Colforsin (Forskolin, HL 362)

For research use only.

Catalog No.S2449 Synonyms: Coleonol, Colforsin

84 publications

Colforsin (Forskolin, HL 362) Chemical Structure

CAS No. 66575-29-9

Colforsin (Forskolin, HL 362, Coleonol, Colforsin) is a ubiquitous activator of eukaryotic adenylyl cyclase (AC) in a wide variety of cell types, commonly used to raise levels of cAMP in the study and research of cell physiology. Forskolin also activates PXR and FXR activity. Forskolin stimulates autophagy.

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Selleck's Colforsin (Forskolin, HL 362) has been cited by 84 publications

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Choose Selective cAMP Inhibitors

Biological Activity

Description Colforsin (Forskolin, HL 362, Coleonol, Colforsin) is a ubiquitous activator of eukaryotic adenylyl cyclase (AC) in a wide variety of cell types, commonly used to raise levels of cAMP in the study and research of cell physiology. Forskolin also activates PXR and FXR activity. Forskolin stimulates autophagy.
Targets
Adenylyl cyclase (AC) [1]
(A wide variety of cell types)
In vitro

Forskolin increases cAMP levels in preparations of membranes, cells, or tissues. Forskolin not only activates AC but also interacts with certain other proteins, including glucose transporters and ion channels. Forskolin is able to promote activation of nine different transmembrane iso-forms of AC, albeit with somewhat less efficacy for AC9, which could be used to provides a means to identify and quantify high-affinity binding sites, i.e., G-proteins (Gs)–AC complexes. Activation of s by GPCRs contributes to Forskolin-stimulated cAMP generation in cells because of s-Forskolin potentiation of AC activity. [1] Forskolin stimulates adenylate cyclase activity without interacting with cell surface receptors. Forskolin's potentiation of cAMP in turn inhibits basophil and mast cell degranulation and histamine release, lowers blood pressure and intraocular pressure, inhibits platelet aggregation, promotes vasodilation, bronchodilation, and thyroid hormone secretion, and stimulates lipolysis in fat cells. Forskolin inhibits the binding of platelet-activating factor (PAF), independently of cAMP formation, which may be a result of Forskolin's direct effect on PAF or via interference with PAF binding to receptor sites. Forskolin also appears to have an effect on several membrane transport proteins, and inhibits glucose transport in erythrocytes, adipocytes, platelets, and other cells. Forskolin is used to treat with glaucoma. [2]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
HT-29  Mof5RZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 NIDMN481OMLizszN NFH4NFI1QMLiaB?= M1PiUGROW09? MWPpcoR2[2W|IHPoZY5o\XNiaX6geIhmKHCqb4PwbI9zgWyjdHnvckB{fGG2dYOgc4YhWFB{QTD0ZZJo\XS| NFjYPGc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEm5O|Q2OSd-MkS5PVc1PTF:L3G+
SW480 MXTBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? NIr4S4g1OMLizszN MorzOFjDqGh? NGrERYRFVVOR NVO1RotJcW6mdXPld{BkcGGwZ3XzJIlvKHSqZTDwbI9{eGixconsZZRqd25ic4TheJV{KG:oIGDQNmEhfGG{Z3X0dy=> NGHId5Y9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEm5O|Q2OSd-MkS5PVc1PTF:L3G+
HT-29  M1raPWFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= NInJZ3I1OMLizszN MX:0POKhcA>? M4DCN2ROW09? M4TGPYlv\HWlZYOgZY4h[WO2aY\heIlwdiCxZjDjZZNx[XOnIEOvOy=> NXmxNXFwRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS5PVc1PTFpPkK0PVk4PDVzPD;hQi=>
SW480 M37mVmFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= MV[0NOKh|ryP M2nXeFQ5yqCq M4TGT2ROW09? M3S5Xolv\HWlZYOgZY4h[WO2aY\heIlwdiCxZjDjZZNx[XOnIEOvOy=> NUiwNVdZRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS5PVc1PTFpPkK0PVk4PDVzPD;hQi=>
HT-29  MYXGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? Mne3OFDDqM7:TR?= MX[3JIQ> MljLSG1UVw>? NVmybnFoemWmdXPld{Bkd2yxbn;zdIhmemViZn;ycYF1cW:wIHPhdIFjcWyrdIpCpC=> NXizSlZlRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS5PVc1PTFpPkK0PVk4PDVzPD;hQi=>
SW480 NUO2Wo5pTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MXm0NOKh|ryP NH7jbJU4KGR? Mn;xSG1UVw>? M3fMTJJm\HWlZYOgZ49td26xc4Do[ZJmKG[xcn3heIlwdiClYYDhZoltcXS7wrC= NXTNdIRbRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS5PVc1PTFpPkK0PVk4PDVzPD;hQi=>
HT-29  MVLHdo94fGhiSX7obYJqfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? M3fXUVQxyqEQvF2= NVfQSG45OC15MjDo Ml3jSG1UVw>? NES3bHdqdmirYnn0d{Bk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCC2aX3lJIRmeGWwZHXueIx6 MUK8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDl7N{S1NUc,OjR7OUe0OVE9N2F-
SW480 MkfwS5Jwf3SqIFnubIljcXSrb36gRZN{[Xl? NUn3WFNyPDEEoN88US=> MViwMVczKGh? MoHQSG1UVw>? M3fqWIlvcGmkaYTzJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKHSrbXWg[IVx\W6mZX70cJk> NYnoNYw{RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS5PVc1PTFpPkK0PVk4PDVzPD;hQi=>
HT-29  Mn3kSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MUS0NOKh|ryP MXm0POKhcA>? NUTPbHBkTE2VTx?= NXjUSFEz[WO2aY\heIV{KFCSMlG= MUG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDl7N{S1NUc,OjR7OUe0OVE9N2F-
SW480 NVzEW3VPTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MoHOOFDDqM7:TR?= Mo\SOFjDqGh? NHzp[I9FVVOR NVvOTmsy[WO2aY\heIV{KFCSMlG= MVW8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDl7N{S1NUc,OjR7OUe0OVE9N2F-
C6 NHHGVWZHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NV7xO3dXOTBizszNxsA> MXSyNEBucW5? MlTGbY5kemWjc3XzJINCVVBiYXPjeY12dGG2aX;u M4\yOVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3ME[5OFE4Lz5{NUC2PVQyPzxxYU6=
Huh-7 NX\SS5BrTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MVGwMVIxKM7:TR?= MVKyJIjDqA>? M1frbpJme3WudIOgbY4h[SCmb4PlMYRmeGWwZHXueEBqdmO{ZXHz[UBqdiClLV35Z{BmgHC{ZYPzbY9vKGG2IITo[UBxem:2ZXnuJIFv\CCvUl7BJIxmfmWucx?= NX2xTmVjRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWxNFk5OzRpPkK1NVA6QDN2PD;hQi=>
THP-1  NEexbWpHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NGPxPHoyNzFyIN88US=> MUGyxsBp NGXGSWpFVVORwrC= NHHoe4N{fXCycnXzd4V{KE2FUD2xJJBzd2S3Y4Tpc47DqA>? MkOxQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjVzNUS4PFIoRjJ3MUW0PFgzRC:jPh?=
BeWo  Mmq3SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NGPHfJozOCEEtV2= NY\VdpVRPDhiaB?= Mn\3SG1UV8Li MkXhbY5lfWOnczDj[YxtKG[3c3nvci=> NHHHTpo9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUG4OFQ4Pyd-MkWxPFQ1Pzd:L3G+
ventricular cardiomyocytes  NWe1XolLTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= Mo\1NE4xOS1zMDFOwG0> M4XuXIV3d2unczDhckBqdm:2cn;wbYMhemW|cH;ud4UhOTJywsGxOUUh[WKxdnWgZoF{[Wxid3n0bEBidiCHQ{WwxsBw\iB{LkKgxtVO NITSenA9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUKwN|EyOyd-MkWyNFMyOTN:L3G+
ventricular cardiomyocytes  Ml\uSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MkXaNE4xOS1zMDFOwG0> MlP0bY5kemWjc3XzJEBkSU2SIHHjZ5VufWyjdHnvci=> Mke0QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV{MEOxNVMoRjJ3MkCzNVE{RC:jPh?=
MIN6  NEPWd5RHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MYGxNEDPxE4EoB?= MnzzN{Bp MVPpcoNz\WG|ZYOgSFMhdVKQQTDlfJBz\XO|aX;u NHm0XWc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUK0NVEzPCd-MkWyOFEyOjR:L3G+
L6 NHfDN2xHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M{GzdFQxKML3TR?= M2XIV|I1KGh? M4C5VIlvcGmkaYTzJGROUDFvaX7keYNm\CCDa4SgZYN1cX[jdHnvci=> NWT4eVZNRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWyOFc2PTBpPkK1NlQ4PTVyPD;hQi=>
HEK‐CFTR NVvKdYJsTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NWDoe5liOuLCk{WwxsDPxE1? M4nFclAuOTJibXnu MmrWSG1UV8Li MnLRbY5lfWOnczDhJIRwe2YkgKDk[ZBmdmSnboSgbY9lcWSnIHXm[ox2gMLi NVq0T4dwRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWyOlMzODdpPkK1NlY{OjB5PD;hQi=>
SK-N-SH MoO5R4VtdCCYaXHibYxqfHliQYPzZZk> NHLwNGsyOCEQvF5CpC=> M4P4R|Q5KGh? NGLrZ2xmdmijbnPld{BUUy2QLWPIJI5mfXKxYnzhd5RwdWFiY3XscEB3cWGkaXzpeJk> NGHRdZI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUK2OlA3Oyd-MkWyOlYxPjN:L3G+
SK-N-AS  MWXGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MkHDNVAh|ryPwrC= MoHoNVAwOzBxNkCgcYlv Ml7FbY5kemWjc3XzJIxmfmWuczDv[kBxNc7{LXPheIVvcW5iKIPldlY4PSliYX7kJIlv\HWlZYOgZYNkfW23bHH0bY9vKG:oIICt{tIu[2G2ZX7pckApe2W{Nke1LUBqdiBqcHXybUlvfWOuZXHyJJJm\2mxboO= M3\JRVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3Mk[2NFY{Lz5{NUK2OlA3OzxxYU6=
SK-N-AS  MVzGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? M1;TV|ExKM7:TdMg NXX0Z2hDOzBibXnu MVjpcoR2[2W|IIDoc5NxcG:{eXzheIlwdiCxZjFOtk1k[XSnbnnuJEh{\XJ4N{WpMEBxNUeVS{ROtkApe2W{OTmgZY5lKGOxbnPvcYl1[W62IHjp[4hmeiCuZY\lcJMhd2ZiYXP0bZZmNCC3boDoc5NxcG:{eXzheIVlNCEQsj3jZZRmdmmw NYO5O2pnRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWyOlYxPjNpPkK1NlY3ODZ|PD;hQi=>
SK-N-AS  M3PuTGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NH70PWMyOCEQvF5CpC=> MnG4NlQhcA>? Ml\1bY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SCneIDy[ZN{cW:wIH;mJIN6[2yrbjDENS=> NILwTY49[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUK2OlA3Oyd-MkWyOlYxPjN:L3G+
SK-N-AS  MlPpSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MljlNVAh|ryPwrC= MlPzNlQhcA>? M3v5W4lv[3KnYYPld{B1cGViY1HNVEBt\X[nbIRCpC=> NVjmN3hoRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWyOlYxPjNpPkK1NlY3ODZ|PD;hQi=>
SK-N-AS  MkexR4VtdCCYaXHibYxqfHliQYPzZZk> MnrJNVAh|ryPwrC= MmXPNlQwPDhiaB?= M{S4bYVvcGGwY3XzJJRqdWVvZHXw[Y5l\W62bImgZ4VtdHWuYYKgeoli[mmuaYT5xsA> NGHuO|I9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUK2OlA3Oyd-MkWyOlYxPjN:L3G+
granulosa cells MVjGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NHOzbm0yOCEQvF2= NGWy[Y4zPCCq M3nJbYlv[3KnYYPld{B1cGVibHX2[Yx{KG:oIGLHV|IheHKxbX;0[ZIh[WO2aY\peJk> NUDI[|FqRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWzN|kyODVpPkK1N|M6OTB3PD;hQi=>
granulosa cells MnT1SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MlvJNVAh|ryP MmDvNlQhcA>? NGHp[3JqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhfGinIHnueIVve2m2eTDv[kBFVkFxcILveIVqdiClb33wcIV5 MlTzQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV|M{mxNFUoRjJ3M{O5NVA2RC:jPh?=
granulosa cells NVPDTotjTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M13LdlExKM7:TR?= MXOxNk8zPCCq MV7pcoNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKGyndnXsd{Bw\iC{ZYDvdpRmeiCjY4Tpeol1gSCob4KgeIhmKGyxbnfld5Qh\nKjZ33lcpQhMOLKkki1OE8sOTiUR2OyMmxWSyl? M1r3WlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3M{O5NVA2Lz5{NUOzPVExPTxxYU6=
granulosa cells MlHXSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NHX3fIoyOCEQvF2= NYXQS5RxOTJxMkSgbC=> MYnpcoNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKGyndnXsd{Bw\sLiUlfTNuKhdVKQQR?= M4TFcVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3M{O5NVA2Lz5{NUOzPVExPTxxYU6=
BeWo  MnjESpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MYKyNOKhyrWP NHHPW2M1QMLiaNMg M3LaSGROW00EoB?= M2\pU4Rwf26{ZXf1cIF1\XNidHjlJIxmfmWuIH;mJGdEVS1z NHfFXYc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUO2NlI3OCd-MkWzOlIzPjB:L3G+
BeWo  M3P5cmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NYHR[m5JOjEEoNM1US=> M3rQWVQ5yqCqwrC= MlzFSG1UV8Li MYTkc5dvemWpdXzheIV{KHSqZTDs[ZZmdCCxZjDUUWVOTjF4 MYO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTN4MkK2NEc,OjV|NkKyOlA9N2F-
BeWo  M2HLS2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NYe0RmpTOjEEoNM1US=> MUS0POKhcMLi NWe3fVcyTE2VT9Mg MY\pcoNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKGKndHGtbGNIKHKnbHXhd4U> MkHkQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV|NkKyOlAoRjJ3M{[yNlYxRC:jPh?=
EM1  MWTGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? M3P6UVE26oDMzszN MljsOFghcA>? MoLWdoVlfWOnczD0bIUh\XiycnXzd4lwdiCxZtMgUGlHyqCxctMgVHRIWzMEoHnuxsBESUyULTDvduKhTVCDQ{Ktd4lt\W6lZXSgSW0yKGOnbHzzxsA> M1vaUFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3M{e4OlYyLz5{NUO3PFY3OTxxYU6=
Primary bovine chondrocytes MonTS5Jwf3SqIFnubIljcXSrb36gRZN{[Xl? NX\JTXFKPc7:TR?= NXvSSHZTPDhiaB?= MUHy[ZZmenOnczD0bIUhcW6qaXLpeI9zgSCnZn\lZ5Qhd2ZiY3Xs[YNwgGmkIH;uJJBzd2yrZnXyZZRqd25iaX6g[5Jwf3SqIIDsZZRmKGOqb37kdo9kgXSncx?= NITYXpI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUSwOlAyPid-MkW0NFYxOTZ:L3G+
RBMECs MWnGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? Mn\aOeKh|ryP MnjENUBp M4q0NIJtd2OtczD0bIUh[WO2aX6gZ5l1d3OtZXzleI9vKHKnYYLyZY5o\W2nboSgd4VmdiC5aYToJGVOSVBvSVmgeJJm[XSvZX70xsA> NV\pS2k2RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW0NVY3PTFpPkK1OFE3PjVzPD;hQi=>
RBMECs NXj4cWIyTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M3TvUlXDqM7:TR?= NX7BOpMxOSCq MWTicI9kc3NidHjlJGVOSVBvSVmtbY5lfWOnZDDjbIFv\2ViaX6gUWxEKHCqb4PwbI9zgWyjdHnvci=> NHzEZXA9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUSxOlY2OSd-MkW0NVY3PTF:L3G+
RBMECs MUfGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? Ml3hOeKh|ryP NUfwToZLOSCq M4fzdpJmfmW{c3XzJJRp\SClaHHu[4V{KGmwIGrPMVEh\Gm|dILpZpV1cW:wIIPl[Y4hf2m2aDDFUWFRNUmLIITy[YF1dWWwdB?= M{D3eVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEG2OlUyLz5{NUSxOlY2OTxxYU6=
RBMECs M4PYOmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NIXYfXQ2yqEQvF2= M1W3NlEhcA>? MWDpcohq[mm2czD0bIUh\GWlcnXhd4VlKG:oIHHtc5VvfCCxZjDaU{0yKGmwIF3Gd{BqdmS3Y3XkJIJ6KEWPQWCtTWk> NEfPeJk9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUSxOlY2OSd-MkW0NVY3PTF:L3G+
RBMECs NVvkc|RFTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MXW1xsDPxE1? M{ixWVEhcA>? Mo\sdJJmfmWwdIOgeIhmKGmwY4LlZZNmKGmwIFjSVEBndHW6IHHjdo9{eyC2aHWgRnRDKGmwZIXj[YQh[nliIFXNRXAuUUl? M4nRVFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEG2OlUyLz5{NUSxOlY2OTxxYU6=
RBMECs NUHQVFRPTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MWO1xsDPxE1? M2PHZVEhcA>? MmHhdJJmfmWwdIOgeIhmKEWPQWCtTWkucW6mdXPl[EBVTUWUII\hcJVmKGSnY4LlZZNm M330O|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEG2OlUyLz5{NUSxOlY2OTxxYU6=
RBMECs MVvGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NF7UblQ2yqEQvF2= MmPONUBp MmfWZoxw[2u|IITo[UBi[3SrdnH0bY9vKG:oIGLoc2EwWk:FSzDpcoR2[2WmIHL5JGVOSVBvSVm= MVG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTRzNk[1NUc,OjV2MU[2OVE9N2F-
RBMECs M4PZSmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MViwMlA2NzBwNT:1JO69VQ>? MUmwMlI2KGh? MkHsbY5kemWjc3XzJINCVVBiY3;uZ4VvfHKjdHnvci=> NULwepRDRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW0NVY3PTFpPkK1OFE3PjVzPD;hQi=>
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ThGCs  Mny2SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MX2xNQKBks7:TR?= NXP4[VZ{POLCini= M{nWeYlv[3KnYYPld{BEd0OuMj3pcoR2[2WmIFXEUlLDqGenbnWg[ZhxemW|c3nvci=> NEWzcIw9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUSzN|AzPyd-MkW0N|MxOjd:L3G+
ThGCs  NHvXfZJHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MXqxNQKBks7:TR?= NEj1fGk16oDMaB?= MlmwZZVodWWwdIOgTGlHOUFibHX2[Yx{KHSqYYSge4Vz\SC|dHnteYxifGWmIHL5JGNwS2x{ NVPwe21FRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW0N|MxOjdpPkK1OFM{ODJ5PD;hQi=>
LNCaP  Mn3ZSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M3XmRVExyqEQvF2= M4XNVVEzKGkEoB?= M1\le2ROW09? NEe5UIdqdmS3Y3XzJIEh\HKjbXH0bYMhcW6lcnXhd4Uhd2ZiQ2LFRlEh[WO2aY\peJk> MVG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTV2OEC5PUc,OjV3NEiwPVk9N2F-
BeWo MVXGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MYeyNOKhyrWP M4ewe|Q5yqCq MXXEUXNQ M2fnOolv[3KnYYPld{B1cGViYXTo[ZNqd25ib3[gWGhRNTFibX;uc4N6fGW| NHzGO5I9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUW2Olc1OCd-MkW1OlY4PDB:L3G+
BeWo MX3GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MlPCNlDDqML3TR?= M4XMdlQ5yqCq NIC4TVRFVVOR MmC5bY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SCmaX\m[ZJmdnSrYYTpc44hd2ZiQnXXc{Bk\Wyucx?= MoHqQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV3Nk[3OFAoRjJ3NU[2O|QxRC:jPh?=
OCI-Ly18  NFPxOIVHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MnfIOFDDqM7:TR?= MnvmNeKhcMLi NF\SUVRFVVOR M3;XfYlv\HWlZYOgeIhmKGmwY4LlcYVvfCCxZjDjRW1RKGOxbnPlcpRz[XSrb37z MnTJQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV3N{[yNlAoRjJ3NUe2NlIxRC:jPh?=
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SH-SY5Y  M{j5b2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NGDnXIMyOMLizszN Mnm1NeKhcMLi NFPKVmhqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhSUeFMTDtVm5CKGyndnXs MnHjQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV3OUe0N|MoRjJ3NUm3OFM{RC:jPh?=
SH-SY5Y  M{\DVGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NGLDWHYyOMLizszN NVPFfZJ4OcLiaNMg MYXpcoNz\WG|ZYOgUHVEKGGldHn2bZR6 NVHzWVl4RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW1PVc1OzNpPkK1OVk4PDN|PD;hQi=>
UACC-647  NEH2fmVHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= Mnz2NVDDqM7:TR?= NETOdHIyPSCvaX6= MULEUXNQ NWm5cpZZcW6lcnXhd4V{KGWHRkKgdIhwe3Cqb4L5cIF1cW:wIHzleoVte8Li M4fqdFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3N{CzNFI2Lz5{NUewN|AzPTxxYU6=
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UACC-647  MXfGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NEXFOmdFVVOR MX;s[YFleyC2bzDhJJJqe2ViaX6gZ2FOWCCuZY\lcJMhMEWFNUFCpF3DqDJyLkO5xsDPxE1r NIniTHc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUewN|AzPSd-MkW3NFMxOjV:L3G+
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GH3 Mn32SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NF[5WogyyqEQvF2= MUS2MYg> MUjpcoR2[2W|IGDSUEBidmRiQn3hcFEtKGK3dDDuc5QhS2yxY3usJI1TVkFiZYjwdoV{e2mxbh?= MX[8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTd{N{CxPEc,OjV5MkewNVg9N2F-
GH3 NGXIRXJHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NXTETpV{OcLizszN NY\xepBkPi2q NWTPPJNE[XS2ZX71ZZRmeyC2aHWgZ49zemWuYYTpc44h[mW2d3XlckBRWkxiYX7kJGJu[WxzIHX4dJJme3Orb36= M{\afVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3N{K3NFE5Lz5{NUeyO|AyQDxxYU6=
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BAECs NUX2bnp7TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NX7PXYNpOjVizszN NYXYOmdLOjRiaB?= NVjtNpBJ\W6qYX7j[ZMhfGinIHHjeIl3[XSrb36gc4YhWFCDUt8xJIJ6KDVizszNJJJme3[ncnH0do9tNCCWNFjTMEBweiB2LWDBVC=> MWC8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTd7OEiyOkc,OjV5OUi4NlY9N2F-
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3T3-L1 preadipocytes MV;GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NUHTNVVqOTBizszNxsA> NWrYc5NkOTJiaB?= NH\Re|lqdmS3Y3XzJGNTTUJicHjvd5Bpd3K7bHH0bY9vKGGwZDDDM2VDWM7{IHX4dJJme3Orb36= NGT5VXc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUmyPFA2QCd-MkW5NlgxPTh:L3G+
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PC-3 M4XPc2NmdGxiVnnhZoltcXS7IFHzd4F6 MV60NEDDvU1? NH\oOoozPC92OD:3NkBp MXLEUXNQ MYjk[YNz\WG|ZYOgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHlidHnt[UBl\XCnbnTlcpRtgQ>? M4f5ZVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4MEKzPFM3Lz5{NkCyN|g{PjxxYU6=
PC-3 MXfGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NU\Tc3lVPDBiwsXN NFTvcJQzKGh? NFTBUHlFVVOR MoC4cIVi\HNidH:gVHAzSSCjY4TpeoF1cW:w NIGyZ489[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkCyN|g{Pid-Mk[wNlM5OzZ:L3G+
SH-SY5Y M1S5emZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MWmzNEDPxE1? MX[zNEBucW5? M1HoRmROW09? Mo\ld4lodmmoaXPhcpRtgSCrbnPy[YF{\XNidHjlJIFkfGm4YYTpc44hd2ZiUFvB MWi8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPjB{NUGzO{c,OjZyMkWxN|c9N2F-
EndoC-βH1 NVvQOmFDTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NEDRfGY2yqEQvF2= NILTcY4yKGh? NYjOO45DdGWjZIOgeI8h[SC|dILvcoch[0GPUDDpcoNz\WG|ZR?= M3;QcFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4MEK4OVYzLz5{NkCyPFU3OjxxYU6=
EndoC-βH1 NFX4UldHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NX\QZ3dwPcLizszN NWTiVlFtOSCq M1TuRZBwfGWwdHnheIV{KGeudXPvd4UucW6mdXPl[EBqdnO3bHnuJJNm[3KndHnvckBqdiC2aHWgdJJme2WwY3Wgc4Yh\2y3Y3;z[S=> M4\3elxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4MEK4OVYzLz5{NkCyPFU3OjxxYU6=
RBMECs MlLuSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MXq1xsDPxE1? NUDZfnQ6OSCq NY\1TmpIcW6qaXLpeJMhTU2DUD3JTU1qdmS3Y3XkJIlv[WO2aY\heIlwdiCxZjDSZZAyyqB? M3exfFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4MES0OlY{Lz5{NkC0OFY3OzxxYU6=
AML-12  NVqyb4dWTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NG\3[o4zOCEQvF2= M322[FMhcA>? M2nuU4lv\HWlZYOgeIhmKGSncHjvd5Bpd3K7bHH0bY9vKG:oIFPSWGMzyqB? NHvHbpA9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkC0PFk5PSd-Mk[wOFg6QDV:L3G+
AML-12  MWnGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MUWyNEDPxE1? NYe0fFNWOyCq M1HjeZVxNXKnZ4XsZZRme8LiUHfjNYEtyqCSZYDjb{wh[W6mwrDHOpBkyqCvUl7BJIxmfmWucx?= NVXvfnRJRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[wOFg6QDVpPkK2NFQ5QTh3PD;hQi=>
AML-12  MoPaSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NYTSe4ViOjBizszN MoXrNU05KGh? M37GVIlv[3KnYYPld{BodHWlb4PlJJBzd2S3Y4Tpc44> MknjQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZyNEi5PFUoRjJ4MES4PVg2RC:jPh?=
AML-12  NUDwVFA4TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= Mk\hNlAh|ryP NWXhXWxsOyCq NY\Me2RWfXC{ZXf1cIF1\XNidHjlJJBpd3OyaH;yfYxifGmxbjDs[ZZmdHNiYYSgWIhzNTRzMTDhcoQhW2W{LUS5Ny=> M1yxTVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4MES4PVg2Lz5{NkC0PFk5PTxxYU6=
Caco-2  NFP4RVdHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NYPuTWs5OC5zL{GvNVAh|ryP NELGOVQzPCCq MoTqbY5kemWjc3XzJG1TWDJicILveIVqdiCuZY\lcC=> NGjVT3M9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkC0PVExOid-Mk[wOFkyODJ:L3G+
Caco-2  NHHPTFZHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M2HhcFAvOS9zL{GwJO69VQ>? MmXSNlDDqG2rbh?= NVexO4NucW6mdXPld{BiKGSxc3Wt[IVx\W6mZX70JIlv[3KnYYPlJIlvKGmwdILhZ4VtdHWuYYKgZ2FOWCCuZY\lcJM> MV[8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPjB2OUGwNkc,OjZyNEmxNFI9N2F-
bovine oocytes NF6ycYZHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M1LoelExOMLizszN NX;ERW5vOTMEoHi= MnzjbY5pcWKrdIOgeIhmKGWoZnXjeEBw\iCQUGDBJIFv\C:xcjDOVHBEKHSxIIP0bY12dGG2ZTDy[ZN2dXC2aX;uJI9nKG2naX;zbZM> MmLRQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZyNUG2NVEoRjJ4MEWxOlEyRC:jPh?=
BeWo  NGrKepNHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MojuNlXjiIoQvF2= NHn6fogzPC92OD:3NkBp NIH2RYVt\WGmczD0c{BidiCrbnPy[YF{\SCrbjD0bIUh\XiycnXzd4lwdiCxZjDveIhmeiCodYPpc44hdWG{a3Xydy=> NVn2[nlmRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[wOVM2PDlpPkK2NFU{PTR7PD;hQi=>
Spinal cords  NV;XTXFETnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NIjLSnoyyqEQvF2= MX[zNEBucW5? NGPvfWR{fGmvdXzheIV{KGODTWCgcIV3\Wy| NXG3e|VIRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[xNlY6OjZpPkK2NVI3QTJ4PD;hQi=>
MDCK  MVTGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NXrEe2gxOTBiwsXN Mkn6NlQhcA>? NYjVVWxQTE2VTx?= MWLpcohq[mm2czD0bIUhcW6lcnXhd4VlKGW6cILld5Nqd25ib3[gSm4h[2G3c3XkJIJ6KFSJRj5OtlE> MV:8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPjJyMkO1Nkc,OjZ{MEKzOVI9N2F-
MDCK  MVjGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? Mnu0NVAhyrWP MXeyOEBp MXnEUXNQ Mof3eZBz\We3bHH0[ZMhfGinIHX4dJJme3Orb36gc4YhXEeILd8yNUBidmRiQ2THSuKh MVW8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPjJyMkO1Nkc,OjZ{MEKzOVI9N2F-
RPMI 8226 NFvpRlRE\WyuIG\pZYJqdGm2eTDBd5NigQ>? MmftNE0yODBizszN M4fTOFcz6oDLaB?= M1vEOolv\HWlZYOgZ4VtdCCmZXH0bEBld3OnIHTldIVv\GWwdHz5 Mon6QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZ|ME[2NlQoRjJ4M{C2OlI1RC:jPh?=
H929 NHLvO2ZE\WyuIG\pZYJqdGm2eTDBd5NigQ>? MVywMVExOCEQvF2= NXXu[JBLPzMkgJno NH7veVRqdmS3Y3XzJINmdGxiZHXheIgh\G:|ZTDk[ZBmdmSnboTsfS=> M2frXlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4M{C2OlI1Lz5{NkOwOlYzPDxxYU6=
U266 NYPG[5JPS2WubDDWbYFjcWyrdImgRZN{[Xl? MnHjNE0yODBizszN MVu3NwKBkWh? M3fFfYlv\HWlZYOgZ4VtdCCmZXH0bEBld3OnIHTldIVv\GWwdHz5 MoTpQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZ|ME[2NlQoRjJ4M{C2OlI1RC:jPh?=
OPM-2 MW\D[YxtKF[rYXLpcIl1gSCDc4PhfS=> NX\NTGp{OC1zMECg{txO NYLqPWJ5PzMkgJno NVXOR44{cW6mdXPld{Bk\WyuIHTlZZRpKGSxc3Wg[IVx\W6mZX70cJk> NXLEcVBxRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[zNFY3OjRpPkK2N|A3PjJ2PD;hQi=>
INA-6 M4D2eWNmdGxiVnnhZoltcXS7IFHzd4F6 MU[wMVExOCEQvF2= NFv0c3g4OuLCiXi= MUXpcoR2[2W|IHPlcIwh\GWjdHig[I9{\SCmZYDlcoRmdnSueR?= NXjOc2ZbRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[zNFY3OjRpPkK2N|A3PjJ2PD;hQi=>
RBMECs  NFzLOWpHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M3TLTFXDqM7:TR?= MYSxxsBp M2TiVIJtd2OtczD0bIUhWmGlMTDpcoFkfGm4YYTpc44hcW6mdXPl[EBjgSCHTVHQMWlK Ml7MQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZ|NUiwN|koRjJ4M{W4NFM6RC:jPh?=
Mo-DCs M2S5dWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MUe1NEDPxE1? NEnLZ|IzPOLCiXi= M3:xcJBzd22xdHXzJGlNNTJ|IIDyc4R2[3Srb36gbY4hfGinIIP1dIVzdmG2YX70JI9nKHq7bX;zZY4he3SrbYXsZZRm\CCPbz3ER5PDqA>? NXO5d|hNRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[0NVI6PDhpPkK2OFEzQTR6PD;hQi=>
HEK293 MmLESpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M3LJb|ExKM7:TR?= MV22JIg> M3TzZolv[3KnYYPld{BxcG:|cHjvdplt[XSrb36gc4Yhd3[ncnX4dJJme3OnZDDLUGhNOyCjdDDTOFM{ Mle3QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZ2M{W0PVgoRjJ4NEO1OFk5RC:jPh?=
ASK M4fxdGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NFvIb2IyKGi{ MmHnQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjh2OU[0NUc,Ojh2OU[0NVww[T5?
Vero E6 M1rVNGFvfGm4aYLhcEBie3OjeR?= MVK8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yPzZ4M{WzPUc,OTd4NkO1N|k9N2F-
epithelial cells MkDBSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MmHkNUB2VQ>? M4HvOVQtKDZuIHHu[EA5KGSjeYO= M4jpPFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF7OU[2O|g6Lz5zOUm2Olc5QTxxYU6=
HepG2 (DPX-2) Mnr1SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? M{i5[lI1KGi{cx?= M1nveFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJyOU[2NFQ{Lz5{MEm2OlA1OzxxYU6=
HepG2 M33WeGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NUT6TJhMOjRiaILz M2\OXlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJyOU[2NFQ{Lz5{MEm2OlA1OzxxYU6=
HepG2 (DPX-2) NWnMRXFwTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MUCyOEBpenN? NFHjTZU9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MEm2OlA1Oyd-MkC5OlYxPDN:L3G+
HEK293T MknSSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MkDDNVAhfU1? NGHybFY9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEO4O|MzPSd-MkSzPFc{OjV:L3G+
HEK293 NETkSFNHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M17RfFExKHWP MnmwNVYhcHK| NEXD[2c9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkSzOVUyOid-Mk[0N|U2OTJ:L3G+
MCF7 NETF[YJEgXSxdH;4bYNqfHliYYPzZZk> NX33Ong1PDhiaILz MUW8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zQDh|OE[5Nkc,Ojh6M{i2PVI9N2F-
HEK293 NGT0SI1HfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M1TrU|MxKG2rboO= M1P4ZlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzNyMEC2NVc3Lz5|MECwOlE4PjxxYU6=

... Click to View More Cell Line Experimental Data

Assay
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot
cleaved caspase-3 / caspase-3; 

PubMed: 30863177     


Toledo, NK-92, RL, and Farage cells were treated with 30 μM of forskolin for 48 hours, then the cells were harvested for Western blotting to assess the expression of total or cleaved caspase-3

cleaved caspase-9 / caspase-9 ; 

PubMed: 30863177     


Toledo, NK-92, RL, and Farage cells were treated with 30 μM of forskolin for 48 hours, then the cells were harvested for Western blotting to assess the expression of total or cleaved caspase-9.

β-catenin; 

PubMed: 30863177     


(A, B) The protein expression of cytoplasmic and nuclear β-catenin in Toledo and NK-92 cells in the presence of 0, 10, 20, or 40 μM forskolin was detected by Western blotting.

c-myc / Cyclin D1; 

PubMed: 30863177     


(C, D) Western blotting analysis of the total protein expression of c-myc and cyclin D1 influenced by 0, 10, 20, or 40 μM of forskolin in Toledo and NK-92 cells (n=3, *P<0.05, forskolin group vs control group).

pS6K1 / S6K1 / pCREB / CREB; 

PubMed: 31112131     


Forskolin inhibits mTORC1 in multiple cell lines. PC3, LNcap/AR, H1299, H1944, MDA-MB-231, MEF, HAP1, COS7, HeLa, MIA Paca-2, and PANC-1 were treated with or without 10 μM forskolin for 1 h and mTORC1 activity, CREB phosphorylation, and loading controls were analyzed.

p-JNK / JNK / P-p38 / p38; 

PubMed: 20070884     


L929 cells were pretreated with forskolin (10 μM) for various times as indicated, followed by stimulation with or without 10 ng/ml TNF-α for 15 min.

30863177 31112131 20070884
Immunofluorescence
5hmC; 

PubMed: 29239726     


Schwann cells were treated with forskolin (10 μM) for 3 hr followed by washout. 5hmC induction was detected at of 0, 3, and 24 hr time points following treatment. Cells continuously treated with forskolin (5, 10 μM) for 24 hr showed comparable 5hmC levels. Scale bar = 20 μm. 

Fe(II); 

PubMed: 29239726     


AMP (100 mM) treatment for 4 hr did not induce labile Fe(II) while AC activators (forskolin (100 mM), bicarbonate (50 mM)) and PDE inhibitors (caffeine (100 mM), IBMX (100 mM)) increased labile Fe(II) detected by Trx-Puro probes.

CYP17A1 / CYP21A2; 

PubMed: 25334044     


H295R cells were treated with 8-Br-cAMP or forskolin for 48 h under growth conditions, and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. (A) Immunostaining for CYP17A1. Red staining shows the anti-CYP17A1 antibody and blue staining shows DAPI (cell nuclei). (B) Immunostaining for CYP21A2. Red staining shows the anti-CYP21A2 antibody and blue staining shows DAPI (cell nuclei). Scale bars represent 100 µm.

29239726 25334044
Growth inhibition assay
Cell viability; 

PubMed: 30863177     


(C) MTT assay was conducted to test the cell growth after Toledo cells were administered 0, 20, 40, 80, or 160 μM of forskolin for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 days. (D) Toledo cells were administered 0, 20, 40, 80, or 160 μM of forskolin for 48 hours, then MTT assay was used to evaluate the IC50 of forskolin. (F) MTT assay was conducted to test the cell growth after NK-92 cells were administered 0, 20, 40, 80, or 160 μM of forskolin for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 days. (G) NK-92 cells were administered 0, 20, 40, 80, or 160 μM of forskolin for 48 hours, then MTT assay was used to evaluate the IC50of forskolin. 

30863177

Protocol

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 82 mg/mL (199.75 mM)
Water Insoluble
Ethanol ''37 mg/mL

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 410.5
Formula

C22H34O7

CAS No. 66575-29-9
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms Coleonol, Colforsin
Smiles CC(=O)OC1C(C2C(CCC(C2(C3(C1(OC(CC3=O)(C)C=C)C)O)C)O)(C)C)O

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Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT04254705 Not yet recruiting Procedure: Rectal Biopsy Cystic Fibrosis Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven|Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated|KU Leuven|University of Lisbon March 1 2020 Not Applicable
NCT02807415 Completed Drug: Lumacaftor plus Ivacaftor Cystic Fibrosis Hannover Medical School|Heidelberg University|University of Giessen June 1 2016 --
NCT02586883 Completed Other: bronchial ddp test Idiopathic Dilation of the Bronchi Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris March 29 2016 Not Applicable
NCT03652090 Completed Procedure: cell sampling Cystic Fibrosis Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale France|ABCF2 September 1 2010 --

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cAMP Signaling Pathway Map

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID