Lz5zNke1PVA6PDxxYU6=
NIH3T3 NH3xfZVHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NYW4WmtUTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJFIuYzF{NVndbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIF3UNkBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iTlnIN3Q{KGOnbHzzMEBMcT1yLkCwNFI2P87:TR?= NVz3dHd5RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUexOFk5PjlpPkG3NVQ6QDZ7PD;hQi=>
NIH3T3 MkLiSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? M3rMVWRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjWLXXnv[I9u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDoeY1idiCPVEGgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKE6LSEPUN{Bk\WyuczygT4k:OC5yMECzNlM3|ryP NHjLUGg9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zN{G0PVg3QSd-MUexOFk5Pjl:L3G+
NIH 3T3 M4nGfWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MWTEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMmuxNlVKZWmxZH;t[YxifG:waX6g[pJwdSC{ZXPvcYJqdmGwdDDoeY1idiCPVEKgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKE6LSDCzWFMh[2WubIOsJGtqRTBwMECwN|U1QM7:TR?= M3LBU|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF5M{S2PFU6Lz5zN{O0Olg2QTxxYU6=
NIH 3T3 MVzGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M3K4W2Rqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyX|EzPUmfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIILlZ49u[mmwYX70JIh2dWGwIF3UNUBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iTlnIJFNVOyClZXzsd{whU2l;MD6wNFA{QDoQvF2= MmPUQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTd|NE[4OVkoRjF5M{S2PFU6RC:jPh?=
NIH3T3 MmDXSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NXHUVnR2TGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJFJcOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5icnXjc41jcW6jboSgUXQyKHKnY3XweI9zKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDOTWg{XDNiY3XscJMtKEurPUCuNFAxOjZ|zszN MlXyQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTd2NUm3NVEoRjF5NEW5O|EyRC:jPh?=
NIH3T3 NX\qcpM6TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NWTSWHoxTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJFJcOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5icnXjc41jcW6jboSgUXQzKHKnY3XweI9zKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDOTWg{XDNiY3XscJMtKEurPUCuNFAxOzN6ON88US=> Ml3yQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTd2NUm3NVEoRjF5NEW5O|EyRC:jPh?=
NIH3T3 M{j3PGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MkPkSIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPUmfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKGOub37l[EBOXDFicnXj[ZB1d3JiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJJJifCCQSVizWFMh[2WubIOsJGtqRTBwMECwNu69VQ>? NIfaZlI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zN{S4NVkxPCd-MUe0PFE6ODR:L3G+
NIH3T3 NILmbHJHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NYezdXBbTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJFIuYzF{NVndbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIHPsc45m\CCPVEKgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKHKjdDDOTWg{XDNiY3XscJMtKEurPUCuNFAxO87:TR?= MXm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yPzR6MUmwOEc,OTd2OEG5NFQ9N2F-
NIH3T3 MX3GeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? Mo\QSIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPUmfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKGOub37l[EBOXDFicnXj[ZB1d3JiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJJJifCCQSVizWFMh[2WubIOsJGtqRTBwMECwNVQyO87:TR?= NVLmVVdMRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUiwOVI{OTRpPkG4NFUzOzF2PD;hQi=>
NIH3T3 NEHQb2NHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NWjWRWFCTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJFIuYzF{NVndbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIHPsc45m\CCPVEKgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKHKjdDDOTWg{XDNiY3XscJMtKEurPUCuNFAxOjN7Od88US=> MXO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yQDB3MkOxOEc,OThyNUKzNVQ9N2F-
HEK293 MlrRSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MmDISIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPUmfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKE2WMTDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hUEWNMkmzJINmdGy|LDDJR|UxRTBwMECwNu69VQ>? NVvCb2tpRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUizO|IyQDFpPkG4N|czOThzPD;hQi=>
HEK293 M3fPfWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MljiSIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPUmfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKE2WMjDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hUEWNMkmzJINmdGy|LDDJR|UxRTBwMECwOVPPxE1? MmLHQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTh|N{KxPFEoRjF6M{eyNVgyRC:jPh?=
CHO NGTFNY1HfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MVvEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiW{GyOWlecW:mb33lcIF1d26rbjDmdo9uKE2WMz;RVlIhdWWuYYTvcolvKGKrbnTpcoche2m2ZTDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hS0iRIHPlcIx{NCCLQ{WwQVAvODZ2NUhOwG0> MkLFQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTh2MECzN|UoRjF6NECwN|M2RC:jPh?=
CHO M1LVb2Z2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NFXCNYNFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gNk1cOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5ibXXsZZRwdmmwIF3UNUBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iQ1jPJINmdGy|LDDLbV0xNjByMEWyOe69VQ>? NIn3RVg9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zOE[1O|k5OCd-MUi2OVc6QDB:L3G+
CHO MojkSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MWTEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4hdWWuYYTvcolvKE2WMjDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hS0iRIHPlcIx{NCCNaU2wMlAxODd2Md88US=> M3jn[|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF6NkW3PVgxLz5zOE[1O|k5ODxxYU6=
HEK293 MlHLSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NUf0R|RZTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJFIuYzF{NVndbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIF3UNUBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iSFXLNlk{KGOnbHzzMEBMcT1yLkCwNFE1|ryP Mk\4QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTh5N{i5OFMoRjF6N{e4PVQ{RC:jPh?=
CHO NFT2TFVHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MVLEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4hVVR{IILlZ4VxfG:{IHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBEUE9iY3XscJMtKEurPUCuNFAxPDIQvF2= MoH6QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTh5N{i5OFMoRjF6N{e4PVQ{RC:jPh?=
CHO NYfoT5p4TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NGPsVJhC\2:waYP0JIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KGi3bXHuJG1VOiC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gR2hQKGOnbHzzJIJ6KFt|NWPdS3RR\2GvbXHTJIJqdmSrbnegZZN{[XluIFXDOVA:OC5yMEC0Pe69VQ>? MoTmQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTh5N{i5OFMoRjF6N{e4PVQ{RC:jPh?=
CHO M2TpUWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M2fUd2Rqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjWLXXnv[I9u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDoeY1idiCPVEGgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEOKTzDj[YxteyxiS3m9NE4xODB2NUex{txO Ml;GQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTlzOUOxOlAoRjF7MUmzNVYxRC:jPh?=
CHO MXTGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NWe4eohbTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJFIuYzF{NVndbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIF3UNkBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iQ1jPJINmdGy|LDDLbV0xNjByMEm1Oe69VQ>? NVnMcnAyRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUmxPVMyPjBpPkG5NVk{OTZyPD;hQi=>
CHO NETubppHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NHnpN5BC\2:waYP0JIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KGi3bXHuJG1VOiC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gR2hQKGOnbHzzJIF{e2W|c3XkJIF{KHO2aX31cIF1cW:wIH;mJHs{PVOfR2TQ[4FudWGVIHLpcoRqdmduIFXDOVA:OC5yMEC0Pe69VQ>? NYHUSoRrRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUmzNlk{OjNpPkG5N|I6OzJ|PD;hQi=>
CHO NV;BeY97TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NInRZohC\2:waYP0JIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KGi3bXHuJG1VOSC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gR2hQKGOnbHzzJIF{e2W|c3XkJIF{KHO2aX31cIF1cW:wIH;mJHs{PVOfR2TQ[4FudWGVIHLpcoRqdmduIFXDOVA:OC5yMEKyOO69VQ>? NVLCfml1RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUmzNlk{OjNpPkG5N|I6OzJ|PD;hQi=>
CHO MWXGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MnnoSIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPUmfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKE2WMTDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hS0iRIHPlcIx{KGK7IHfhcY1iKGOxdX70bY5oNCCNaU2wMlAxODR3N{JOwG0> NHrocHY9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zOUS3N|g1QCd-MUm0O|M5PDh:L3G+
CHO NV70O2JoTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M1XaUWRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjWLXXnv[I9u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDoeY1idiCPVEKgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEOKTzDj[YxteyCkeTDnZY1u[SClb4XueIlv\yxiS3m9NE4xODB7NUZOwG0> NYToVpA5RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUm0O|M5PDhpPkG5OFc{QDR6PD;hQi=>
CHO NHXNZoZHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MnPWOlAhdWmwcx?= M1LvTGRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjDbN2hedWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5ibXXsZZRwdmmwIF3UNUBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iQ1jPJINmdGy|IHHmeIVzKDZyIH3pcpMh[nlic3PpcpRqdGyjdHnvckBkd3WwdHnu[{whU2l;MD6wNFAzQTcQvF2= MmTnQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjB{Mke4O|goRjJyMkK3PFc5RC:jPh?=
CHO M4HZeGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NWPXR2d[PjBibXnudy=> MVPEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiW{PIYY1mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKG2nbHH0c45qdiCPVEKgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEOKTzDj[YxteyCjZoTldkA3OCCvaX7zJIJ6KHOlaX70bYxt[XSrb36gZ492dnSrbnesJGtqRTBwMECwOFI6|ryP M1vTXVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJyMkK3PFc5Lz5{MEKyO|g4QDxxYU6=
CHO NUiwbWE4TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M2DtPWFod26rc4SgZYN1cX[rdImgZZQhcHWvYX6gUXQzKHKnY3XweI9zKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDDTG8h[2WubIOgZpkhYzN3U23HWHBo[W2vYTDibY5lcW6pIHHzd4F6NCCHQ{WwQVAvODByNEpOwG0> NH3TNlY9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MES0OFYyOCd-MkC0OFQ3OTB:L3G+
CHO NVS1ZXdlTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NFX5[2tC\2:waYP0JIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KGi3bXHuJG1VOSC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gR2hQKGOnbHzzJIJ6KFt|NWPdS3RR\2GvbXGgZolv\GmwZzDhd5NigSxiRVO1NF0xNjByMkNOwG0> M3P4[VxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJyNES0OlExLz5{MES0OFYyODxxYU6=
NIH3T3 MVrGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M2jOVlkxKG2rboO= MnTXSIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIGuxNlVKZWmxZH;t[YxifG:waX6g[pJwdSCqdX3hckBkdG:wZXSgUXQyKHKnY3XweI9zKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDyZZQhVkmKM2SzJINmdGy|IHHmeIVzKDlyIH3pcpMtKEurPUCuNFAxOzNzMd88US=> NYq5UYpURGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkC2O|Q{PzNpPkKwOlc1Ozd|PD;hQi=>
NIH3T3 NIDa[plHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M4PVNVkxKG2rboO= M3ziW2Rqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjDbNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4h[2yxbnXkJG1VOiC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gdoF1KE6LSEPUN{Bk\WyuczDh[pRmeiB7MDDtbY5{NCCNaU2wMlAxODZzNkdOwG0> NGHmTIY9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{ME[3OFM4Oyd-MkC2O|Q{PzN:L3G+
CHO-Galpha16 NH6yR4dHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NUPZVYY5OjBibXnudy=> M4T3e2JqdmSrbnegZYZncW6rdImgeI8hemG2IF3UNUBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iQ1jPMWdidHCqYUG2JINmdGy|IHHzd4V{e2WmIHHzJGNiOitibX;ibYxqgmG2aX;uJIFnfGW{IEKwJI1qdnNiYomgSmxKWFJiYYPzZZktKEWFNUC9NE4xODB3Nt88US=> MWG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOTJ|N{[0OEc,OjF{M{e2OFQ9N2F-
CHO-Galpha16 MV;GeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NVHK[|BQTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJHs{UF2vZXzheI9vcW5iZoLvcUBz[XRiTWSyJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCFSF:tS4FteGijMU[gZ4VtdHNuIFvpQVAvODByNUlOwG0> MkLZQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjF{M{e2OFQoRjJzMkO3OlQ1RC:jPh?=
CHO-Galpha16 NWTzdldPTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M4DjN2Rqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjDbN2hedWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gdoF1KE2WMTDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hS0iRLVfhcJBp[TF4IHPlcIx{NCCNaU2wMlAxODl7zszN M1fVXFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJzMkO3OlQ1Lz5{MUKzO|Y1PDxxYU6=
CHO-Galpha16 NVvPTYUzTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M2LRW|IxKG2rboO= Ml\xRolv\GmwZzDh[oZqdmm2eTD0c{Bz[XRiTWSyJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCFSF:tS4FteGijMU[gZ4VtdHNiYYPz[ZN{\WRiYYOgR4EzMyCvb3LpcIl7[XSrb36gZYZ1\XJiMkCgcYlveyCkeTDGUGlRWiCjc4PhfUwhTUN3ME2wMlAxOTIQvF2= NH32Noc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MUKzO|Y1PCd-MkGyN|c3PDR:L3G+
CHO NFrDWYtHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NEXNfopFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gNk1cOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSxJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCFSF:gZ4VtdHNuIFvpQVAvODByMkNOwG0> NEXRVpM9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MUO5Nlg2QCd-MkGzPVI5PTh:L3G+
CHO Mmm4SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NIjDWJNFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gNk1cOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSyJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCFSF:gZ4VtdHNuIFvpQVAvODByM{ZOwG0> Mmm0QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjF|OUK4OVgoRjJzM{myPFU5RC:jPh?=
HEK293 MmrJSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NHT5Z|JFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gNk1cOTJ3SW2tbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIF3UNUBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iSFXLNlk{KGOnbHzzMEBMcT1yLkCwNFI2|ryP Mke1QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjF2MkC4OlEoRjJzNEKwPFYyRC:jPh?=
HEK293 MXfGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MV;EbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV1vaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKE2WMjDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hUEWNMkmzJINmdGy|LDDLbV0xNjByMEO0{txO MVy8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOTR{MEi2NUc,OjF2MkC4OlE9N2F-
CHO NUD3bJc6TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= Mnz2RYdwdmm|dDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBpfW2jbjDNWFIhemWlZYD0c5Ih\XiycnXzd4VlKGmwIFPIU{Bk\WyuczDifUBcOzWVXVfUVIdidW2jIHLpcoRqdmdiYYPzZZktKEWFNUC9NE4xODB2Mt88US=> M{TUbFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJzNEKwPFYyLz5{MUSyNFg3OTxxYU6=
CHO MlP0SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? M4mxNGFod26rc4SgZYN1cX[rdImgZZQhcHWvYX6gUXQyKHKnY3XweI9zKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDDTG8h[2WubIOgZpkhYzN3U23HWHBo[W2vYTDibY5lcW6pIHHzd4F6NCCHQ{WwQVAvODBzNd88US=> MnjkQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjF2MkC4OlEoRjJzNEKwPFYyRC:jPh?=
CHO NWTZOVZHTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NYrpRnVYOzBibXnudy=> NYDBc3F{SWexbnnzeEBi[3Srdnn0fUBifCCqdX3hckBOXDFicnXj[ZB1d3JiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGNJVyClZXzsd{Bie3Onc4Pl[EBieyCrbnjpZol1cW:wIH;mJIZwenOtb3zpck1qdmS3Y3XkJINCVVBiYXPjeY12dGG2aX;uJIFnfGW{IEOwJI1qdnNiYomgSY5XcXOrb36gUZVtfGmuYXLlcEBRdGG2ZTDS[YFl\XK|LDDFR|UxRTBwMECwNFI2P87:TR?= MmWwQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjF2N{O2NlUoRjJzNEezOlI2RC:jPh?=
CHO MUPGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NF3FWY9FcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gX|EzPUmfLUKtbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIF3UNkBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhd25iQ1jPJINmdGy|IH3pZ5Jwe2OrboTpcIxifGmxbjDjc5VvfGmwZzygT4k:OC5yMECyNe69VQ>? Mkn4QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjF2N{O2NlUoRjJzNEezOlI2RC:jPh?=
CHO Ml;oSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? Mm[xSIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIGuxNlVKZS1{LXnv[I9u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDoeY1idiCPVEGgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJI9vKEOKTzDj[YxteyCkeTDtbYNzd3OlaX70bYxt[XSrb36gZ492dnSrbnesJGtqRTBwMECwNlTPxE1? M3TLU|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJzNEezOlI2Lz5{MUS3N|YzPTxxYU6=
CHO NInmTGtHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MVqzNEBucW6| NWP6WXFjSWexbnnzeEBi[3Srdnn0fUBifCCqdX3hckBOXDJicnXj[ZB1d3JiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGNJVyClZXzsd{Bie3Onc4Pl[EBieyCrbnjpZol1cW:wIH;mJIZwenOtb3zpck1qdmS3Y3XkJINCVVBiYXPjeY12dGG2aX;uJIFnfGW{IEOwJI1qdnNiYomgSY5XcXOrb36gUZVtfGmuYXLlcEBRdGG2ZTDS[YFl\XK|LDDFR|UxRTBwMECwPFUyOc7:TR?= NXfSR|VyRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkG0O|M3OjVpPkKxOFc{PjJ3PD;hQi=>
CHO MWDGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M4PvOlMxKG2rboO= M4PSfWFod26rc4SgZYN1cX[rdImgZZQhcHWvYX6gUXQyKHKnY3XweI9zKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDDTG8h[2WubIOgZZN{\XO|ZXSgZZMh\GWlcnXhd4UhcW5iZn;yd4twdGmwLYP0bY12dGG2ZXSgZ2FOWCC{ZXzlZZNmKGGodHXyJFMxKG2rboOgZpkhdXWudHnsZYJmdCCybHH0[UBz\WGmZYKsJGVEPTB;MD6wNFAxOjcQvF2= NFrZXlk9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MUW2PFI6OSd-MkG1OlgzQTF:L3G+
CHO NFzRNJNHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NECzPWlFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gNk1cOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSyJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCFSF:gZ4VtdHNuIFvpQVAvODByMkJOwG0> M3raXVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJzNU[4NlkyLz5{MUW2PFI6OTxxYU6=
CHO MYLGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MUXEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4hVVRzIILlZ4VxfG:{IHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBEUE9iY3XscJMtKEurPUCuNFAxOjUQvF2= MV28ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOTV4OEK5NUc,OjF3NkiyPVE9N2F-
CHO M3;iNWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 Ml7VN|AhdWmwcx?= NIS4TmxC\2:waYP0JIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KGi3bXHuJG1VOiC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gR2hQKGOnbHzzJIF{e2W|c3XkJIF{KGSnY4LlZZNmKGmwIH\vdpNsd2yrbj3zeIlufWyjdHXkJINCVVBicnXs[YF{\SCjZoTldkA{OCCvaX7zJIJ6KG23bITpcIFj\WxicHzheIUhemWjZHXyMEBGSzVyPUCuNFAxQDMQvF2= MY[8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOTV4OEK5NUc,OjF3NkiyPVE9N2F-
HEK293 M1XDR2Z2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MojySIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPUmfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKE2WMTDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hcHWvYX6gTGVMOjl|IHPlcIx{KGK7IILh[IlwdGmpYX7kJIJqdmSrbnegZZN{[XluIFvpQVAvODByMkZOwG0> NWDxR3diRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkG3OlQyQDVpPkKxO|Y1OTh3PD;hQi=>
HEK293 NXPKb2kyTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M{LmdmRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjWLXXnv[I9u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDoeY1idiCPVEKgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKGi3bXHuJGhGUzJ7MzDj[YxteyCkeTDyZYRqd2yrZ3Hu[EBjcW6maX7nJIF{e2G7LDDLbV0xNjByMEO0{txO M2\MUlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJzN{[0NVg2Lz5{MUe2OFE5PTxxYU6=
NIH3T3 NHXaTFdHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M{ewVVkxKG2rboO= MlfBSIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPUmfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKE2WMTDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hemG2IF7JTFNVOyClZXzsd{Bi\nSncjC5NEBucW6|LDDLbV0xNjByMEK2N:69VQ>? MlfxQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjJyNEe1OVYoRjJ{MES3OVU3RC:jPh?=
NIH3T3 MW\GeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MYS5NEBucW6| NYG3e2ptTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJFIuYzF{NVndbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIF3UNkBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5icnH0JG5KUDOWMzDj[YxteyCjZoTldkA6OCCvaX7zMEBMcT1yLkCwNFM{QDkQvF2= Mn7lQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjJyNEe1OVYoRjJ{MES3OVU3RC:jPh?=
CHO NHvTPXlHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MYe2NEBucW6| MoXySIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIGuzTH1u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDoeY1idiCPVEGgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEOKTzDj[YxteyCjZoTldkA3OCCvaX7zJIJ6KG2rY4LvZoV1[SC|Y3nueIltdGG2aX;uJI1mfGixZDygT4k:OC5yMECyPVbPxE1? MmT2QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjN{Mki4NFgoRjJ|MkK4PFA5RC:jPh?=
CHO NWTW[FI5TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M1rUTlYxKG2rboO= M4rKUGRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjDbN2hedWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSyJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCFSF:gZ4VtdHNiYX\0[ZIhPjBibXnud{BjgSCvaXPyc4JmfGFic3PpcpRqdGyjdHnvckBu\XSqb3SsJGtqRTBwMECwOFI6|ryP Ml61QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjN{Mki4NFgoRjJ|MkK4PFA5RC:jPh?=
HEK293 M1TadmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NXP4fFc2OiCqcoO= NVTBdGVbTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJHsyOjWLXUKtbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIILlZ49u[mmwYX70JG1VOSC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gTGVMOjl|IHPlcIx{KGGodHXyJFIhcHK|IHL5JIdidW2jIHPveY51cW6pLDDLbV0xNjByMENOwG0> NVTPZZJDRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkOyOlU5QDVpPkKzNlY2QDh3PD;hQi=>
HEK293 MnTGSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NFzHc5ozKGi{cx?= NVrMe2hRTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJHsyOjWLXUKtbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIILlZ49u[mmwYX70JG1VOiC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gTGVMOjl|IHPlcIx{KGGodHXyJFIhcHK|IHL5JIdidW2jIHPveY51cW6pLDDLbV0xNjByMEZOwG0> NHPxPYc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{M{K2OVg5PSd-MkOyOlU5QDV:L3G+
CHOK1 MUHGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M1fxSFMhcHK| NGi5O|dFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gX|EzPUmfMj3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5icnXjc41jcW6jboSgcYVt[XSxbnnuJJJm[2WydH;yJFEh\XiycnXzd4VlKGmwIFPIU2syKGOnbHzzJIFnfGW{IEOgbJJ{NCCNaU2wMlAxODFzzszN NFP5XZk9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{M{SwN|A5Oid-MkO0NFMxQDJ:L3G+
CHOK1 MVvGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NIr3WHk{KGi{cx?= NWXoTpRxTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJHsyOjWLXUKtbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIILlZ49u[mmwYX70JI1mdGG2b37pckBz\WOncITvdkAyKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDDTG9MOSClZXzsd{Bi\nSncjCzJIhzeyxiSVO1NF0xNjByMEKx{txO MWq8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOzRyM{C4Nkc,OjN2MEOwPFI9N2F-
CHO NITJcHRHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MkO0NUBpeg>? Mlq0TY51emmwc3njJIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KGi3bXHuJI1mdGG2b37pckBOXDJicnXj[ZB1d3JiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGNJVyClZXzsd{Bie3Onc4Pl[EBieyCdM{XTYWdVWGejbX3hV{BjcW6maX7nJIFnfGW{IEGgbJItKEWFNUC9NE4xODB2zszN NYLZSHhnRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS0NVc6PThpPkK0OFE4QTV6PD;hQi=>
CHO NIr6OWFHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M3rEOFEhcHJ? Mmf0TY51emmwc3njJIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KGi3bXHuJI1mdGG2b37pckBOXDFicnXj[ZB1d3JiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGNJVyClZXzsd{Bie3Onc4Pl[EBieyCdM{XTYWdVWGejbX3hV{BjcW6maX7nJIFnfGW{IEGgbJItKEWFNUC9NE4xODF5zszN NH\wSFM9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NESxO|k2QCd-MkS0NVc6PTh:L3G+
Primary neural stem cells NFWyNVJP\XW{b3flcolkKGG|c3H5 MlO5NVAhfU1? NUL5eXpOPDhiaILz NXTLVVVGVmW3cn;n[Y5q[yCjY4Tpeol1gSCrbjDXbZN1[XJicnH0JHBzcW2jcomgcoV2emGuIIP0[Y0h[2WubIOgZZN{\XO|ZXSgZZMh[2WubDDtZZR2emG2aX;uJIJ6KG2nYYP1dolv\yCWdVqxJIF1KDFyIIXNJIFnfGW{IES4JIhzeyCkeTDERXBKKHO2YXnubY5oNWKjc3XkJIludXWwb3jpd5Rw[2inbXnzeJJ6 MYG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDd|OES3Okc,OjR5M{i0O|Y9N2F-
Primary neural stem cells M3vITG5mfXKxZ3XubYMh[XO|YYm= Mo\INVAhfU1? MXe0PEBpenN? M4fMcm5mfXKxZ3XubYMh[WO2aY\peJkhcW5iV3nzeIFzKHKjdDDQdolu[XK7IH7leZJidCC|dHXtJINmdGy|IHHzd4V{e2WmIHHzJINmdGxibXH0eZJifGmxbjDifUBu\WG|dYLpcochVUGSLUKgZZQhOTBidV2gZYZ1\XJiNEigbJJ{KGK7IFTBVGkhe3SjaX7pcocu[mG|ZXSgbY1ufW6xaHnzeI9kcGWvaYP0dpk> MV68ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDd|OES3Okc,OjR5M{i0O|Y9N2F-
HEK293 Mn;ESpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NEjNNpFFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gX|EzPUyfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKE2WMTDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hUEWNMkmzJINmdGy|LDDLbV0xNjByMEG0{txO M4fX[|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2OUOwPFM2Lz5{NEmzNFg{PTxxYU6=
HEK293 NYi3RmF1TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= Mlr5SIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIGuxNlVNZWmxZH;t[YxifG:waX6g[pJwdSCqdX3hckBOXDJicnXj[ZB1d3JiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGhGUzJ7MzDj[YxteyxiS3m9NE4xODB2Md88US=> NEXldVg9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEmzNFg{PSd-MkS5N|A5OzV:L3G+
HEK293 NFvkU3pHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NYjiPGlPOTJyIH3pcpM> NGP1[HVFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gNk1cOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSxJJJm[2WydH;yJJN1[WKueTD0doFve2[nY4Tl[EBqdiCKRVuyPVMh[2WubIOgZYZ1\XJiMUKwJI1qdnNiYomgd4NqdnSrbHzheIlwdiClb4XueIlv\yxiS3m9NE4xODBzNN88US=> MkXvQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV{M{K5OlYoRjJ3MkOyPVY3RC:jPh?=
HEK293 M{PqRWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NGK0VlEyOjBibXnudy=> M4G1[mRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjWLXXnv[I9u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDoeY1idiCPVEKgdoVk\XC2b4Kgd5Ri[my7IITyZY5{\mWldHXkJIlvKEiHS{K5N{Bk\WyuczDh[pRmeiBzMkCgcYlveyCkeTDzZ4lvfGmubHH0bY9vKGOxdX70bY5oNCCNaU2wMlAxODRzzszN NV;qeWZCRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWyN|I6PjZpPkK1NlMzQTZ4PD;hQi=>
SH-SY5Y M4nSSG5mfXKxcILveIVkfGm4ZTDhd5NigQ>? MWOxNEB2VQ>? NX7mOFlMOjRiaILz MUXO[ZVzd3C{b4TlZ5RqfmViYXP0bZZqfHliYXfhbY5{fCCKMl:yMYlv\HWlZXSgc5hq\GG2aY\lJJN1emW|cz3hd5Nw[2mjdHXkJIRm[XSqIHnuJIh2dWGwIGPIMXN[PVliY3XscJMh[XO|ZYPz[YQh[XNiaX7jdoVie2ViaX6gZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHliYYSgNVAhfU1iaX7jeYJifGWmIH\vdkAzPCCqcoOgdJJqd3JidH:gTFJQOiClaHHscIVv\2VibXXhd5Vz\WRiYX\0[ZIhOjRiaILzJIJ6KE2WVDDhd5NigQ>? M2TqcFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4M{[zPFY3Lz5{NkO2N|g3PjxxYU6=
HEK293 M3vZOmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NYjoTnVNOTJyIH3pcpM> NGjm[3JFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gX|EzPUmfMj3Jc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSxJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCKRVuyPVMh[2WubIOgZYZ1\XJiMUKwJI1qdnNiYomgdoFlcW:uaXfhcoQh[2:vcHX0bZRqd25iYYPzZZktKEurPUCuNFAxOjYQvF2= NXLOS4RERGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[3PFUzQTZpPkK2O|g2Ojl4PD;hQi=>
HEK293 NIHaUFFHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M3ryRVEzOCCvaX7z MX3EbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiW{GyOWleOi2Lb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4hVVR{IILlZ4VxfG:{IHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBJTUt{OUOgZ4VtdHNiYX\0[ZIhOTJyIH3pcpMh[nlicnHkbY9tcWejbnSgZ49ueGW2aYTpc44h[XO|YYmsJGtqRTBwMECwN|TPxE1? NI\MXHA9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{Nke4OVI6Pid-Mk[3PFUzQTZ:L3G+
CHO NHPSZoFHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NXWyT5JHTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJHsyOjWLXUKtbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIILlZ49u[mmwYX70JG1NOUFicnXj[ZB1d3JiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGNJVyClZXzsd{whUUN3ME2wMlAxODFzzszN NGfXco09[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{Nkm4PFgxOSd-Mk[5PFg5ODF:L3G+
PC12 NGiySJRP\XW{b4Dyc5Rm[3SrdnWgZZN{[Xl? MXqxNEB2VQ>? MYWyJIhzew>? Mm[2UoV2em:ycn;0[YN1cX[nIHHjeIl3cXS7IHHnZYlve3RiSELPNk1qdmS3Y3XkJIRidWGpZTDpckBz[XRiUFOxNkBk\WyuczDhd5Nme3OnZDDhd{Bk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTDheEAyOCC3TTDwdoVqdmO3YnH0[YQh\m:{IEKgbJJ{KG[xbHzve4VlKGK7IFiyU|Ih[WSmaYTpc44h\m:{IEK0JIhzeyCkeTDNWHQh[XO|YYm= NHHhNHY9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{N{S2NFY6QSd-Mke0OlA3QTl:L3G+
PC12 MnHpUoV2em:ycn;0[YN1cX[nIHHzd4F6 MV:yNEB2VQ>? MWeyOEBpenN? NGPqbJNP\XW{b4Dyc5Rm[3SrdnWgZYN1cX[rdImgZYdicW6|dDDhcZltd2mmIHLleIEhMDFidH:gOFIhemW|aXT1[ZMqKGmwZIXj[YQh[2WubDDk[YF1cCCrbjDyZZQhWENzMjDj[YxteyCjc4Pld5Nm\CCjczDpcoNz\WG|ZTDpckBk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTDheEAzOCC3TTDwdoVqdmO3YnH0[YQh\m:{IEK0JIhzeyCob3zsc5dm\CCkeTDhcZltd2mmIHLleIEhMDFidH:gOFIhemW|aXT1[ZMqKGGmZHn0bY9vKG2nYYP1doVlKGGodHXyJFI1KGi{czDifUBOXFR? MXu8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPzR6NEWxOEc,Ojd2OES1NVQ9N2F-
CHO MVrGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MX22NEBucW6| NVXmWlRUTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJHsyOjWLXUKtbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIILlZ49u[mmwYX70JG1VOSC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gR2hQKGOnbHzzJI1m[XO3cnXkJIFnfGW{IE[wJI1qdnNiYomgd4NqdnSrbHzheIlwdiClb4XueIlv\yCvZYToc4QtKEmFNUC9NE4xODBzMd88US=> MV28ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPzh5NkK1NEc,Ojd6N{[yOVA9N2F-
PC12 NWDqdY5jVmW3cn;wdo91\WO2aY\lJIF{e2G7 M2nTN|I2KHWP MUKyJIhzew>? NEHXSIhP\XW{b4Dyc5Rm[3SrdnWgZYN1cX[rdImgZYdicW6|dDDINm8zNWmwZIXj[YQhd3irZHH0bZZmKGSjbXHn[UBqdiC{YYSgVGMyOiClZXzsd{Bie3Onc4Pl[EBieyCrbnPy[YF{\SCrbjDj[YxtKH[rYXLpcIl1gSCjdDCyOUB2VSCycnXpcoN2[mG2ZXSg[o9zKDJiaILzJIZwdGyxd3XkJIJ6KEh{T{KgZ4hidGynbnflJI1m[XO3cnXkJIFnfGW{IEK0JIhzeyCkeTDNWHQh[XO|YYm= NV3ETVJDRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMki4NFA1PTlpPkK4PFAxPDV7PD;hQi=>
MDA-MB-231 MV;BcpRqeHKxbHnm[ZJifGm4ZTDhd5NigQ>? MUGyOEBpenN? Ml3tRY51cXC{b3zp[oVz[XSrdnWgZYN1cX[rdImgZYdicW6|dDDoeY1idiCPRFGtUWIuOjNzIHPlcIx{KGGodHXyJFI1KGi{czDifUBOXFRiYYPzZZktKEmFNUC9NE46|ryP NFr4NoY9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{OUG0OFc1Pid-MkmxOFQ4PDZ:L3G+
SK-N-MC MoDNdWhVWyCjc4PhfS=> M3\F[pFJXFNib3[gdIVlcWG2cnnjJINidmOncjDj[YxtKGyrbnXzJJRwKGmmZX70bYZ6KG23bITpdIxmKG:ycH;yeJVvcXSrZYOg[o9zKGS{dXegdoVxfXKyb4Ppcoc7KFC{aX3hdpkhe2O{ZXXuJIZweiCVSz3OMW1EKGOnbHzz NFHEVlQ9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{OUSzOVE{QSd-Mkm0N|UyOzl:L3G+
HEK293 MWrGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MYfB[49vcXO2IHHjeIl3cXS7IHH0JG1VOSC{ZXPldJRweiBqdX7rco94diCxcnnnbY4qKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDISWszQTNiY3XscJMh[nliRnz1c{05KGS7ZT3iZZNm\CClYXzjbZVuKGG|c3H5MEBGSzVyPUCuNFAy|ryP MVW8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8{OTJyNEKyOkc,OzF{MESyNlY9N2F-
HEK293 NICyS5BHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MmSyRYdwdmm|dDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBOXDJicnXj[ZB1d3JiKIXub45wf25ib4Lp[4lvMSCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gTGVMOjl|IHPlcIx{KGK7IF\seY8uQCCmeXWtZoF{\WRiY3HsZ4l2dSCjc4PhfUwhTUN3ME2wMlAzPc7:TR?= M1HEN|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzNzMkC0NlI3Lz5|MUKwOFIzPjxxYU6=
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NIH3T3 NYXhc|dpTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NHjZd|c6OCCvaX7z M{fiTWRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjVzXT3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSyJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCQSVizWFMh[2WubIOgcYVu[nKjbnXzJIlv[3WkYYTl[EBnd3JiOUCgcYlveyCkeTDDbIVv\y2ScoXzc4ZnKGWzdXH0bY9vKGGwYXz5d4l{NCCNaU2wMlAxODNyMt88US=> NYS4boV4RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxM{G3Nlc1PzJpPkOxO|I4PDd{PD;hQi=>
NIH3T3 MmDDSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NHrTeYhFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gNk1cOTJ3MW2tbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIF3UNkBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iTlnIN3Q{KGOnbHzzJI1mdWK{YX7ld{BjgSC{YXTpc4xq\2GwZDDibY5lcW6pIHHzd4F6NCCNaU2wMlAxODN|zszN NVvqNVlzRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxM{G3Nlc1PzJpPkOxO|I4PDd{PD;hQi=>
CHO NIfofmpHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NF\KdVkyKGi{ M1m2fmRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjVzXT3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSxJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCFSF:gZ4VtdHNiaX7jeYJifGWmIH\vdkAyKGi{IHL5JIdidW2jIHPveY51cW6pIH3leIhw\CxiS3m9NE4xODB2Nt88US=> NIj2XWc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9|MUeyO|Q4Oid-M{G3Nlc1PzJ:L3G+
NIH3T3 MnfaSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? M1TvdmRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjVzXT3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSxJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCQSVizWFMh[2WubIOgcYVu[nKjbnXzJIJ6KHKjZHnvcIlo[W6mIHLpcoRqdmdiYYPzZZktKEurPUCuNFAxPjcQvF2= NXy1OVF4RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxM{G3Nlc1PzJpPkOxO|I4PDd{PD;hQi=>
COS7 MnK4SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NYDtdmROOS53IHjydy=> MorKSIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPTGfLXnv[I9u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDoeY1idiCPVEGgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEORU{egZ4VtdHNiaX7jeYJifGWmIH\vdkAyNjViaILzJIJ6KGejbX3hJINwfW62aX7nJI1mfGixZDygT4k:OC5yMEC4PO69VQ>? M3XLdFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzNzN{K3OFczLz5|MUeyO|Q4OjxxYU6=
CHO MWfGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? Mki1NUBpeg>? NV;QbodCTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJFIuYzF{NUHdMYlw\G:vZXzheI9vcW5iZoLvcUBpfW2jbjDNWFIhemWlZYD0c5Ih\XiycnXzd4VlKGmwIFPIU{Bk\WyuczDpcoN2[mG2ZXSg[o9zKDFiaIKgZpkh\2GvbXGgZ492dnSrbnegcYV1cG:mLDDLbV0xNjByMEm1{txO NGf0SJk9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9|MUeyO|Q4Oid-M{G3Nlc1PzJ:L3G+
CHO MWfGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M3TtOWJqdmSrbnegZYZncW6rdImgZYdicW6|dDDoeY1idiCPZXzheI9vcW5icnXj[ZB1d3JidInw[UAySSCkeTDkbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiW{GyOWlecW:mb33lcIF1d26rbjDzeIFjdHliZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGNJVyClZXzsd{whU2l;MD6wNFAyO87:TR?= MVO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:5d4eu[YJqNmGlLoXrM4Np\W2kbD;jc41xd3WwZG;y[ZBwenShY3Hy[E9EUEWPQly0OU8oRkOqRV3CUFww[T5?
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Assay
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot MT1 / MT2 / p-CREB / CREB / BDNF ; p-Raf / p-ERK / p-p90RSK / PKAα / p-AKT / p-JNK / p-CaMKII 29570621

Protocol (from reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 232.28
Formula

C13H16N2O2

CAS No. 73-31-4
Storage 3 years -20°C powder
2 years -80°C in solvent
Smiles CC(=O)NCCC1=CNC2=C1C=C(C=C2)OC

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)

mg/kg g μL

Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation (This is only the calculator, not formulation. Please contact us first if there is no in vivo formulation at the solubility Section.)

% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O
%DMSO %

Calculation results:

Working concentration: mg/ml;

Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO ( Master liquid concentration mg/mL, Please contact us first if the concentration exceeds the DMSO solubility of the batch of drug. )

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300, mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80, mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O, mix and clarify.

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next add μL Corn oil, mix and clarify.

Note: 1. Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2. Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such
as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.

Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT04731974 Not yet recruiting Drug: Melatonin 5 mg Concussion Mild|Concussion Brain|Pediatric ALL Children''s National Research Institute July 1 2022 Phase 1
NCT04882280 Not yet recruiting Behavioral: Light Sleep Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research|VA Palo Alto Health Care System July 2022 Not Applicable
NCT05186233 Not yet recruiting Behavioral: Phototherapy Shift-work Disorder Henry Ford Health System|American Academy of Sleep Medicine February 1 2022 Not Applicable

(data from https://clinicaltrials.gov, updated on 2022-01-17)

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

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