Melatonin (NSC 113928)

For research use only.

Catalog No.S1204 Synonyms: NSC 56423, N-Acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine

18 publications

Melatonin (NSC 113928) Chemical Structure

CAS No. 73-31-4

Melatonin (NSC 113928, NSC 56423, N-Acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a MT receptor agonist, used as a dietary supplement. Melatonin is a selective ATF-6 inhibitor and downregulates COX-2. Melatonin enhances mitophagy and regulates the homeostasis of apoptosis and autophagy.

Selleck's Melatonin (NSC 113928) has been cited by 18 publications

4 Customer Reviews

  • TUNEL staining of treated adipocytes and flow cytometry analysis of positive TUNEL cells (n=3).

    J Pineal Res. 2017, 62(4), doi: 10.1111/jpi.12383. Melatonin (NSC 113928) purchased from Selleck.

  • C: EDU staining of adipocytes treated with MT for 24 h (n=3). D: Flow Cytometry analysis of cell cycle in adipocytes treated with MT for 24 h (n=3).

    J Pineal Res, 2016, doi: 10.1111/jpi.12383.. Melatonin (NSC 113928) purchased from Selleck.

  • H2O2 activates JNK through the RAC1/MAP2K7 pathway, which is inhibited by melatonin treatment. (A) GCs grown in medium containing 10 μM melatonin for 24 h were rinsed using PBS, and then incubated with 0.2 mM H2O2 for 2 h. For the inhibition of RAC1, the RAC1 specific antagonist NSC 23766 (10 μM) was added 1 h prior to H2O2 exposure. The cell lysates were collected for GST-PAK1-PBD pulldown assay of RAC1 activation (GTP-bound RAC1 levels) and immunoblotting analysis of total RAC1. (B) Western blot analysis of phosphorylated MAP2K7 (p-MAP2K7) and total MAP2K7 in GCs with the indicated treatments as described above. TUBA1A served as the control for loading. (C) The detection of JNK activity in GCs subjected to the treatments as mentioned earlier. Data represent mean ± s.e.; n = 3. **Represents P < 0.01 vs control group. ##Represents P < 0.01 vs H2O2 group. N, not significant, P > 0.05. (D) GCs transfected with scrambled control siRNA (SC siRNA) or Map2k7 siRNA were cultured with 10 μM melatonin for 24 h, washed in PBS, and then grown in medium containing 0.2 mM H2O2 for 2 h. The expression of phosphorylated MAP2K7 (p-MAP2K7) and total MAP2K7 was determined by Western blotting. TUBA1A served as the control for loading. (E) GCs transfected with scrambled control siRNA (SC siRNA) or Map2k7 siRNA for 48 h were cultured with or without 0.2 mM H2O2 for 2 h. Cell lysates were collected for Western blot analysis of RAC1 activation (GTP-RAC1 levels) by GST-PAK1-PBD pulldown and of total RAC1 levels. (F) GCs transfected with scrambled control siRNA (SC siRNA) or Map2k7 siRNA for 24 h were cultured for another 24 h in the presence or absence of 10 μM melatonin before 2 h of H2O2 (0.2 mM) incubation. Cells were then processed for JNK determination. Data represent mean ± s.e.; n = 3. **Represents P < 0.01 vs control group. ##Represents P < 0.01 vs H2O2 group. N, not significant, P > 0.05.

    Reproduction, 2018, 155(3):307-319. Melatonin (NSC 113928) purchased from Selleck.

  • (a-c) Immunohistochemical detection of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 in lumber enlargement of mice from different groups at the peak stage of EAE or on day 28 post immunization.

    J Mol Neurosci, 2018, 64(2):233-241. Melatonin (NSC 113928) purchased from Selleck.

Purity & Quality Control

Choose Selective MT Receptor Inhibitors

Biological Activity

Description Melatonin (NSC 113928, NSC 56423, N-Acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a MT receptor agonist, used as a dietary supplement. Melatonin is a selective ATF-6 inhibitor and downregulates COX-2. Melatonin enhances mitophagy and regulates the homeostasis of apoptosis and autophagy.
Targets
melatonin receptor [1]
()
In vitro

Melatonin interacts with the highly toxic hydroxyl radical with a rate constant equivalent to that of other highly efficient hydroxyl radical scavengers. Melatonin reportedly neutralizes hydrogen peroxide, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite anion, nitric oxide and hypochlorous acid. [1] Melatonin is believed to scavenge the highly toxic hydroxyl radical, the peroxynitrite anion, and possibly the peroxyl radical. Melatonin reportedly scavenges the superoxide anion radical and it quenches singlet oxygen. Melatonin stimulates mRNA levels for superoxide dismutase and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (all of which are antioxidative enzymes), thereby increasing its antioxidative capacity. [2] Melatonin in cell-free systems has been shown to directly scavenge H2O2, singlet oxygen (1O2) and nitric oxide (NO*), with little or no ability to scavenge the superoxide anion radical (O2*-) in vitro. Melatonin also directly detoxifies the peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-) and/or peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH), or the activated form of this molecule, ONOOH*. Melatonin acts as a direct free radical scavenger with the ability to detoxify both reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. [3] Melatonin inhibits cAMP accumulation in most of the cells examined, but the indole effects on other messengers have been often observed only in one type of the cells or tissue, until now. Melatonin also regulates the transcription factors, namely, phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein and expression of c-Fos. [4]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
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NIH3T3 NYTjTIRWTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M2PuV2lvcGmkaYTpc44hd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIJqdmSrbnegeI8hdWWvYoLhcoUheHKncHHyZZRqd26|IH;mJG5KUDOWMzDj[YxteyC|dHHicJkh\XiycnXzd4lv\yCqdX3hckBO\WyjdH;ubY4hemWlZYD0c5IhfHmyZTCxRkwhU2l;MD6wNFA4|ryP NUH0[21WRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUWzPFAzOThpPkG1N|gxOjF6PD;hQi=>
NIH3T3 NVi2U3JITnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M2PYXmJqdmSrbnegZYZncW6rdImgZYdicW6|dDDN[YxifG:waX6gdoVk\XC2b4KgeJlx\SBzQTDzeIFjdHliZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJG5KUDOWMzDj[YxteyC3c3nu[{AzNVtzMkXJYYlw\G:vZXzheI9vcW5uIFvpQVAvODByM988US=> NH3DXnE9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zNUexN|M5PCd-MUW3NVM{QDR:L3G+
NIH3T3 Mor6SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? M4jOO2JqdmSrbnegZYZncW6rdImgZYdicW6|dDDN[YxifG:waX6gdoVk\XC2b4KgeJlx\SBzQjDzeIFjdHliZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJG5KUDOWMzDj[YxteyC3c3nu[{AzNVtzMkXJYYlw\G:vZXzheI9vcW5uIFvpQVAvODByN988US=> MXW8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yPTdzM{O4OEc,OTV5MUOzPFQ9N2F-
NIH3T3 MmLLSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? Mn;mTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iB{LWuxNlVKZWmxZH;t[YxifG:waX6gZolv\GmwZzD0c{BpfW2jbjDt[YxifG:waX6gdoVk\XC2b4KgeJlx\SBzQjCoUXQzMSCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gUmlJO1R|IILheEBncWK{b3LsZZN1KGOnbHzzJEwhU2l;MD6wNFAzQDF6zszN NYj6OHFSRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUW5OFM1PzhpPkG1PVQ{PDd6PD;hQi=>
NIH3T3 M2nEdWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MUPJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKDJvW{GyOWlecW:mb33lcIF1d26rbjDibY5lcW6pIITvJIh2dWGwIH3lcIF1d26rbjDy[YNmeHSxcjD0fZBmKDGDIDjNWFEqKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDOTWg{XDNicnH0JIZq[nKxYnzhd5Qh[2WubIOsJGtqRTBwMECwNlg5PM7:TR?= NYnMdJQ3RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUW5OFM1PzhpPkG1PVQ{PDd6PD;hQi=>
NIH3T3 MoDQSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MljQSIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPUmfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKHKnY3;tZolv[W62IF3UNkBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iTlnIN3Q{KGOnbHzzMEBMcT1yLkCwNFM2|ryP MoPNQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTZ5NUmwPVQoRjF4N{W5NFk1RC:jPh?=
NIH3T3 M2XJRWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 Ml6wSIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPUmfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKHKnY3;tZolv[W62IF3UNUBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iTlnIN3Q{KGOnbHzzMEBMcT1yLkCwNFM6|ryP M1fBdlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF4N{W5NFk1Lz5zNke1PVA6PDxxYU6=
NIH3T3 M1zNVGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NUexZZB2OSCwTR?= NFe4VZpC[3Srdnn0fUBifCCPVEGgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKE6LSEPUN{Bk\WyuczDhd5Nme3OnZDDhd{BqdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIH\vdpNsd2yrbj3zeIlufWyjdHXkJINCVVBic4nueIhme2m|IHH0JFEhdk1? NFjaUGY9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zNke1PVA6PCd-MU[3OVkxQTR:L3G+
NIH3T3 NHzrS2hHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MWDEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4hVVR{IILlZ4VxfG:{IHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBPUUh|VEOgZ4VtdHNuIFvpQVAvODByMkW3{txO MXq8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yPzF2OUi2PUc,OTdzNEm4Olk9N2F-
NIH3T3 M3\sZ2Z2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NX[1fndITGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJFIuYzF{NVndbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIF3UNUBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iTlnIN3Q{KGOnbHzzMEBMcT1yLkCwNFMzOzcQvF2= M1XGblxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF5MUS5PFY6Lz5zN{G0PVg3QTxxYU6=
NIH 3T3 NEjieIlHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NWfaWHZ4TGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJFJcOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gdoVkd22kaX7hcpQhcHWvYX6gUXQzKHKnY3XweI9zKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDOTWghO1R|IHPlcIx{NCCNaU2wMlAxODN3NElOwG0> MVS8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yPzN2Nki1PUc,OTd|NE[4OVk9N2F-
NIH 3T3 NH[0WYVHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MYHEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMmuxNlVKZWmxZH;t[YxifG:waX6g[pJwdSC{ZXPvcYJqdmGwdDDoeY1idiCPVEGgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKE6LSDCzWFMh[2WubIOsJGtqRTBwMECwN|g6|ryP NFXi[2Y9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zN{O0Olg2QSd-MUezOFY5PTl:L3G+
NIH3T3 NITmTWxHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NUnmfWJ4TGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJFJcOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5icnXjc41jcW6jboSgUXQyKHKnY3XweI9zKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDOTWg{XDNiY3XscJMtKEurPUCuNFAxOjZ|zszN MlG2QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTd2NUm3NVEoRjF5NEW5O|EyRC:jPh?=
NIH3T3 MkXYSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MnjDSIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIELbNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4hemWlb33ibY5idnRiTWSyJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCQSVizWFMh[2WubIOsJGtqRTBwMECwN|M5QM7:TR?= MUO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yPzR3OUexNUc,OTd2NUm3NVE9N2F-
NIH3T3 M1P5emZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M3zHU2Rqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjWLXXnv[I9u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDoeY1idiClbH;u[YQhVVRzIILlZ4VxfG:{IHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBz[XRiTlnIN3Q{KGOnbHzzMEBMcT1yLkCwNFLPxE1? NH;USmg9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zN{S4NVkxPCd-MUe0PFE6ODR:L3G+
NIH3T3 NYXmTG9nTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MYPEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4h[2yxbnXkJG1VOiC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gdoF1KE6LSEPUN{Bk\WyuczygT4k:OC5yMECz{txO M3vPPFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF5NEixPVA1Lz5zN{S4NVkxPDxxYU6=
NIH3T3 NEXtdWpHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MVPEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4h[2yxbnXkJG1VOSC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gdoF1KE6LSEPUN{Bk\WyuczygT4k:OC5yMECxOFE{|ryP NXnaUG9VRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUiwOVI{OTRpPkG4NFUzOzF2PD;hQi=>
NIH3T3 NYfVUml2TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MYLEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4h[2yxbnXkJG1VOiC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gdoF1KE6LSEPUN{Bk\WyuczygT4k:OC5yMECyN|k6|ryP NXLxN45jRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUiwOVI{OTRpPkG4NFUzOzF2PD;hQi=>
HEK293 NXy2UXJDTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NFOzOWZFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gNk1cOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSxJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCKRVuyPVMh[2WubIOsJGlEPTB;MD6wNFAz|ryP MlvMQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTh|N{KxPFEoRjF6M{eyNVgyRC:jPh?=
HEK293 MonESpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NIrpe4lFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gNk1cOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSyJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCKRVuyPVMh[2WubIOsJGlEPTB;MD6wNFA2O87:TR?= Mni5QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTh|N{KxPFEoRjF6M{eyNVgyRC:jPh?=
CHO NHLzOFRHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NYHqfY5RTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJHsyOjWLXXnv[I9u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDNWFMwWVJ{IH3lcIF1d26rbjDibY5lcW6pIIPpeIUh\XiycnXzd4VlKGmwIFPIU{Bk\WyuczygTWM2OD1yLkC2OFU4|ryP M{W0cFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF6NECwN|M2Lz5zOESwNFM{PTxxYU6=
CHO NYjKUZJtTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MmnTSIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPUmfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKG2nbHH0c45qdiCPVEGgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEOKTzDj[YxteyxiS3m9NE4xODB3MkZOwG0> MUe8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yQDZ3N{m4NEc,OTh4NUe5PFA9N2F-
CHO NVf6e3BJTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= Mn[4SIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPUmfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKG2nbHH0c45qdiCPVEKgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEOKTzDj[YxteyxiS3m9NE4xODB5NEJOwG0> NXP0Opl[RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUi2OVc6QDBpPkG4OlU4QThyPD;hQi=>
HEK293 M3TnRmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MWnEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4hVVRzIILlZ4VxfG:{IHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBJTUt{OUOgZ4VtdHNuIFvpQVAvODByMUVOwG0> NEPpc2o9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zOEe3PFk1Oyd-MUi3O|g6PDN:L3G+
CHO NVvTcYtkTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M1LvcmRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjWLXXnv[I9u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDoeY1idiCPVEKgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEOKTzDj[YxteyxiS3m9NE4xODB2Md88US=> MoG2QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTh5N{i5OFMoRjF6N{e4PVQ{RC:jPh?=
CHO MnflSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NFrMc49C\2:waYP0JIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KGi3bXHuJG1VOiC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gR2hQKGOnbHzzJIJ6KFt|NWPdS3RR\2GvbXHTJIJqdmSrbnegZZN{[XluIFXDOVA:OC5yMEC0Pe69VQ>? Moj4QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTh5N{i5OFMoRjF6N{e4PVQ{RC:jPh?=
CHO NVPnVZkzTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MYrEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4hVVRzIILlZ4VxfG:{IHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBEUE9iY3XscJMtKEurPUCuNFAxPDV5Md88US=> MX:8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yQTF7M{G2NEc,OTlzOUOxOlA9N2F-
CHO NGXpWmVHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= Mm\4SIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPUmfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKE2WMjDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hS0iRIHPlcIx{NCCNaU2wMlAxODl3Nd88US=> MV[8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yQTF7M{G2NEc,OTlzOUOxOlA9N2F-
CHO MWPGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MkfjRYdwdmm|dDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBpfW2jbjDNWFIhemWlZYD0c5Ih\XiycnXzd4VlKGmwIFPIU{Bk\WyuczDhd5Nme3OnZDDhd{B{fGmvdXzheIlwdiCxZjDbN|VUZUeWUHfhcY1iWyCkaX7kbY5oNCCHQ{WwQVAvODByNEpOwG0> MlmzQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTl|MkmzNlMoRjF7M{K5N|I{RC:jPh?=
CHO NYfXNWdtTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M1LkRWFod26rc4SgZYN1cX[rdImgZZQhcHWvYX6gUXQyKHKnY3XweI9zKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDDTG8h[2WubIOgZZN{\XO|ZXSgZZMhe3SrbYXsZZRqd25ib3[gX|M2W12JVGDnZY1u[VNiYnnu[Ilv\yxiRVO1NF0xNjByMkK0{txO Mln0QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTl|MkmzNlMoRjF7M{K5N|I{RC:jPh?=
CHO NX\zd5BZTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M3XlO2Rqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjWLXXnv[I9u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDoeY1idiCPVEGgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEOKTzDj[YxteyCkeTDnZY1u[SClb4XueIlv\yxiS3m9NE4xODB2NUex{txO MojrQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTl2N{O4OFgoRjF7NEezPFQ5RC:jPh?=
CHO NGrJRmtHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M3W2dWRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjWLXXnv[I9u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDoeY1idiCPVEKgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEOKTzDj[YxteyCkeTDnZY1u[SClb4XueIlv\yxiS3m9NE4xODB7NUZOwG0> MYe8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yQTR5M{i0PEc,OTl2N{O4OFg9N2F-
CHO NUOw[2QxTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= Mo\nOlAhdWmwcx?= M2XqfmRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjDbN2hedWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5ibXXsZZRwdmmwIF3UNUBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iQ1jPJINmdGy|IHHmeIVzKDZyIH3pcpMh[nlic3PpcpRqdGyjdHnvckBkd3WwdHnu[{whU2l;MD6wNFAzQTcQvF2= M1LWWVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJyMkK3PFc5Lz5{MEKyO|g4QDxxYU6=
CHO NULCS|ZRTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MXi2NEBucW6| NEPSdmVFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gX|NJZW2nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIH3lcIF1d26rbjDNWFIhemWlZYD0c5Ih\XiycnXzd4VlKGmwIFPIU{Bk\WyuczDh[pRmeiB4MDDtbY5{KGK7IIPjbY51cWyuYYTpc44h[2:3boTpcoctKEurPUCuNFAxPDJ7zszN MlnDQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjB{Mke4O|goRjJyMkK3PFc5RC:jPh?=
CHO MWTGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NEHmPY5C\2:waYP0JIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KGi3bXHuJG1VOiC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gR2hQKGOnbHzzJIJ6KFt|NWPdS3RR\2GvbXGgZolv\GmwZzDhd5NigSxiRVO1NF0xNjByMES5{txO MWi8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zODR2NE[xNEc,OjB2NES2NVA9N2F-
CHO NHHrdFFHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NV;Kd48xSWexbnnzeEBi[3Srdnn0fUBifCCqdX3hckBOXDFicnXj[ZB1d3JiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGNJVyClZXzsd{BjgSCdM{XTYWdVWGejbX3hJIJqdmSrbnegZZN{[XluIFXDOVA:OC5yMEKy{txO NHfKUYU9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MES0OFYyOCd-MkC0OFQ3OTB:L3G+
NIH3T3 NXj3RpBITnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MWW5NEBucW6| Mm[wSIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIGuxNlVKZWmxZH;t[YxifG:waX6g[pJwdSCqdX3hckBkdG:wZXSgUXQyKHKnY3XweI9zKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDyZZQhVkmKM2SzJINmdGy|IHHmeIVzKDlyIH3pcpMtKEurPUCuNFAxOzNzMd88US=> M2DPTFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJyNke0N|c{Lz5{ME[3OFM4OzxxYU6=
NIH3T3 NVLX[pFuTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NXHwPI9zQTBibXnudy=> MVTEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiW{GyOWlecW:mb33lcIF1d26rbjDmdo9uKGi3bXHuJINtd26nZDDNWFIhemWlZYD0c5Ih\XiycnXzd4VlKGmwIILheEBPUUh|VEOgZ4VtdHNiYX\0[ZIhQTBibXnud{whU2l;MD6wNFA3OTZ4zszN NWfBcFNwRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkC2O|Q{PzNpPkKwOlc1Ozd|PD;hQi=>
CHO-Galpha16 NYTP[Y1DTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MU[yNEBucW6| M2jUVWJqdmSrbnegZYZncW6rdImgeI8hemG2IF3UNUBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iQ1jPMWdidHCqYUG2JINmdGy|IHHzd4V{e2WmIHHzJGNiOitibX;ibYxqgmG2aX;uJIFnfGW{IEKwJI1qdnNiYomgSmxKWFJiYYPzZZktKEWFNUC9NE4xODB3Nt88US=> NW[1SnMyRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkGyN|c3PDRpPkKxNlM4PjR2PD;hQi=>
CHO-Galpha16 Ml71SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NYTZPYQ{TGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJHs{UF2vZXzheI9vcW5iZoLvcUBz[XRiTWSyJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCFSF:tS4FteGijMU[gZ4VtdHNuIFvpQVAvODByNUlOwG0> M131e|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJzMkO3OlQ1Lz5{MUKzO|Y1PDxxYU6=
CHO-Galpha16 NEW4SY9HfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MX7EbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiW{PIYY1mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIILheEBOXDFicnXj[ZB1d3JiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGNJVy2JYXzwbIEyPiClZXzsd{whU2l;MD6wNFA6Qc7:TR?= M{P4U|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJzMkO3OlQ1Lz5{MUKzO|Y1PDxxYU6=
CHO-Galpha16 Ml24SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NYm0R5d2OjBibXnudy=> NV\XZW9iSmmwZHnu[{Bi\m[rbnn0fUB1dyC{YYSgUXQzKHKnY3XweI9zKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDDTG8uT2GucHjhNVYh[2WubIOgZZN{\XO|ZXSgZZMhS2F{KzDtc4JqdGm8YYTpc44h[W[2ZYKgNlAhdWmwczDifUBHVEmSUjDhd5NigSxiRVO1NF0xNjByMUJOwG0> NV;1UYd1RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkGyN|c3PDRpPkKxNlM4PjR2PD;hQi=>
CHO NHzFTpFHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MV3EbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4hVVRzIILlZ4VxfG:{IHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBEUE9iY3XscJMtKEurPUCuNFAxOjMQvF2= NHnwR209[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MUO5Nlg2QCd-MkGzPVI5PTh:L3G+
CHO NX\CSVBGTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MUfEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4hVVR{IILlZ4VxfG:{IHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBEUE9iY3XscJMtKEurPUCuNFAxOzYQvF2= MVy8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOTN7Mki1PEc,OjF|OUK4OVg9N2F-
HEK293 M4\tR2Z2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MX7EbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV1vaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKE2WMTDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hUEWNMkmzJINmdGy|LDDLbV0xNjByMEK1{txO NIT2[Jc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MUSyNFg3OSd-MkG0NlA5PjF:L3G+
HEK293 NHvqbJJHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M3jwb2Rqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjWLXT3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSyJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCKRVuyPVMh[2WubIOsJGtqRTBwMECwN|TPxE1? MnHLQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjF2MkC4OlEoRjJzNEKwPFYyRC:jPh?=
CHO NFTWTZVHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M37IOmFod26rc4SgZYN1cX[rdImgZZQhcHWvYX6gUXQzKHKnY3XweI9zKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDDTG8h[2WubIOgZpkhYzN3U23HWHBo[W2vYTDibY5lcW6pIHHzd4F6NCCHQ{WwQVAvODByNENOwG0> NFrqOJE9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MUSyNFg3OSd-MkG0NlA5PjF:L3G+
CHO NIq0O4FHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MlLMRYdwdmm|dDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBpfW2jbjDNWFEhemWlZYD0c5Ih\XiycnXzd4VlKGmwIFPIU{Bk\WyuczDifUBcOzWVXVfUVIdidW2jIHLpcoRqdmdiYYPzZZktKEWFNUC9NE4xODF3zszN M{\ZUVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJzNEKwPFYyLz5{MUSyNFg3OTxxYU6=
CHO M3nVTmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MWOzNEBucW6| M4\CZ2Fod26rc4SgZYN1cX[rdImgZZQhcHWvYX6gUXQyKHKnY3XweI9zKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDDTG8h[2WubIOgZZN{\XO|ZXSgZZMhcW6qaXLpeIlwdiCxZjDmc5J{c2:uaX6tbY5lfWOnZDDjRW1RKGGlY4XteYxifGmxbjDh[pRmeiB|MDDtbY5{KGK7IFXuWol{cW:wIF31cJRqdGGkZXygVIxifGViUnXh[IVzeyxiRVO1NF0xNjByMECyOVfPxE1? NI\QeHI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MUS3N|YzPSd-MkG0O|M3OjV:L3G+
CHO NHvZSFlHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M4flemRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjDbNVI2UV1vMj3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSyJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBwdiCFSF:gZ4VtdHNibXnjdo9{[2mwdHnscIF1cW:wIHPveY51cW6pLDDLbV0xNjByMEKx{txO MofKQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjF2N{O2NlUoRjJzNEezOlI2RC:jPh?=
CHO MoHvSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MVrEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiW{GyOWleNTJvaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKE2WMTDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgc44hS0iRIHPlcIx{KGK7IH3pZ5Jwe2OrboTpcIxifGmxbjDjc5VvfGmwZzygT4k:OC5yMECyOO69VQ>? MVy8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOTR5M{[yOUc,OjF2N{O2NlU9N2F-
CHO NIfoUmlHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M4PUdlMxKG2rboO= NHX4TmZC\2:waYP0JIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KGi3bXHuJG1VOiC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gR2hQKGOnbHzzJIF{e2W|c3XkJIF{KGmwaHnibZRqd25ib3[g[o9ze2uxbHnuMYlv\HWlZXSgZ2FOWCCjY3P1cZVt[XSrb36gZYZ1\XJiM{CgcYlveyCkeTDFcnZqe2mxbjDNeYx1cWyjYnXsJHBt[XSnIGLlZYRmenNuIFXDOVA:OC5yMEC4OVEy|ryP MnHsQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjF2N{O2NlUoRjJzNEezOlI2RC:jPh?=
CHO M4HXNWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M33wTVMxKG2rboO= NHvLR4VC\2:waYP0JIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KGi3bXHuJG1VOSC{ZXPldJRweiCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gR2hQKGOnbHzzJIF{e2W|c3XkJIF{KGSnY4LlZZNmKGmwIH\vdpNsd2yrbj3zeIlufWyjdHXkJINCVVBicnXs[YF{\SCjZoTldkA{OCCvaX7zJIJ6KG23bITpcIFj\WxicHzheIUhemWjZHXyMEBGSzVyPUCuNFAxODJ4zszN MoDTQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjF3NkiyPVEoRjJzNU[4NlkyRC:jPh?=
CHO M1vBOGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MVzEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV2rb3TvcYVt[XSxbnnuJIZzd21iaIXtZY4hVVR{IILlZ4VxfG:{IHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBEUE9iY3XscJMtKEurPUCuNFAxOjIQvF2= NVHyWpdtRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkG1OlgzQTFpPkKxOVY5OjlzPD;hQi=>
CHO M3TnbmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M3rO[mRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjWLXXnv[I9u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDoeY1idiCPVEGgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEOKTzDj[YxteyxiS3m9NE4xODB{NN88US=> M2[yNFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJzNU[4NlkyLz5{MUW2PFI6OTxxYU6=
CHO MWHGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NYjvRZJyOzBibXnudy=> MVPB[49vcXO2IHHjeIl3cXS7IHH0JIh2dWGwIF3UNkBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iQ1jPJINmdGy|IHHzd4V{e2WmIHHzJIRm[3KnYYPlJIlvKG[xcoPrc4xqdi2|dHnteYxifGWmIHPBUXAhemWuZXHz[UBi\nSncjCzNEBucW6|IHL5JI12dHSrbHHi[YwheGyjdHWgdoVi\GW{LDDFR|UxRTBwMECwPFLPxE1? M1juN|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJzNU[4NlkyLz5{MUW2PFI6OTxxYU6=
HEK293 M1XYXWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NUe4cXBKTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJFIuYzF{NVndbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIF3UNUBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iaIXtZY4hUEWNMkmzJINmdGy|IHL5JJJi\GmxbHnnZY5lKGKrbnTpcoch[XO|YYmsJGtqRTBwMECwNlXPxE1? MV[8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOTd4NEG4OUc,OjF5NkSxPFU9N2F-
HEK293 MmHHSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NFLpSnJFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gNk1cOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSyJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCqdX3hckBJTUt{OUOgZ4VtdHNiYomgdoFlcW:uaXfhcoQh[mmwZHnu[{Bie3OjeTygT4k:OC5yMECzOO69VQ>? NWrQeJU1RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkG3OlQyQDVpPkKxO|Y1OTh3PD;hQi=>
NIH3T3 M3W4TmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NHfielM6OCCvaX7z Mn\3SIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPUmfaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKE2WMTDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hemG2IF7JTFNVOyClZXzsd{Bi\nSncjC5NEBucW6|LDDLbV0xNjByMEK2N:69VQ>? MorkQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjJyNEe1OVYoRjJ{MES3OVU3RC:jPh?=
NIH3T3 NGTWWoFHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MnzhPVAhdWmwcx?= NG\n[JBFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gNk1cOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSyJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiC{YYSgUmlJO1R|IHPlcIx{KGGodHXyJFkxKG2rboOsJGtqRTBwMECwN|M5QM7:TR?= Mkn0QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjJyNEe1OVYoRjJ{MES3OVU3RC:jPh?=
CHO NU\TcWNzTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MnfoOlAhdWmwcx?= NGrFeWRFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gX|NJZW2nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIF3UNUBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iQ1jPJINmdGy|IHHmeIVzKDZyIH3pcpMh[nlibXnjdo9j\XSjIIPjbY51cWyuYYTpc44hdWW2aH;kMEBMcT1yLkCwNFI6Ps7:TR?= NV;kclBXRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkOyNlg5ODhpPkKzNlI5QDB6PD;hQi=>
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NIH3T3 MUPGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MnH4SIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPTGfLXnv[I9u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDoeY1idiCPVEGgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKE6LSEPUN{Bk\WyuczDt[Y1jemGwZYOgZpkhemGmaX;sbYdidmRiYnnu[Ilv\yCjc4PhfUwhU2l;MD6wNFA3Ps7:TR?= MUS8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8{OTd{N{S3Nkc,OzF5Mke0O|I9N2F-
COS7 MWnGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NGjIelcyNjViaILz NHXFT5pFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gNk1cOTJ3MW2tbY9ld22nbHH0c45qdiCocn;tJIh2dWGwIF3UNUBz\WOncITvdkBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iQ1;TO{Bk\WyuczDpcoN2[mG2ZXSg[o9zKDFwNTDodpMh[nliZ3HtcYEh[2:3boTpcochdWW2aH;kMEBMcT1yLkCwNFg5|ryP NIf4dJI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9|MUeyO|Q4Oid-M{G3Nlc1PzJ:L3G+
CHO MnTnSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MnHGNUBpeg>? MmnCSIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIEKtX|EzPTGfLXnv[I9u\WyjdH;ubY4h\nKxbTDoeY1idiCPVEKgdoVk\XC2b4Kg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEOKTzDj[YxteyCrbnP1ZoF1\WRiZn;yJFEhcHJiYomg[4FudWFiY3;1cpRqdmdibXX0bI9lNCCNaU2wMlAxODl3zszN MYO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8{OTd{N{S3Nkc,OzF5Mke0O|I9N2F-
CHO NYfwZoRiTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MWXCbY5lcW6pIHHm[olvcXS7IHHnZYlve3RiaIXtZY4hVWWuYYTvcolvKHKnY3XweI9zKHS7cHWgNWEh[nliZHnzdIxi[2WvZX70JI9nKFtzMkXJYYlw\G:vZXzheI9vcW5ic4ThZox6KGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDDTG8h[2WubIOsJGtqRTBwMECwNVPPxE1? MkfGQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xd4f3MoVjcS6jYz71b{9kcGWvYnyvZ49ueG:3bnTfdoVxd3K2X3PhdoQwS0iHTVLMOFUwLz6FaFXNRmw9N2F-
CHO MWDGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NEPk[ZRFcXOybHHj[Y1mdnRib3[gNk1cOTJ3SW3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTXXsZZRwdmmwIILlZ4VxfG:{IIT5dIUhOUFiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGNJVyClZXzsd{whU2l;MD6wNFAz|ryP MYm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:5d4eu[YJqNmGlLoXrM4Np\W2kbD;jc41xd3WwZG;y[ZBwenShY3Hy[E9EUEWPQly0OU8oRkOqRV3CUFww[T5?
CHO NEH4O|NHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MmC5Rolv\GmwZzDh[oZqdmm2eTDh[4FqdnO2IHj1cYFvKE2nbHH0c45qdiC{ZXPldJRweiC2eYDlJFFDKGK7IHTpd5Bt[WOnbXXueEBw\iCdMUK1TX1qd2SxbXXsZZRwdmmwIIP0ZYJtgSCneIDy[ZN{\WRiaX6gR2hQKGOnbHzzMEBMcT1yLkCwNFI{|ryP MVW8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:5d4eu[YJqNmGlLoXrM4Np\W2kbD;jc41xd3WwZG;y[ZBwenShY3Hy[E9EUEWPQly0OU8oRkOqRV3CUFww[T5?
CHO MoH6SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MlTpTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iB{LWuxNlVKZWmxZH;t[YxifG:waX6gZolv\GmwZzD0c{BpfW2jbjDN[YxifG:waX6gdoVk\XC2b4KgeJlx\SBzQjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hS0iRIHPlcIx{NCCNaU2wMlAxODJ7zszN MlnQQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xd4f3MoVjcS6jYz71b{9kcGWvYnyvZ49ueG:3bnTfdoVxd3K2X3PhdoQwS0iHTVLMOFUwLz6FaFXNRmw9N2F-
CHO NF74TIhHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MX3EbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV1vaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKE2WMTDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hS0iRIHPlcIx{NCCNaU2wMlAxODR3N{JOwG0> NFPuO3A9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;3e5cv\WKrLnHjMpVsN2OqZX3icE9kd22yb4Xu[H9z\XCxcoTfZ4Fz\C:FSFXNRmw1PS9pPlPoSW1DVDxxYU6=
CHO MoDGSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NYW1fnllTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJFIuYzF{NVndMYlw\G:vZXzheI9vcW5iZoLvcUBpfW2jbjDNWFEhemWlZYD0c5Ih\XiycnXzd4VlKGmwIFPIU{Bk\WyuczDifUBI[W2vYTDjc5VvfGmwZzygT4k:OC5yMEC0OVcy|ryP MnzqQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xd4f3MoVjcS6jYz71b{9kcGWvYnyvZ49ueG:3bnTfdoVxd3K2X3PhdoQwS0iHTVLMOFUwLz6FaFXNRmw9N2F-
CHO MnvzSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NHHZNlkyKGi{ M3jnVGRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjWLXT3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5ibXXsZZRwdmmwIILlZ4VxfG:{IF3UNUBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iQ1jPJINmdGy|IHHmeIVzKDFiaIKgZpkh\2GvbXGgZ492dnSrbnegZY5idHm|aYOsJGtqRTBwMECwOFU4Oc7:TR?= NULpNldNRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:ve5d4NmWkaT7hZ{52cy:laHXtZoww[2:vcH;1coRgemWyb4L0Y4NiemRxQ1jFUWJNPDVxJ{7DbGVOSkx:L3G+
CHO MULGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MXjEbZNxdGGlZX3lcpQhd2ZiMj3bNVI2UV1vaX;kc41mdGG2b37pckBnem:vIHj1cYFvKE2WMjDy[YNmeHSxcjDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hS0iRIHPlcIx{NCCNaU2wMlAxODl3Nd88US=> MnnYQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xd4f3MoVjcS6jYz71b{9kcGWvYnyvZ49ueG:3bnTfdoVxd3K2X3PhdoQwS0iHTVLMOFUwLz6FaFXNRmw9N2F-
CHO NVL0cJFYTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M3j3TWRqe3CuYXPlcYVvfCCxZjCyMXsyOjWLXT3pc4RwdWWuYYTvcolvKG[{b32gbJVu[W5iTWSyJJJm[2WydH;yJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCFSF:gZ4VtdHNiYomgS4FudWFiY3;1cpRqdmduIFvpQVAvODByOUW1{txO NX3J[Y1JRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:ve5d4NmWkaT7hZ{52cy:laHXtZoww[2:vcH;1coRgemWyb4L0Y4NiemRxQ1jFUWJNPDVxJ{7DbGVOSkx:L3G+
CHO M2n4ZmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NXnR[4t7OSCqch?= NVrqc21RTGm|cHzhZ4Vu\W62IH;mJFIuYzF{NVndMYlw\G:vZXzheI9vcW5iZoLvcUBpfW2jbjDt[YxifG:waX6gdoVk\XC2b4KgUXQzKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDDTG8h[2WubIOgZYZ1\XJiMTDodkBjgSCpYX3tZUBkd3WwdHnu[{BidmGueYPpd{whU2l;MD6wNFA6PTYQvF2= NUP5PWtuRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:ve5d4NmWkaT7hZ{52cy:laHXtZoww[2:vcH;1coRgemWyb4L0Y4NiemRxQ1jFUWJNPDVxJ{7DbGVOSkx:L3G+

... Click to View More Cell Line Experimental Data

Assay
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot
MT1 / MT2 / p-CREB / CREB / BDNF; 

PubMed: 29570621     


Western blot analysis of MT1, MT2, p-CREB, CREB, and BDNF in two cell lines. HT-22 and H19-7 cells were treated with 1 µM melatonin for 2 h;

p-Raf / p-ERK / p-p90RSK / PKAα / p-AKT / p-JNK / p-CaMKII ; 

PubMed: 29570621     


Melatonin regulated the expression of kinases associated with long-term memory processing. HT-22 cells were treated with 1 µM melatonin for 2 h. The expressions of MT1, p-CREB, CREB, p-Raf, Raf, p-ERK, p-p90RSK, BDNF, PKAα, p-AKT, p-JNK, and p-CaMKII were confirmed by Western blot analysis

29570621

Protocol

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 47 mg/mL (202.34 mM)
Water Insoluble
Ethanol ''47 mg/mL

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 232.28
Formula

C13H16N2O2

CAS No. 73-31-4
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms NSC 56423, N-Acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine
Smiles CC(=O)NCCC1=CNC2=C1C=C(C=C2)OC

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

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Bio Calculators

Molarity Calculator

Molarity Calculator

Calculate the mass, volume or concentration required for a solution. The Selleck molarity calculator is based on the following equation:

Mass (mg) = Concentration (mM) × Volume (mL) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)

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*When preparing stock solutions, please always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the via label and SDS / COA (available on product pages).

Dilution Calculator

Dilution Calculator

Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution. The Selleck dilution calculator is based on the following equation:

Concentration (start) x Volume (start) = Concentration (final) x Volume (final)

This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2 ( Input Output )

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* When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and SDS / COA (available online).

The Serial Dilution Calculator Equation

  • Serial Dilutions

  • Computed Result

  • C1=C0/X C1: LOG(C1):
    C2=C1/X C2: LOG(C2):
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Molecular Weight Calculator

Molecular Weight Calculator

Enter the chemical formula of a compound to calculate its molar mass and elemental composition:

Total Molecular Weight: g/mol

Tip: Chemical formula is case sensitive. C10H16N2O2 c10h16n2o2

Instructions to calculate molar mass (molecular weight) of a chemical compound:

To calculate molar mass of a chemical compound, please enter its chemical formula and click 'Calculate'.

Definitions of molecular mass, molecular weight, molar mass and molar weight:

Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u). (1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12)
Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/mol.

Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT04882280 Not yet recruiting Behavioral: Light Sleep Palo Alto Veterans Institute for Research|VA Palo Alto Health Care System July 2022 Not Applicable
NCT04521972 Not yet recruiting Device: Room light/light bulb Pregnancy Related|Labor; Poor|Uterine Contractions Weak Michigan State University|McLaren Health Care October 1 2021 Not Applicable

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

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MT Receptor Signaling Pathway Map

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID