Colforsin (Forskolin)

For research use only.

Catalog No.S2449 Synonyms: Coleonol

74 publications

Colforsin (Forskolin) Chemical Structure

CAS No. 66575-29-9

Colforsin (Forskolin, Coleonol) is a ubiquitous activator of eukaryotic adenylyl cyclase (AC) in a wide variety of cell types, commonly used to raise levels of cAMP in the study and research of cell physiology. Forskolin also activates PXR and FXR activity. Forskolin stimulates autophagy.

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Selleck's Colforsin (Forskolin) has been cited by 74 publications

Purity & Quality Control

Choose Selective cAMP Inhibitors

Biological Activity

Description Colforsin (Forskolin, Coleonol) is a ubiquitous activator of eukaryotic adenylyl cyclase (AC) in a wide variety of cell types, commonly used to raise levels of cAMP in the study and research of cell physiology. Forskolin also activates PXR and FXR activity. Forskolin stimulates autophagy.
Targets
Adenylyl cyclase (AC) [1]
(A wide variety of cell types)
In vitro

Forskolin increases cAMP levels in preparations of membranes, cells, or tissues. Forskolin not only activates AC but also interacts with certain other proteins, including glucose transporters and ion channels. Forskolin is able to promote activation of nine different transmembrane iso-forms of AC, albeit with somewhat less efficacy for AC9, which could be used to provides a means to identify and quantify high-affinity binding sites, i.e., G-proteins (Gs)–AC complexes. Activation of s by GPCRs contributes to Forskolin-stimulated cAMP generation in cells because of s-Forskolin potentiation of AC activity. [1] Forskolin stimulates adenylate cyclase activity without interacting with cell surface receptors. Forskolin's potentiation of cAMP in turn inhibits basophil and mast cell degranulation and histamine release, lowers blood pressure and intraocular pressure, inhibits platelet aggregation, promotes vasodilation, bronchodilation, and thyroid hormone secretion, and stimulates lipolysis in fat cells. Forskolin inhibits the binding of platelet-activating factor (PAF), independently of cAMP formation, which may be a result of Forskolin's direct effect on PAF or via interference with PAF binding to receptor sites. Forskolin also appears to have an effect on several membrane transport proteins, and inhibits glucose transport in erythrocytes, adipocytes, platelets, and other cells. Forskolin is used to treat with glaucoma. [2]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
HT-29  NIjnSFZCeG:ydH;zbZMhSXO|YYm= NXHSdlRmPDEEoN88US=> NFf1d401QMLiaB?= NFTkTo1FVVOR M3;UV4lv\HWlZYOgZ4hidmenczDpckB1cGVicHjvd5Bpd3K7bHH0bY9vKHO2YYT1d{Bw\iCSUELBJJRiemendIO= Mmi5QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR7OUe0OVEoRjJ2OUm3OFUyRC:jPh?=
SW480 NXvVZ2ZVSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 NHPWR4s1OMLizszN Mli0OFjDqGh? NIDIXplFVVOR NXnCPWJlcW6mdXPld{BkcGGwZ3XzJIlvKHSqZTDwbI9{eGixconsZZRqd25ic4TheJV{KG:oIGDQNmEhfGG{Z3X0dy=> NFjTcW89[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEm5O|Q2OSd-MkS5PVc1PTF:L3G+
HT-29  NYHLeZpmSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 M2n2ZVQxyqEQvF2= M2HVPVQ5yqCq MYDEUXNQ MYXpcoR2[2W|IHHuJIFkfGm4YYTpc44hd2ZiY3HzdIF{\SB|L{e= NWLVUGRFRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS5PVc1PTFpPkK0PVk4PDVzPD;hQi=>
SW480 NVnKWYZXSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 NGTSVYE1OMLizszN MkjMOFjDqGh? NFjBNXRFVVOR M2rIeYlv\HWlZYOgZY4h[WO2aY\heIlwdiCxZjDjZZNx[XOnIEOvOy=> MUm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDl7N{S1NUc,OjR7OUe0OVE9N2F-
HT-29  NXe0NWdqTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NVuwWpZXPDEEoN88US=> NHLyRpk4KGR? NYXEWWZlTE2VTx?= NX;nPHZRemWmdXPld{Bkd2yxbn;zdIhmemViZn;ycYF1cW:wIHPhdIFjcWyrdIpCpC=> NYHibYRURGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS5PVc1PTFpPkK0PVk4PDVzPD;hQi=>
SW480 NU\OXmprTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NVrLSmlsPDEEoN88US=> NH;qZZg4KGR? M4G0cmROW09? NX3XTZdSemWmdXPld{Bkd2yxbn;zdIhmemViZn;ycYF1cW:wIHPhdIFjcWyrdIpCpC=> NYXBc5JKRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS5PVc1PTFpPkK0PVk4PDVzPD;hQi=>
HT-29  MkPTS5Jwf3SqIFnubIljcXSrb36gRZN{[Xl? NVu4fFRJPDEEoN88US=> NWHVbJE5OC15MjDo MkTvSG1UVw>? M2jtcYlvcGmkaYTzJINmdGxiZ4Lve5RpKHSrbXWg[IVx\W6mZX70cJk> NH;VNGc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEm5O|Q2OSd-MkS5PVc1PTF:L3G+
SW480 MXvHdo94fGhiSX7obYJqfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? M3;XWVQxyqEQvF2= MUCwMVczKGh? M4LUS2ROW09? Mn\wbY5pcWKrdIOgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghfGmvZTDk[ZBmdmSnboTsfS=> MXq8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDl7N{S1NUc,OjR7OUe0OVE9N2F-
HT-29  M2nScGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NGm3fIs1OMLizszN M1PNTVQ5yqCq NHPhfJJFVVOR NXfZ[mV5[WO2aY\heIV{KFCSMlG= NF\s[ZA9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEm5O|Q2OSd-MkS5PVc1PTF:L3G+
SW480 MWLGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NG\iT2w1OMLizszN NEK4R4g1QMLiaB?= NFvINohFVVOR NFfsb|Ji[3SrdnH0[ZMhWFB{QR?= Ml;qQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR7OUe0OVEoRjJ2OUm3OFUyRC:jPh?=
C6 NYjyOmRvTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MYexNEDPxE4EoB?= M1Xld|IxKG2rbh?= MlHzbY5kemWjc3XzJINCVVBiYXPjeY12dGG2aX;u NETwRWs9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUC2PVQyPyd-MkWwOlk1OTd:L3G+
Huh-7 MYjGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MlLMNE0zOCEQvF2= NEf1PGwzKGkEoB?= MnfndoV{fWy2czDpckBiKGSxc3Wt[IVx\W6mZX70JIlv[3KnYYPlJIlvKGNvTYnjJIV5eHKnc4Ppc44h[XRidHjlJJBzd3SnaX6gZY5lKG2UTlGgcIV3\Wy| M2nLcVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3MUC5PFM1Lz5{NUGwPVg{PDxxYU6=
THP-1  MVPGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? M1SxcVEwOTBizszN MWmyxsBp MXjEUXNQyqB? NGXr[4t{fXCycnXzd4V{KE2FUD2xJJBzd2S3Y4Tpc47DqA>? Ml\5QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjVzNUS4PFIoRjJ3MUW0PFgzRC:jPh?=
BeWo  MX\GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NYqzZm8xOjBiwsXN NUXQT25KPDhiaB?= NFzY[3hFVVORwrC= M364eIlv\HWlZYOgZ4VtdCCodYPpc44> NEeyeZQ9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUG4OFQ4Pyd-MkWxPFQ1Pzd:L3G+
ventricular cardiomyocytes  NFfQNlRHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M{PRZVAvODFvMUCg{txO MX;leo9s\XNiYX6gbY5wfHKxcHnjJJJme3CxboPlJFEzOMLzMUWlJIFjd3[nIHLhd4FtKHerdHigZY4hTUN3MNMgc4YhOi5{INM1US=> NXnz[Xl3RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWyNFMyOTNpPkK1NlA{OTF|PD;hQi=>
ventricular cardiomyocytes  M{Kx[mZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MYOwMlAyNTFyIN88US=> M3XHV4lv[3KnYYPld{Ah[0GPUDDhZ4N2dXWuYYTpc44> NWTBfG5lRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWyNFMyOTNpPkK1NlA{OTF|PD;hQi=>
MIN6  MXXGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NWnlZ4xIOTBizszNxsA> NVf5NZAxOyCq M{Pn[Ilv[3KnYYPld{BFOyCvUl7BJIV5eHKnc4Ppc44> NHPrPJc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUK0NVEzPCd-MkWyOFEyOjR:L3G+
L6 M2HycGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NEn3SZU1OCEEtV2= MmjBNlQhcA>? MoXhbY5pcWKrdIOgSG1JOS2rbnT1Z4VlKEGtdDDhZ5RqfmG2aX;u MWO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTJ2N{W1NEc,OjV{NEe1OVA9N2F-
HEK‐CFTR Ml\oSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M{SwXlLjiJN3MNMg{txO MlTKNE0yOiCvaX6= Mom2SG1UV8Li NHTScnJqdmS3Y3XzJIEh\G:|ZfMAlIRmeGWwZHXueEBqd2SrZHWg[YZndHW6wrC= M4ryb|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3Mk[zNlA4Lz5{NUK2N|IxPzxxYU6=
SK-N-SH NUK4WnNwS2WubDDWbYFjcWyrdImgRZN{[Xl? Mk\JNVAh|ryPwrC= M{TSO|Q5KGh? MXPlcohidmOnczDTT{1PNVOKIH7leZJw[myjc4TvcYEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdIm= M4LCc|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3Mk[2NFY{Lz5{NUK2OlA3OzxxYU6=
SK-N-AS  M3PUS2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MnjXNVAh|ryPwrC= NYTVe2xTOTBxM{CvOlAhdWmw NYKwXYVTcW6lcnXhd4V{KGyndnXsd{Bw\iCyLd8yMYNifGWwaX6gLJNmejZ5NTmgZY5lKGmwZIXj[ZMh[WOldX31cIF1cW:wIH;mJJAu|rJvY3H0[Y5qdiBqc3XyOlc2MSCrbjCodIVzcSmwdXPs[YFzKHKnZ3nvcpM> MXO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTJ4NkC2N{c,OjV{Nk[wOlM9N2F-
SK-N-AS  NF7WNVZHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NWP4fHVtOTBizszNxsA> NH\GR|A{OCCvaX6= NFv5d4RqdmS3Y3XzJJBpd3OyaH;yfYxifGmxbjDv[kDPui2lYYTlcolvKCi|ZYK2O|UqNCCyLVfTT|PPuiBqc3XyPUkh[W6mIHPvcoNwdWm2YX70JIhq\2incjDs[ZZmdHNib3[gZYN1cX[nLDD1cpBpd3OyaH;yfYxifGWmLDFOtk1k[XSnbnnu M2T3c|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3Mk[2NFY{Lz5{NUK2OlA3OzxxYU6=
SK-N-AS  Mk\pSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NF35[pQyOCEQvF5CpC=> NELicGozPCCq M4m3Oolv[3KnYYPld{B1cGViZYjwdoV{e2mxbjDv[kBkgWOuaX6gSFE> Mn\pQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV{Nk[wOlMoRjJ3Mk[2NFY{RC:jPh?=
SK-N-AS  NEPBSVFHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M2HKV|ExKM7:TdMg M1LXcVI1KGh? Mmq2bY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SClQV3QJIxmfmWuc9Mg MmHSQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV{Nk[wOlMoRjJ3Mk[2NFY{RC:jPh?=
SK-N-AS  M3LSNWNmdGxiVnnhZoltcXS7IFHzd4F6 NWOwNGxyOTBizszNxsA> NETxNZczPC92ODDo MWflcohidmOnczD0bY1mNWSncHXu[IVvfGy7IHPlcIx2dGG{II\pZYJqdGm2edMg MnPrQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV{Nk[wOlMoRjJ3Mk[2NFY{RC:jPh?=
granulosa cells M4HOVGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NFnHfHYyOCEQvF2= MYCyOEBp MmHTbY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SCuZY\lcJMhd2ZiUlfTNkBxem:vb4TldkBi[3Srdnn0fS=> MmfxQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV|M{mxNFUoRjJ3M{O5NVA2RC:jPh?=
granulosa cells NUK4d5NWTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NYr3ZlBSOTBizszN Mnz3NlQhcA>? MX7pcoNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKGmwdHXud4l1gSCxZjDEUmEweHKxdHXpckBkd22ybHX4 NH\iR|g9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUOzPVExPSd-MkWzN|kyODV:L3G+
granulosa cells MlPCSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NYPENGlrOTBizszN MVOxNk8zPCCq MX7pcoNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKGyndnXsd{Bw\iC{ZYDvdpRmeiCjY4Tpeol1gSCob4KgeIhmKGyxbnfld5Qh\nKjZ33lcpQhMOLKkki1OE8sOTiUR2OyMmxWSyl? MmHHQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV|M{mxNFUoRjJ3M{O5NVA2RC:jPh?=
granulosa cells NFPyPY5HfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MWGxNEDPxE1? NW\MN4ZCOTJxMkSgbC=> MkW5bY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SCuZY\lcJMhd2cEoGLHV|LDqG2UTlG= NVf2bmxYRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWzN|kyODVpPkK1N|M6OTB3PD;hQi=>
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BeWo  NHWzU2xHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NWjicYZOOjEEoNM1US=> Ml;KOFjDqGkEoB?= NGTONoRFVVORwrC= MX7kc5dvemWpdXzheIV{KHSqZTDs[ZZmdCCxZjDUUWVOTjF4 NUTD[4VORGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWzOlIzPjBpPkK1N|YzOjZyPD;hQi=>
BeWo  NV3UT2tmTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M4XoclIxyqEEtV2= MXG0POKhcMLi NVGzZpVUTE2VT9Mg NXq2NVhkcW6lcnXhd4V{KHSqZTDi[ZRiNWiFRzDy[Yxm[XOn NEjtVIg9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUO2NlI3OCd-MkWzOlIzPjB:L3G+
EM1  MoSwSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? Ml3mNVXjiIsQvF2= NV;3fJExPDhiaB?= NEfQW2Rz\WS3Y3XzJJRp\SCneIDy[ZN{cW:wIH;mxsBNUUcEoH;yxsBRXEeVMtMgbY7DqEODTGKtJI9zyqCHUFHDNk1{cWynbnPl[EBGVTFiY3XscJPDqA>? MlH0QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV|N{i2OlEoRjJ3M{e4OlYyRC:jPh?=
Primary bovine chondrocytes NE\LUItIem:5dHigTY5pcWKrdHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NGm2SHk2|ryP M16zNlQ5KGh? NICwZZlz\X[ncoPld{B1cGViaX7obYJqfG:{eTDl[oZm[3Rib3[gZ4Vt\WOxeHniJI9vKHC{b3zp[oVz[XSrb36gbY4h\3Kxd4ToJJBt[XSnIHPoc45lem:leYTldy=> M{nETlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEC2NFE3Lz5{NUSwOlAyPjxxYU6=
RBMECs NEXDTpRHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MlLMOeKh|ryP M{LPV|EhcA>? MlvhZoxw[2u|IITo[UBi[3SrbjDjfZRwe2unbHX0c44hemWjcoLhcodmdWWwdDDz[YVvKHerdHigSW1CWC2LSTD0doVifG2nboVCpC=> M{HY[FxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEG2OlUyLz5{NUSxOlY2OTxxYU6=
RBMECs M33ScWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NWD2V3pCPcLizszN MYGxJIg> MlHXZoxw[2u|IITo[UBGVUGSLVnJMYlv\HWlZXSgZ4hidmenIHnuJG1NSyCyaH;zdIhwenmuYYTpc44> MmL6QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV2MU[2OVEoRjJ3NEG2OlUyRC:jPh?=
RBMECs M2m2b2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MVS1xsDPxE1? MknSNUBp M1P2SJJmfmW{c3XzJJRp\SClaHHu[4V{KGmwIGrPMVEh\Gm|dILpZpV1cW:wIIPl[Y4hf2m2aDDFUWFRNUmLIITy[YF1dWWwdB?= NIK5SFE9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUSxOlY2OSd-MkW0NVY3PTF:L3G+
RBMECs M1jXdWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MVe1xsDPxE1? M1zGfVEhcA>? MWHpcohq[mm2czD0bIUh\GWlcnXhd4VlKG:oIHHtc5VvfCCxZjDaU{0yKGmwIF3Gd{BqdmS3Y3XkJIJ6KEWPQWCtTWk> M3TIVFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEG2OlUyLz5{NUSxOlY2OTxxYU6=
RBMECs MV;GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NF\QSoU2yqEQvF2= M3H2[lEhcA>? MYLwdoV3\W62czD0bIUhcW6lcnXhd4UhcW5iSGLQJIZtfXhiYXPyc5N{KHSqZTDCWGIhcW6mdXPl[EBjgSBiRV3BVE1KUQ>? Mn\DQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV2MU[2OVEoRjJ3NEG2OlUyRC:jPh?=
RBMECs MULGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MVq1xsDPxE1? MmPXNUBp NEPnTmVxemW4ZX70d{B1cGViRV3BVE1KUS2rbnT1Z4VlKFSHRWKgeoFtfWViZHXjdoVie2V? M4rGbVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEG2OlUyLz5{NUSxOlY2OTxxYU6=
RBMECs Mlm4SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MXi1xsDPxE1? MnrYNUBp MYjicI9kc3NidHjlJIFkfGm4YYTpc44hd2ZiUnjvRU9TV0ONIHnu[JVk\WRiYomgSW1CWC2LSR?= M{DndFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEG2OlUyLz5{NUSxOlY2OTxxYU6=
RBMECs M3jvPWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MYKwMlA2NzBwNT:1JO69VQ>? NYDacmVZOC5{NTDo M2LMS4lv[3KnYYPld{BkSU2SIHPvcoNmdnS{YYTpc44> M13KfFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEG2OlUyLz5{NUSxOlY2OTxxYU6=
ThGCs  NIPkSVlHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MY[xNQKBks7:TR?= NXHBeHlpOyCq NVjFXZhYcW6qaXLpeJMhfGinIHXm[oVkfCCxZjDINm8zKG:wIFXEUlIhdVKQQR?= M3K5fFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEOzNFI4Lz5{NUSzN|AzPzxxYU6=
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ThGCs  NWLSeGFJTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NETWcncyOOLCit88US=> MlfUOQKBkmh? Mnv5ZZVodWWwdIOgTGlHOUFibHX2[Yx{KHSqYYSge4Vz\SC|dHnteYxifGWmIHL5JGNwS2x{ MoPxQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV2M{OwNlcoRjJ3NEOzNFI4RC:jPh?=
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HEK293  NVnEOVF2TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MkT2OgKBkcL3TR?= MmTVN|AhdWmw NYq3NXZkcW6lcnXhd4V{KGODTWCgcIV3\Wy| NGW0SIs9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUW5NVkxQCd-MkW1PVE6ODh:L3G+
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SH-SY5Y  M3zLNWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M4jYTFExyqEQvF2= NX3TSXh7OcLiaNMg NWjuTFBkcW6lcnXhd4V{KEGJQ{GgcXJPSSCuZY\lcC=> MoXDQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV3OUe0N|MoRjJ3NUm3OFM{RC:jPh?=
SH-SY5Y  MlHoSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NYHVfo9EOTEEoN88US=> NHXNeHMyyqCqwrC= NVnZPGhQcW6lcnXhd4V{KEyXQzDhZ5Rqfmm2eR?= M3nC[lxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NUm3OFM{Lz5{NUW5O|Q{OzxxYU6=
UACC-647  NF\MWlVHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MXuxNOKh|ryP NWLw[ZJvOTVibXnu MWTEUXNQ NXmwb3pWcW6lcnXhd4V{KGWHRkKgdIhwe3Cqb4L5cIF1cW:wIHzleoVte8Li M2nmNFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3N{CzNFI2Lz5{NUewN|AzPTxxYU6=
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BAECs M3L6UGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M1nifVI2KM7:TR?= M1L2e|I1KGh? NUDYTpZs\W6qYX7j[ZMhfGinIHHjeIl3[XSrb36gc4YhWFCDUt8xJIJ6KDVizszNJJJme3[ncnH0do9tNCCWNFjTMEBweiB2LWDBVC=> NIXY[G49[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUe5PFgzPid-MkW3PVg5OjZ:L3G+
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3T3-L1 preadipocytes NUOxfXhHTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NF3nUogyOCEQvF5CpC=> M3jMeFEzKGh? Mny0bY5lfWOnczDDVmVDKHCqb4PwbI9zgWyjdHnvckBidmRiQz;FRnDPuiCneIDy[ZN{cW:w NWjJenE4RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW5NlgxPThpPkK1PVI5ODV6PD;hQi=>
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HEK-293 M2WycWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M3nEV|M2KM7:TdMg MkDjSG1UVw>? NWDK[WlQcW6mdXPld{BiKGOxboPwbYN2d3W|IPMAoIlv[WO2aY\heIlwduLCnTDv[kB1cGViS4[yMlEh[3W{cnXueC=> MXq8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTl4MkGzNkc,OjV7NkKxN|I9N2F-
SCG NEGweo1HfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M{nzTFIxKM7:TdMg MknhSG1UVw>? MnfydoV3\XK|aXLsfUB{fXCycnXzd4V{KEmNVjD3bZRpKGFiSVO1NEBw\iB{ND60JO69VQ>? M4LKPFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3OU[yNVMzLz5{NUm2NlE{OjxxYU6=
PC-3 MoLtR4VtdCCYaXHibYxqfHliQYPzZZk> NXnhcZY1PDBiwsXN NV\Qdmp4OjRxNEivO|IhcA>? MmS3SG1UVw>? M4TMeYRm[3KnYYPld{Bk\WyuII\pZYJqdGm2eTD0bY1mKGSncHXu[IVvfGy7 M4Dwd|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4MEKzPFM3Lz5{NkCyN|g{PjxxYU6=
PC-3 MmTnSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M2fjWlQxKML3TR?= NWPBSoJOOiCq NV2xXWdGTE2VTx?= MlracIVi\HNidH:gVHAzSSCjY4TpeoF1cW:w NVjtPFFHRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[wNlM5OzZpPkK2NFI{QDN4PD;hQi=>
SH-SY5Y MUTGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? M33UTVMxKM7:TR?= MVyzNEBucW5? MkfZSG1UVw>? NGHkc3R{cWewaX\pZ4FvfGy7IHnuZ5Jm[XOnczD0bIUh[WO2aY\heIlwdiCxZjDQT2E> MoTTQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZyMkWxN|coRjJ4MEK1NVM4RC:jPh?=
EndoC-βH1 NEP4[4lHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M3uzWlXDqM7:TR?= Ml\qNUBp M1j6e4xm[WS|IITvJIEhe3S{b37nJINCVVBiaX7jdoVie2V? NYDCRpVURGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[wNlg2PjJpPkK2NFI5PTZ{PD;hQi=>
EndoC-βH1 NXPqfYl1TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NUjleHBkPcLizszN MVWxJIg> NWPDcoNPeG:2ZX70bYF1\XNiZ3z1Z49{\S2rbnT1Z4VlKGmwc4XsbY4he2WlcnX0bY9vKGmwIITo[UBxemW|ZX7j[UBw\iCpbIXjc5Nm NITNcGc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkCyPFU3Oid-Mk[wNlg2PjJ:L3G+
RBMECs M3;0dGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M1HNUVXDqM7:TR?= NUnjeG1rOSCq MmHNbY5pcWKrdIOgSW1CWC2LST3pcoR2[2WmIHnuZYN1cX[jdHnvckBw\iCUYYCxxsA> M1XDdVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4MES0OlY{Lz5{NkC0OFY3OzxxYU6=
AML-12  NGD2PYtHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MlXxNlAh|ryP NETHdGo{KGh? MmHhbY5lfWOnczD0bIUh\GWyaH;zdIhwenmuYYTpc44hd2ZiQ2LUR|LDqA>? NIK2c|U9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkC0PFk5PSd-Mk[wOFg6QDV:L3G+
AML-12  MXLGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MmDBNlAh|ryP NULUZXJlOyCq MnnVeZAuemWpdXzheIV{yqCSZ3OxZUzDqFCncHPrMEBidmUEoFe2dIPDqG2UTlGgcIV3\Wy| NHnJNZY9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkC0PFk5PSd-Mk[wOFg6QDV:L3G+
AML-12  MkH0SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NXTi[ZJpOjBizszN M{D2d|EuQCCq NFr6VplqdmO{ZXHz[ZMh\2y3Y3;z[UBxem:mdXP0bY9v NIHHVYI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkC0PFk5PSd-Mk[wOFg6QDV:L3G+
AML-12  M4nrPWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MmHLNlAh|ryP NG\l[|c{KGh? MXX1dJJm\3WuYYTld{B1cGVicHjvd5Bpd3K7bHH0bY9vKGyndnXsd{BifCCWaIKtOFEyKGGwZDDT[ZIuPDl| NGrCSYQ9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkC0PFk5PSd-Mk[wOFg6QDV:L3G+
Caco-2  M3nqUmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NE\1fWsxNjFxMT:xNEDPxE1? NE\RcoUzPCCq MUPpcoNz\WG|ZYOgUXJROiCycn;0[YlvKGyndnXs NGPQVVE9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkC0PVExOid-Mk[wOFkyODJ:L3G+
Caco-2  NITRUmJHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NHPiV5cxNjFxMT:xNEDPxE1? NFG0UHozOMLibXnu M1y1bIlv\HWlZYOgZUBld3OnLXTldIVv\GWwdDDpcoNz\WG|ZTDpckBqdnS{YXPlcIx2dGG{IHPBUXAhdGW4ZXzz NFnNSVI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkC0PVExOid-Mk[wOFkyODJ:L3G+
bovine oocytes NYDsToV3TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NXvud45WOTBywrFOwG0> MW[xNuKhcA>? NE\NRpRqdmirYnn0d{B1cGViZX\m[YN1KG:oIF7QVGEh[W6mL3;yJG5RWENidH:gd5RqdXWuYYTlJJJme3WvcITpc44hd2ZibXXpc5Nqew>? MkTDQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZyNUG2NVEoRjJ4MEWxOlEyRC:jPh?=
BeWo  NXLiVFhRTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M17PZVI26oDLzszN NXvKfotJOjRxNEivO|IhcA>? NYrTfJUydGWjZIOgeI8h[W5iaX7jdoVie2ViaX6geIhmKGW6cILld5Nqd25ib3[gc5Rp\XJiZoXzbY9vKG2jcnvldpM> MoSzQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZyNUO1OFkoRjJ4MEWzOVQ6RC:jPh?=
Spinal cords  M4e2emZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MlnTNeKh|ryP MWSzNEBucW5? MknEd5RqdXWuYYTld{BkSU2SIHzleoVtew>? NXuzdnRMRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[xNlY6OjZpPkK2NVI3QTJ4PD;hQi=>
MDCK  NIjJRXZHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M3zQd|ExKML3TR?= MnfqNlQhcA>? NY\zb5ZpTE2VTx?= NYDzZlNQcW6qaXLpeJMhfGinIHnuZ5Jm[XOnZDDlfJBz\XO|aX;uJI9nKE[QIHPheZNm\CCkeTDUS2Yu|rJz MW[8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPjJyMkO1Nkc,OjZ{MEKzOVI9N2F-
MDCK  M2DYT2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NIfPR2kyOCEEtV2= NV3lUW1GOjRiaB?= NYfwRWJMTE2VTx?= MV\1dJJm\3WuYYTld{B1cGViZYjwdoV{e2mxbjDv[kBVT0ZvzsKxJIFv\CCFVFfGxsA> M{HURlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4MkCyN|UzLz5{NkKwNlM2OjxxYU6=
RPMI 8226 MYLD[YxtKF[rYXLpcIl1gSCDc4PhfS=> M1zuc|AuOTByIN88US=> MWi3NwKBkWh? MXfpcoR2[2W|IHPlcIwh\GWjdHig[I9{\SCmZYDlcoRmdnSueR?= M{nke|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4M{C2OlI1Lz5{NkOwOlYzPDxxYU6=
H929 MlnYR4VtdCCYaXHibYxqfHliQYPzZZk> MWSwMVExOCEQvF2= NXq2bnlqPzMkgJno NIC0b49qdmS3Y3XzJINmdGxiZHXheIgh\G:|ZTDk[ZBmdmSnboTsfS=> NFXrelc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkOwOlYzPCd-Mk[zNFY3OjR:L3G+
U266 M33aV2NmdGxiVnnhZoltcXS7IFHzd4F6 NH:wT2sxNTFyMDFOwG0> M{Lqd|cz6oDLaB?= MmSwbY5lfWOnczDj[YxtKGSnYYToJIRwe2ViZHXw[Y5l\W62bIm= NIS2R3E9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkOwOlYzPCd-Mk[zNFY3OjR:L3G+
OPM-2 NYrZW41JS2WubDDWbYFjcWyrdImgRZN{[Xl? Mnn0NE0yODBizszN NYTSfW5XPzMkgJno M13r[Ilv\HWlZYOgZ4VtdCCmZXH0bEBld3OnIHTldIVv\GWwdHz5 MU[8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPjNyNk[yOEc,OjZ|ME[2NlQ9N2F-
INA-6 NFjscpJE\WyuIG\pZYJqdGm2eTDBd5NigQ>? MmXoNE0yODBizszN NXzJTVRPPzMkgJno M4XsW4lv\HWlZYOgZ4VtdCCmZXH0bEBld3OnIHTldIVv\GWwdHz5 Mn7PQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZ|ME[2NlQoRjJ4M{C2OlI1RC:jPh?=
RBMECs  MULGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NV\ve4pxPcLizszN M{TkflHDqGh? MmTzZoxw[2u|IITo[UBT[WNzIHnuZYN1cX[jdHnvckBqdmS3Y3XkJIJ6KEWPQWCtTWk> NGnsNGs9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkO1PFA{QSd-Mk[zOVgxOzl:L3G+
Mo-DCs MUHGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NFHYToY2OCEQvF2= NXPuWnVmOjUkgJno NUWzR3J3eHKxbX;0[ZMhUUxvMkOgdJJw\HWldHnvckBqdiC2aHWgd5Vx\XKwYYThcpQhd2Zieontc5NidiC|dHnteYxifGWmIF3vMWREe8Li MUi8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPjRzMkm0PEc,OjZ2MUK5OFg9N2F-
HEK293 NHjueXpHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MX:xNEDPxE1? M{e0VFYhcA>? MUnpcoNz\WG|ZYOgdIhwe3Cqb4L5cIF1cW:wIH;mJI93\XKneIDy[ZN{\WRiS1zIUFMh[XRiU{SzNy=> MnLoQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZ2M{W0PVgoRjJ4NEO1OFk5RC:jPh?=
ASK Ml:2SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MnHENUBpeg>? MkHNQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjh2OU[0NUc,Ojh2OU[0NVww[T5?
Vero E6 M33Cb2FvfGm4aYLhcEBie3OjeR?= MWK8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yPzZ4M{WzPUc,OTd4NkO1N|k9N2F-
epithelial cells NF3UVIpHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NHzIe5EyKHWP NXLKTJVSPCxiNjygZY5lKDhiZHH5dy=> MYi8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yQTl4Nke4PUc,OTl7Nk[3PFk9N2F-
HepG2 (DPX-2) MUjGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MkHvNlQhcHK| MYO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zODl4NkC0N{c,OjB7Nk[wOFM9N2F-
HepG2 NEnLS2ZHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MYSyOEBpenN? MlywQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjB7Nk[wOFMoRjJyOU[2NFQ{RC:jPh?=
HepG2 (DPX-2) MUnGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MljJNlQhcHK| M1jTdVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJyOU[2NFQ{Lz5{MEm2OlA1OzxxYU6=
HEK293T M3XkPWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M1myRVExKHWP NXLUV2hvRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkSzPFc{OjVpPkK0N|g4OzJ3PD;hQi=>
HEK293 MVjGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M1vsPFExKHWP NU\KWVN5OTZiaILz NW\Xd5ZYRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[0N|U2OTJpPkK2OFM2PTF{PD;hQi=>
MCF7 M4r3[2N6fG:2b4jpZ4l1gSCjc4PhfS=> MUi0PEBpenN? M{HGOFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ6OEO4OlkzLz5{OEizPFY6OjxxYU6=
HEK293 NXLOdFRzTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NV3ve5l[OzBibXnudy=> M3K5SFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzNyMEC2NVc3Lz5|MECwOlE4PjxxYU6=

... Click to View More Cell Line Experimental Data

Assay
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot
cleaved caspase-3 / caspase-3; 

PubMed: 30863177     


Toledo, NK-92, RL, and Farage cells were treated with 30 μM of forskolin for 48 hours, then the cells were harvested for Western blotting to assess the expression of total or cleaved caspase-3

cleaved caspase-9 / caspase-9 ; 

PubMed: 30863177     


Toledo, NK-92, RL, and Farage cells were treated with 30 μM of forskolin for 48 hours, then the cells were harvested for Western blotting to assess the expression of total or cleaved caspase-9.

β-catenin; 

PubMed: 30863177     


(A, B) The protein expression of cytoplasmic and nuclear β-catenin in Toledo and NK-92 cells in the presence of 0, 10, 20, or 40 μM forskolin was detected by Western blotting.

c-myc / Cyclin D1; 

PubMed: 30863177     


(C, D) Western blotting analysis of the total protein expression of c-myc and cyclin D1 influenced by 0, 10, 20, or 40 μM of forskolin in Toledo and NK-92 cells (n=3, *P<0.05, forskolin group vs control group).

pS6K1 / S6K1 / pCREB / CREB; 

PubMed: 31112131     


Forskolin inhibits mTORC1 in multiple cell lines. PC3, LNcap/AR, H1299, H1944, MDA-MB-231, MEF, HAP1, COS7, HeLa, MIA Paca-2, and PANC-1 were treated with or without 10 μM forskolin for 1 h and mTORC1 activity, CREB phosphorylation, and loading controls were analyzed.

p-JNK / JNK / P-p38 / p38; 

PubMed: 20070884     


L929 cells were pretreated with forskolin (10 μM) for various times as indicated, followed by stimulation with or without 10 ng/ml TNF-α for 15 min.

30863177 31112131 20070884
Immunofluorescence
5hmC; 

PubMed: 29239726     


Schwann cells were treated with forskolin (10 μM) for 3 hr followed by washout. 5hmC induction was detected at of 0, 3, and 24 hr time points following treatment. Cells continuously treated with forskolin (5, 10 μM) for 24 hr showed comparable 5hmC levels. Scale bar = 20 μm. 

Fe(II); 

PubMed: 29239726     


AMP (100 mM) treatment for 4 hr did not induce labile Fe(II) while AC activators (forskolin (100 mM), bicarbonate (50 mM)) and PDE inhibitors (caffeine (100 mM), IBMX (100 mM)) increased labile Fe(II) detected by Trx-Puro probes.

CYP17A1 / CYP21A2; 

PubMed: 25334044     


H295R cells were treated with 8-Br-cAMP or forskolin for 48 h under growth conditions, and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. (A) Immunostaining for CYP17A1. Red staining shows the anti-CYP17A1 antibody and blue staining shows DAPI (cell nuclei). (B) Immunostaining for CYP21A2. Red staining shows the anti-CYP21A2 antibody and blue staining shows DAPI (cell nuclei). Scale bars represent 100 µm.

29239726 25334044
Growth inhibition assay
Cell viability; 

PubMed: 30863177     


(C) MTT assay was conducted to test the cell growth after Toledo cells were administered 0, 20, 40, 80, or 160 μM of forskolin for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 days. (D) Toledo cells were administered 0, 20, 40, 80, or 160 μM of forskolin for 48 hours, then MTT assay was used to evaluate the IC50 of forskolin. (F) MTT assay was conducted to test the cell growth after NK-92 cells were administered 0, 20, 40, 80, or 160 μM of forskolin for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 days. (G) NK-92 cells were administered 0, 20, 40, 80, or 160 μM of forskolin for 48 hours, then MTT assay was used to evaluate the IC50of forskolin. 

30863177

Protocol

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 82 mg/mL (199.75 mM)
Ethanol 37 mg/mL (90.13 mM)
Water Insoluble

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 410.5
Formula

C22H34O7

CAS No. 66575-29-9
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms Coleonol
Smiles CC(=O)OC1C(C2C(CCC(C2(C3(C1(OC(CC3=O)(C)C=C)C)O)C)O)(C)C)O

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cAMP Signaling Pathway Map

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID