Colforsin

Catalog No.S2449 Synonyms: Forskolin, HL 362, Coleonol

For research use only.

Colforsin (Forskolin, HL 362, Coleonol) is a ubiquitous activator of eukaryotic adenylyl cyclase (AC) in a wide variety of cell types, commonly used to raise levels of cAMP in the study and research of cell physiology. Forskolin also activates PXR and FXR activity. Forskolin stimulates autophagy.

Colforsin  Chemical Structure

CAS No. 66575-29-9

Selleck's Colforsin has been cited by 112 publications

Purity & Quality Control

Choose Selective cAMP Inhibitors

Biological Activity

Description Colforsin (Forskolin, HL 362, Coleonol) is a ubiquitous activator of eukaryotic adenylyl cyclase (AC) in a wide variety of cell types, commonly used to raise levels of cAMP in the study and research of cell physiology. Forskolin also activates PXR and FXR activity. Forskolin stimulates autophagy.
Targets
Adenylyl cyclase (AC) [1]
(A wide variety of cell types)
In vitro

Forskolin increases cAMP levels in preparations of membranes, cells, or tissues. Forskolin not only activates AC but also interacts with certain other proteins, including glucose transporters and ion channels. Forskolin is able to promote activation of nine different transmembrane iso-forms of AC, albeit with somewhat less efficacy for AC9, which could be used to provides a means to identify and quantify high-affinity binding sites, i.e., G-proteins (Gs)–AC complexes. Activation of s by GPCRs contributes to Forskolin-stimulated cAMP generation in cells because of s-Forskolin potentiation of AC activity. [1] Forskolin stimulates adenylate cyclase activity without interacting with cell surface receptors. Forskolin's potentiation of cAMP in turn inhibits basophil and mast cell degranulation and histamine release, lowers blood pressure and intraocular pressure, inhibits platelet aggregation, promotes vasodilation, bronchodilation, and thyroid hormone secretion, and stimulates lipolysis in fat cells. Forskolin inhibits the binding of platelet-activating factor (PAF), independently of cAMP formation, which may be a result of Forskolin's direct effect on PAF or via interference with PAF binding to receptor sites. Forskolin also appears to have an effect on several membrane transport proteins, and inhibits glucose transport in erythrocytes, adipocytes, platelets, and other cells. Forskolin is used to treat with glaucoma. [2]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
HT-29  Mnf4RZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 M1jONlQxyqEQvF2= MVi0POKhcA>? Ml:4SG1UVw>? M{DPXolv\HWlZYOgZ4hidmenczDpckB1cGVicHjvd5Bpd3K7bHH0bY9vKHO2YYT1d{Bw\iCSUELBJJRiemendIO= MWq8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDl7N{S1NUc,OjR7OUe0OVE9N2F-
SW480 NGDjS2FCeG:ydH;zbZMhSXO|YYm= NHTLVGQ1OMLizszN NWnaWmM{PDkEoHi= MmO2SG1UVw>? NULQSlVncW6mdXPld{BkcGGwZ3XzJIlvKHSqZTDwbI9{eGixconsZZRqd25ic4TheJV{KG:oIGDQNmEhfGG{Z3X0dy=> NH7qRpc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEm5O|Q2OSd-MkS5PVc1PTF:L3G+
HT-29  MmLTRZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 NVHaZ2FiPDEEoN88US=> Mn:4OFjDqGh? M3zoT2ROW09? NYP2ell4cW6mdXPld{BidiCjY4TpeoF1cW:wIH;mJINie3Cjc3WgN{84 Mlr6QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR7OUe0OVEoRjJ2OUm3OFUyRC:jPh?=
SW480 MYLBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? M3;VSFQxyqEQvF2= NVLwWnRXPDkEoHi= M4D2VGROW09? MYDpcoR2[2W|IHHuJIFkfGm4YYTpc44hd2ZiY3HzdIF{\SB|L{e= MmSzQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR7OUe0OVEoRjJ2OUm3OFUyRC:jPh?=
HT-29  MkO5SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NET4e3g1OMLizszN NUjLeplmPyCm NUfSUIxoTE2VTx?= MlPpdoVlfWOnczDjc4xwdm:|cHjldoUh\m:{bXH0bY9vKGOjcHHibYxqfHoEoB?= MX:8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDl7N{S1NUc,OjR7OUe0OVE9N2F-
SW480 NX[5[oFSTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NHjaXHE1OMLizszN MoezO{Bl NVvDZXZqTE2VTx?= NXf5eVdKemWmdXPld{Bkd2yxbn;zdIhmemViZn;ycYF1cW:wIHPhdIFjcWyrdIpCpC=> MVS8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDl7N{S1NUc,OjR7OUe0OVE9N2F-
HT-29  MkjSS5Jwf3SqIFnubIljcXSrb36gRZN{[Xl? Mn[zOFDDqM7:TR?= NFPlUpIxNTd{IHi= NHrhUpNFVVOR NHXWZZFqdmirYnn0d{Bk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCC2aX3lJIRmeGWwZHXueIx6 M3PEfFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2OUm3OFUyLz5{NEm5O|Q2OTxxYU6=
SW480 NYPSZZBoT3Kxd4ToJGlvcGmkaYTpc44hSXO|YYm= NV;0dZV4PDEEoN88US=> NXTyOlNPOC15MjDo M{fkPWROW09? NHyyZlJqdmirYnn0d{Bk\WyuIHfyc5d1cCC2aX3lJIRmeGWwZHXueIx6 NYPjNWxiRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkS5PVc1PTFpPkK0PVk4PDVzPD;hQi=>
HT-29  MV3GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NWTrWVJYPDEEoN88US=> MYq0POKhcA>? NYj4eJZvTE2VTx?= NV3ROlZi[WO2aY\heIV{KFCSMlG= M{DyOVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2OUm3OFUyLz5{NEm5O|Q2OTxxYU6=
SW480 NGT6dHdHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MkjkOFDDqM7:TR?= Mn7yOFjDqGh? M1rkU2ROW09? NF\1c4Zi[3SrdnH0[ZMhWFB{QR?= NFLyeVI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEm5O|Q2OSd-MkS5PVc1PTF:L3G+
C6 MonoSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NULVU2hWOTBizszNxsA> NF\oWIEzOCCvaX6= NFnLNm9qdmO{ZXHz[ZMh[0GPUDDhZ4N2dXWuYYTpc44> M1XDW|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3ME[5OFE4Lz5{NUC2PVQyPzxxYU6=
Huh-7 NH:xWlNHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MU[wMVIxKM7:TR?= NH7wS|UzKGkEoB?= MnPLdoV{fWy2czDpckBiKGSxc3Wt[IVx\W6mZX70JIlv[3KnYYPlJIlvKGNvTYnjJIV5eHKnc4Ppc44h[XRidHjlJJBzd3SnaX6gZY5lKG2UTlGgcIV3\Wy| MoqyQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjVzMEm4N|QoRjJ3MUC5PFM1RC:jPh?=
THP-1  NV;VR5JnTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NIS0RZcyNzFyIN88US=> NXLkNnVrOsLiaB?= MWnEUXNQyqB? NXiycpkze3WycILld5NmeyCPQ2CtNUBxem:mdXP0bY9vyqB? M1Gz[|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3MUW0PFgzLz5{NUG1OFg5OjxxYU6=
BeWo  M3vDfWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NIDqSXYzOCEEtV2= NFjtV2k1QCCq MlPESG1UV8Li NE\3eYxqdmS3Y3XzJINmdGxiZoXzbY9v MYm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTF6NES3O{c,OjVzOES0O|c9N2F-
ventricular cardiomyocytes  MYPGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MmHpNE4xOS1zMDFOwG0> NHrBO4Vmfm:tZYOgZY4hcW6xdILvdIlkKHKnc4DvcpNmKDF{MNMxNVUmKGGkb4\lJIJie2GuIIfpeIgh[W5iRVO1NOKhd2ZiMj6yJOK2VQ>? MXy8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTJyM{GxN{c,OjV{MEOxNVM9N2F-
ventricular cardiomyocytes  MX\GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NIjKcW8xNjBzLUGwJO69VQ>? NFzoZo5qdmO{ZXHz[ZMhKGODTWCgZYNkfW23bHH0bY9v NEnQcGk9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUKwN|EyOyd-MkWyNFMyOTN:L3G+
MIN6  NELHR41HfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MXixNEDPxE4EoB?= NX\l[3ZOOyCq NWPwbJJNcW6lcnXhd4V{KER|IH3SUmEh\XiycnXzd4lwdg>? M2jQdVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3MkSxNVI1Lz5{NUK0NVEzPDxxYU6=
L6 NVzDVpBnTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NGPsPJg1OCEEtV2= M4jaSVI1KGh? MU\pcohq[mm2czDEUWgyNWmwZIXj[YQhSWu2IHHjeIl3[XSrb36= NVr2[VZWRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWyOFc2PTBpPkK1NlQ4PTVyPD;hQi=>
HEK‐CFTR NHTOXlZHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NEDOTW8z6oDVNUFCpO69VQ>? Mn\MNE0yOiCvaX6= MnHRSG1UV8Li MXPpcoR2[2W|IHGg[I9{\eLCkHTldIVv\GWwdDDpc4Rq\GViZX\mcJV5yqB? MkPQQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV{NkOyNFcoRjJ3Mk[zNlA4RC:jPh?=
SK-N-SH Mn3TR4VtdCCYaXHibYxqfHliQYPzZZk> MnX6NVAh|ryPwrC= NVfBUWJbPDhiaB?= MX;lcohidmOnczDTT{1PNVOKIH7leZJw[myjc4TvcYEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdIm= M2rXZ|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3Mk[2NFY{Lz5{NUK2OlA3OzxxYU6=
SK-N-AS  MWnGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NInBPZIyOCEQvF5CpC=> Mn7kNVAwOzBxNkCgcYlv M1XZV4lv[3KnYYPld{Bt\X[nbIOgc4YheC4Qsj3jZZRmdmmwIDjz[ZI3PzVrIHHu[EBqdmS3Y3XzJIFk[3WvdXzheIlwdiCxZjDwMe6zNWOjdHXubY4hMHOnck[3OUkhcW5iKIDldokqdnWlbHXhdkBz\Werb37z M1fwOlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3Mk[2NFY{Lz5{NUK2OlA3OzxxYU6=
SK-N-AS  MmPESpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MUKxNEDPxE4EoB?= MVWzNEBucW5? NVnGN3ZKcW6mdXPld{BxcG:|cHjvdplt[XSrb36gc4Yh|rJvY3H0[Y5qdiBqc3XyOlc2MSxicD3HV2s{|rJiKIPldlkqKGGwZDDjc45kd22rdHHueEBpcWeqZYKgcIV3\Wy|IH;mJIFkfGm4ZTygeY5xcG:|cHjvdplt[XSnZDyg{tIu[2G2ZX7pci=> MV:8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTJ4NkC2N{c,OjV{Nk[wOlM9N2F-
SK-N-AS  MWrGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? Mny0NVAh|ryPwrC= MYiyOEBp MoDabY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SCneIDy[ZN{cW:wIH;mJIN6[2yrbjDENS=> MmfsQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV{Nk[wOlMoRjJ3Mk[2NFY{RC:jPh?=
SK-N-AS  MmXQSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MlTYNVAh|ryPwrC= MW[yOEBp NFv0VZZqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhfGinIHPBUXAhdGW4ZXzzxsA> MnrhQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV{Nk[wOlMoRjJ3Mk[2NFY{RC:jPh?=
SK-N-AS  M321RmNmdGxiVnnhZoltcXS7IFHzd4F6 M3HYSVExKM7:TdMg NITreFAzPC92ODDo NXPWfGZx\W6qYX7j[ZMhfGmvZT3k[ZBmdmSnboTsfUBk\WyudXzhdkB3cWGkaXzpeJnDqA>? MUW8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTJ4NkC2N{c,OjV{Nk[wOlM9N2F-
granulosa cells NFu5SYVHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M160PVExKM7:TR?= M4qxclI1KGh? M1PNe4lv[3KnYYPld{B1cGVibHX2[Yx{KG:oIGLHV|IheHKxbX;0[ZIh[WO2aY\peJk> M3;RVVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3M{O5NVA2Lz5{NUOzPVExPTxxYU6=
granulosa cells Mo\tSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MUGxNEDPxE1? MWKyOEBp Mnz3bY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SCrboTlcpNqfHlib3[gSG5CN3C{b4TlbY4h[2:vcHzlfC=> MV[8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTN|OUGwOUc,OjV|M{mxNFU9N2F-
granulosa cells MX3GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? Moq4NVAh|ryP Mk[1NVIwOjRiaB?= NEfENWFqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhfGinIHzleoVteyCxZjDy[ZBwenSncjDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDmc5IhfGinIHzvcodme3RiZoLh[41mdnRiKPMIllg2PC9tMUjSS3MzNkyXQzm= MnvCQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV|M{mxNFUoRjJ3M{O5NVA2RC:jPh?=
granulosa cells M3XXSWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M4fXdVExKM7:TR?= NFH3Z2UyOi9{NDDo MkDJbY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SCuZY\lcJMhd2cEoGLHV|LDqG2UTlG= MoLwQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV|M{mxNFUoRjJ3M{O5NVA2RC:jPh?=
BeWo  MWPGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? M3PxUVIxyqEEtV2= NWT2PWlmPDkEoHlCpC=> M322cGROW00EoB?= M1;EZoRwf26{ZXf1cIF1\XNidHjlJIxmfmWuIH;mJGdEVS1z M3PpUVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3M{[yNlYxLz5{NUO2NlI3ODxxYU6=
BeWo  M2fnfmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MorkNlDDqML3TR?= M1\NRVQ5yqCqwrC= M{frdGROW00EoB?= NUXvZ|hn\G:5boLl[5Vt[XSnczD0bIUhdGW4ZXygc4YhXE2HTV[xOi=> NXnsU3FiRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWzOlIzPjBpPkK1N|YzOjZyPD;hQi=>
BeWo  MXHGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MVuyNOKhyrWP NVrhUVRkPDkEoHlCpC=> NUTCTmI1TE2VT9Mg NEK0cVdqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhfGinIHLleIEucEOJIILlcIVie2V? NEmyXWc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUO2NlI3OCd-MkWzOlIzPjB:L3G+
EM1  NGO0N5BHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MWCxOgKBks7:TR?= NHzUSWs1QCCq MoDDdoVlfWOnczD0bIUh\XiycnXzd4lwdiCxZtMgUGlHyqCxctMgVHRIWzMEoHnuxsBESUyULTDvduKhTVCDQ{Ktd4lt\W6lZXSgSW0yKGOnbHzzxsA> NVW2doZpRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWzO|g3PjFpPkK1N|c5PjZzPD;hQi=>
Primary bovine chondrocytes NFvXUlBIem:5dHigTY5pcWKrdHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MoXZOe69VQ>? M4nEbVQ5KGh? M{jJSZJmfmW{c3XzJJRp\SCrbnjpZol1d3K7IHXm[oVkfCCxZjDj[Yxm[2:6aXKgc44heHKxbHnm[ZJifGmxbjDpckBoem:5dHigdIxifGViY3jvcoRzd2O7dHXz NIKzNW49[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUSwOlAyPid-MkW0NFYxOTZ:L3G+
RBMECs M{X0TmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 Ml;BOeKh|ryP MVSxJIg> MV3icI9kc3NidHjlJIFkfGmwIHP5eI9{c2WuZYTvckBz\WG{cnHu[4Vu\W62IIPl[Y4hf2m2aDDFUWFRNUmLIITy[YF1dWWwdNMg MoPyQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV2MU[2OVEoRjJ3NEG2OlUyRC:jPh?=
RBMECs M3L4UGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MlexOeKh|ryP NVrnTmNiOSCq MoPRZoxw[2u|IITo[UBGVUGSLVnJMYlv\HWlZXSgZ4hidmenIHnuJG1NSyCyaH;zdIhwenmuYYTpc44> NYjSWJdrRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW0NVY3PTFpPkK1OFE3PjVzPD;hQi=>
RBMECs NGfpTlVHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MmXDOeKh|ryP NH7UdXcyKGh? MknHdoV3\XK|ZYOgeIhmKGOqYX7n[ZMhcW5iWl:tNUBlcXO2cnnieZRqd25ic3XlckB4cXSqIFXNRXAuUUlidILlZZRu\W62 MlizQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV2MU[2OVEoRjJ3NEG2OlUyRC:jPh?=
RBMECs MV7GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? Mk\kOeKh|ryP MUixJIg> M13yTYlvcGmkaYTzJJRp\SCmZXPy[YF{\WRib3[gZY1wfW62IH;mJHpQNTFiaX6gUWZ{KGmwZIXj[YQh[nliRV3BVE1KUQ>? MU[8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTRzNk[1NUc,OjV2MU[2OVE9N2F-
RBMECs NWO2NlZDTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NHTxTlE2yqEQvF2= MYexJIg> NYXSbYV[eHKndnXueJMhfGinIHnuZ5Jm[XOnIHnuJGhTWCCobIX4JIFkem:|czD0bIUhSlSEIHnu[JVk\WRiYomgJGVOSVBvSVm= NEfUWG49[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUSxOlY2OSd-MkW0NVY3PTF:L3G+
RBMECs NYr1eoY4TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NFzwU4w2yqEQvF2= M4f6PVEhcA>? MlnudJJmfmWwdIOgeIhmKEWPQWCtTWkucW6mdXPl[EBVTUWUII\hcJVmKGSnY4LlZZNm MlvpQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV2MU[2OVEoRjJ3NEG2OlUyRC:jPh?=
RBMECs M{PSSGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MY[1xsDPxE1? NUm4V4p1OSCq M1jzSYJtd2OtczD0bIUh[WO2aY\heIlwdiCxZjDSbI9CN1KRQ1ugbY5lfWOnZDDifUBGVUGSLVnJ MVi8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTRzNk[1NUc,OjV2MU[2OVE9N2F-
RBMECs MnvCSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NG\YR5gxNjB3L{CuOU82KM7:TR?= MWmwMlI2KGh? NX3GXIhZcW6lcnXhd4V{KGODTWCgZ49v[2WwdILheIlwdg>? MnLxQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV2MU[2OVEoRjJ3NEG2OlUyRC:jPh?=
ThGCs  MknLSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M{L5[FEx6oDMzszN Mof3N{Bp NFS1eINqdmirYnn0d{B1cGViZX\m[YN1KG:oIFiyU|Ihd25iRVTONkBuWk6D NWf6SpZSRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW0N|MxOjdpPkK1OFM{ODJ5PD;hQi=>
ThGCs  MYDGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NUG2Oos{OTEkgJtOwG0> NXHuWXB7POLCini= Ml;4bY5kemWjc3XzJGNwS2x{LXnu[JVk\WRiRVTONuKh\2WwZTDlfJBz\XO|aX;u M4DyNFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEOzNFI4Lz5{NUSzN|AzPzxxYU6=
ThGCs  NEHmemRHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M2rXUFEx6oDMzszN M{TsdlTjiIqq NV\obXp{[XWpbXXueJMhUEmIMVGgcIV3\Wy|IIToZZQhf2W{ZTDzeIlufWyjdHXkJIJ6KEOxQ3yy M2PINVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEOzNFI4Lz5{NUSzN|AzPzxxYU6=
LNCaP  NFLTT21HfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NWm1ZVFuOTEEoN88US=> MX6xNkBpyqB? MUDEUXNQ MYDpcoR2[2W|IHGg[JJidWG2aXOgbY5kemWjc3Wgc4YhS1KHQkGgZYN1cX[rdIm= MlvjQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV3NEiwPVkoRjJ3NUS4NFk6RC:jPh?=
BeWo MVzGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NGHidm0zOMLiwsXN M{[xblQ5yqCq NHK4d5NFVVOR Mk\ibY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SCjZHjld4lwdiCxZjDUTHAuOSCvb37vZ5l1\XN? NEP3SJo9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUW2Olc1OCd-MkW1OlY4PDB:L3G+
BeWo MofGSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NF;IeogzOMLiwsXN NFLGRVg1QMLiaB?= MYLEUXNQ NHv4SZhqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhfGinIHTp[oZmemWwdHnheIlwdiCxZjDC[XdwKGOnbHzz M2rBXFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NU[2O|QxLz5{NUW2Olc1ODxxYU6=
OCI-Ly18  NWXidnpFTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MYC0NOKh|ryP NUXWd|BKOcLiaNMg MUDEUXNQ MUTpcoR2[2W|IITo[UBqdmO{ZX3lcpQhd2ZiY1HNVEBkd26lZX70doF1cW:wcx?= MVS8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTV5NkKyNEc,OjV3N{[yNlA9N2F-
OCI-Ly1  MmTiSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MX60NOKh|ryP NXfVVpZ5OcLiaNMg MU\EUXNQ MVfpcoR2[2W|IITo[UBqdmO{ZX3lcpQhd2ZiY1HNVEBkd26lZX70doF1cW:wcx?= NGDMeHM9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUW3OlIzOCd-MkW1O|YzOjB:L3G+
3T3-L1 NWfCfZB2TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MoPsNk42NzVizszN MlX3NlQhcMLi MV\zbYdvcW[rY3HueIx6KGSnY4LlZZNmeyCDVFfMJJBzd3SnaX6g[ZhxemW|c3nvckBifCCjbHyg[I9{\XNidHXzeIVl NEDhc|Q9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUW5NFU6Pyd-MkW1PVA2QTd:L3G+
HEK293  MYDGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? Mmj4OgKBkcL3TR?= NU\2NlhCOzBibXnu MmTObY5kemWjc3XzJINCVVBibHX2[Yx{ NIDyW4s9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUW5NVkxQCd-MkW1PVE6ODh:L3G+
hADSCs MULGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MUi15qCKyrWP MVSzNEBucW5? MnvNbY5kemWjc3XzJINCVVBibHX2[Yx{ NV3uenpVRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW1PVE6ODhpPkK1OVkyQTB6PD;hQi=>
SH-SY5Y  NUe4UXQ3TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MkjNNVDDqM7:TR?= NWnOUodmOcLiaNMg Mn3jbY5kemWjc3XzJGFISzFibWLORUBt\X[nbB?= M{joZlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NUm3OFM{Lz5{NUW5O|Q{OzxxYU6=
SH-SY5Y  MkfZSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NH\W[nYyOMLizszN NH[1ZokyyqCqwrC= NXTvfmVScW6lcnXhd4V{KEyXQzDhZ5Rqfmm2eR?= NUXxNZhVRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW1PVc1OzNpPkK1OVk4PDN|PD;hQi=>
UACC-647  MXLGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MXmxNOKh|ryP MVKxOUBucW5? MWTEUXNQ NEnZZnZqdmO{ZXHz[ZMh\UWIMjDwbI9{eGixconsZZRqd25ibHX2[Yx{yqB? M1nYXFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3N{CzNFI2Lz5{NUewN|AzPTxxYU6=
UACC-647  MUPGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? Mn3JNVDDqM7:TR?= M2jLd|E2KG2rbh?= NWTPXGNWTE2VTx?= MYrpcohq[mm2czDFVmsheGixc4Doc5J6dGG2aX;u MUW8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTdyM{CyOUc,OjV5MEOwNlU9N2F-
UACC-647  MnW1SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NHewdmpFVVOR MYPs[YFleyC2bzDhJJJqe2ViaX6gZ2FOWCCuZY\lcJMhMEWFNUFCpF3DqDJyLkO5xsDPxE1r MoLEQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV5MEOwNlUoRjJ3N{CzNFI2RC:jPh?=
SC NHmz[YZHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NUXMUVhROC53IN88US=> NFHRWWg4OiCq MV;pcoNz\WG|ZYOgZo91cCCNcn;4MVIxKGGwZDDPNUBmgHC{ZYPzbY9vKGmwIHH4c44uemWuYYTl[EBUS3NiYoX0JI9vdHliS4LvfE0zOMLi NGXLRlM9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUewOVg4PCd-MkW3NFU5PzR:L3G+
SC NIXae5hHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MYGwMlUh|ryP NU\XRoUxOjRiaB?= NFr6O49ucW2rY3vzJJRp\SCnZn\lZ5Qhd2ZiY1HNVEBidmGub3fzJI9vKE9zIHHu[EBOSlBiZYjwdoV{e2mxbh?= NYnFZmJ6RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW3NFU5PzRpPkK1O|A2QDd2PD;hQi=>
oocytes NYTR[JdxTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MoqyOUDPxE1? MUeyOEBp MVvheJRmdnWjdHXzJJJpNWmwc4XsbY4h[WO2aX;uJI9vKG:xY4n0[UBIXkKGIIPp[45q\mmlYX70cJnDqA>? M2[0cFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3N{C3PFU1Lz5{NUewO|g2PDxxYU6=
BeWo MkXtSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? Mo\CNVDjiIsQvF5CpC=> MUe3NkBp MXjEUXNQ M2DFOI1m\GmjdHXzJGJmX29iY3XscEBlcW[oZYLlcpRq[XSrb36= MWO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTdzM{SyOUc,OjV5MUO0NlU9N2F-
GH3 MXPGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NH7YO5EyyqEQvF2= NHzaOWo3NWh? NW\4VGlEcW6mdXPld{BRWkxiYX7kJGJu[WxzLDDieZQhdm:2IFPsc4NsNCCvUl7BJIV5eHKnc4Ppc44> NVXuO|IxRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW3NlcxOThpPkK1O|I4ODF6PD;hQi=>
GH3 M4j4[WZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NYLJdXNkOcLizszN NH70dFY3NWh? NVTqbJpT[XS2ZX71ZZRmeyC2aHWgZ49zemWuYYTpc44h[mW2d3XlckBRWkxiYX7kJGJu[WxzIHX4dJJme3Orb36= NGPadWk9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUeyO|AyQCd-MkW3NlcxOTh:L3G+
PC12 MXXGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MWeyOeKh|ryP M2n1fVQ5KGh? NHSzcYti[3SrdnH0[ZMh[0GPUB?= MWG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTd4OUOwOUc,OjV5NkmzNFU9N2F-
BAECs Mni2SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NE[4cXAzPSEQvF2= MnvzNlQhcA>? NXfKdWpj\W6qYX7j[ZMhfGinIHHjeIl3[XSrb36gc4YhWFCDUt8xJIJ6KDVizszNJJJme3[ncnH0do9tNCCWNFjTMEBweiB2LWDBVC=> MoDRQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV5OUi4NlYoRjJ3N{m4PFI3RC:jPh?=
GLUTag  NF\6bJBHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= Ml7XNVDjiIoEtV2= M{\nUVQhcA>? MmHabY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SCyQ2LFRkBt\X[nbIOge4l1cCC2aHWgTWJOYA>? M2fZR|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3OEOyOlMyLz5{NUizNlY{OTxxYU6=
GLUTag  MnK1SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MWWxNQKBkcL3TR?= M1XFO|AwOi92IHi= NFXTfYl{fGmvdXzheIV{KEeOUD2xJJNm[3KndHnvckBkd3S{ZXH0[YQhf2m2aDDJRm1Z NV;DdFRzRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW4N|I3OzFpPkK1PFMzPjNzPD;hQi=>
PBMC MnzFSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MYK1NOKh|ryP NX3X[3A6OjUEoHlCpC=> MkTKbY5pcWKrdIOgeIhmKGmwY4LlZZNm\CC|ZXPy[ZRqd25ib3[gWG5HKGmwZIXj[YQh[nlidHjlJGRRTQ>? MYm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTh4NkC3PUc,OjV6Nk[wO|k9N2F-
H295R  M2Ha[WZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NFvzRlIyOMLizszN M1\q[lQ5yqCq NY\VcWJFcW6lcnXhd4V{KHO2ZYLvbYQhdWW2YXLvcIl1\XNiaX6geIhmKGGwZILv[4VvNCCvaX7ldoFtdy1iYX7kJIdtfWOxY3;yeIlkd2mmIIDheIh4[Xm| NF\WfnE9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUi2PVU2Pid-MkW4Olk2PTZ:L3G+
3T3-L1 preadipocytes NIHJd|dHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M{HwTVExKM7:TdMg NWHkN4hGOTJiaB?= M1\0c4lv\HWlZYOgR3JGSiCyaH;zdIhwenmuYYTpc44h[W6mIFOvSWJR|rJiZYjwdoV{e2mxbh?= MojuQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV7MkiwOVgoRjJ3OUK4NFU5RC:jPh?=
PCCL3 Mlv0SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M13tdVExKML3TR?= NIHlWWszPCCq Mn\u[Y5p[W6lZYOgSJVQgDJicILvcY91\XJidILhcpNkemmydHnvckBi[3Srdnn0feKh6oDN NF3xNHo9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUm2NFk2Pid-MkW5OlA6PTZ:L3G+
SCG M4XwUWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NXnFU2NTOTByIN88UeKh Mn;TSG1UVw>? NV\0cJZbemWmdXPld{B1cGViZYjjbZRi[mmuaYT5JI9nKFOFRzDu[ZVzd26| NEi5UlI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUm2NlE{Oid-MkW5OlIyOzJ:L3G+
HEK-293 NYW4SWJDTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M2m1b|M2KM7:TdMg NEfCT4RFVVOR M4fVW4lv\HWlZYOgZUBkd26|cHnjeY92eyEkgKzpcoFkfGm4YYTpc47jiJ1ib3[geIhmKEu4Mj6xJIN2enKnboS= NYfNcZVpRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW5OlIyOzJpPkK1PVYzOTN{PD;hQi=>
SCG MkHpSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MXmyNEDPxE4EoB?= MkPPSG1UVw>? MofGdoV3\XK|aXLsfUB{fXCycnXzd4V{KEmNVjD3bZRpKGFiSVO1NEBw\iB{ND60JO69VQ>? M2W4OVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3OU[yNVMzLz5{NUm2NlE{OjxxYU6=
PC-3 M4PVVWNmdGxiVnnhZoltcXS7IFHzd4F6 MXu0NEDDvU1? NHfsWnozPC92OD:3NkBp NFn2S4VFVVOR MVjk[YNz\WG|ZYOgZ4VtdCC4aXHibYxqfHlidHnt[UBl\XCnbnTlcpRtgQ>? NUTMUpFVRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[wNlM5OzZpPkK2NFI{QDN4PD;hQi=>
PC-3 MnPKSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MnP3OFAhyrWP NF;rdGwzKGh? MlXmSG1UVw>? M2nrR4xm[WS|IITvJHBROkFiYXP0bZZifGmxbh?= NUS5cVhURGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[wNlM5OzZpPkK2NFI{QDN4PD;hQi=>
SH-SY5Y NYXiRY0{TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NH7MPHE{OCEQvF2= MXyzNEBucW5? M{DJZmROW09? NXPMVGRye2mpbnnmbYNidnSueTDpcoNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKGGldHn2ZZRqd25ib3[gVGtC NVnhOmxPRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[wNlUyOzdpPkK2NFI2OTN5PD;hQi=>
EndoC-βH1 MlfUSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NVzDSlhLPcLizszN NV:3[WlvOSCq NE\IZ5Vt\WGmczD0c{BiKHO2cn;u[{BkSU2SIHnuZ5Jm[XOn M3:1elxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4MEK4OVYzLz5{NkCyPFU3OjxxYU6=
EndoC-βH1 MmSzSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MXG1xsDPxE1? MWmxJIg> MmDkdI91\W62aXH0[ZMh\2y3Y3;z[U1qdmS3Y3XkJIlve3WuaX6gd4VkemW2aX;uJIlvKHSqZTDwdoV{\W6lZTDv[kBodHWlb4Pl NIjlSGU9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkCyPFU3Oid-Mk[wNlg2PjJ:L3G+
RBMECs MoPJSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M4fpXVXDqM7:TR?= NX\J[ZhNOSCq MWnpcohq[mm2czDFUWFRNUmLLXnu[JVk\WRiaX7hZ5RqfmG2aX;uJI9nKFKjcEJCpC=> NYXXWnNXRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[wOFQ3PjNpPkK2NFQ1PjZ|PD;hQi=>
AML-12  NVX6dpVoTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M2\MZlIxKM7:TR?= MVmzJIg> NYftOItNcW6mdXPld{B1cGViZHXwbI9{eGixconsZZRqd25ib3[gR3JVSzMEoB?= NIXtbXg9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkC0PFk5PSd-Mk[wOFg6QDV:L3G+
AML-12  MYDGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MYGyNEDPxE1? NVXtS4h{OyCq NUfNSZplfXBvcnXneYxifGW|wrDQ[4My[S{EoGDldINsNCCjbnVCpGc3eGQEoH3SUmEhdGW4ZXzz M1vPdlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4MES4PVg2Lz5{NkC0PFk5PTxxYU6=
AML-12  MmPoSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NVzpZndnOjBizszN MWKxMVghcA>? M3jJdolv[3KnYYPld{BodHWlb4PlJJBzd2S3Y4Tpc44> Mn7LQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZyNEi5PFUoRjJ4MES4PVg2RC:jPh?=
AML-12  MkTnSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NEPrZmUzOCEQvF2= M4LWPFMhcA>? MYX1dJJm\3WuYYTld{B1cGVicHjvd5Bpd3K7bHH0bY9vKGyndnXsd{BifCCWaIKtOFEyKGGwZDDT[ZIuPDl| M{juZVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4MES4PVg2Lz5{NkC0PFk5PTxxYU6=
Caco-2  MWfGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NWrD[WlQOC5zL{GvNVAh|ryP MUmyOEBp NU\LR5hwcW6lcnXhd4V{KE2UUEKgdJJwfGWrbjDs[ZZmdA>? MVe8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPjB2OUGwNkc,OjZyNEmxNFI9N2F-
Caco-2  NF\udWNHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NYDTPHptOC5zL{GvNVAh|ryP M3XOdFIxyqCvaX6= M17zdolv\HWlZYOgZUBld3OnLXTldIVv\GWwdDDpcoNz\WG|ZTDpckBqdnS{YXPlcIx2dGG{IHPBUXAhdGW4ZXzz MYG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPjB2OUGwNkc,OjZyNEmxNFI9N2F-
bovine oocytes MVzGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MUexNFDDqM7:TR?= Mm\ZNVLDqGh? MUjpcohq[mm2czD0bIUh\W[oZXP0JI9nKE6SUFGgZY5lN2:{IF7QVGMhfG9ic4TpcZVt[XSnIILld5VueHSrb36gc4YhdWWrb4Ppdy=> MoPsQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZyNUG2NVEoRjJ4MEWxOlEyRC:jPh?=
BeWo  MnHHSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M2HZ[FI26oDLzszN M1Pic|I1NzR6L{eyJIg> MUns[YFleyC2bzDhckBqdmO{ZXHz[UBqdiC2aHWg[ZhxemW|c3nvckBw\iCxdHjldkBnfXOrb36gcYFzc2W{cx?= M4HIZlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4MEWzOVQ6Lz5{NkC1N|U1QTxxYU6=
Spinal cords  NHLJNoZHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MmLwNeKh|ryP M{\wblMxKG2rbh?= MmK4d5RqdXWuYYTld{BkSU2SIHzleoVtew>? MX:8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPjF{NkmyOkc,OjZzMk[5NlY9N2F-
MDCK  MV3GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NVfTc2dyOTBiwsXN MUCyOEBp MmLZSG1UVw>? MkLMbY5pcWKrdIOgeIhmKGmwY4LlZZNm\CCneIDy[ZN{cW:wIH;mJGZPKGOjdYPl[EBjgSCWR1[t{tIy NVTITJNnRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[yNFI{PTJpPkK2NlAzOzV{PD;hQi=>
MDCK  MlqySpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NFjCZWIyOCEEtV2= MnjhNlQhcA>? M2TJe2ROW09? M3H0O5VxemWpdXzheIV{KHSqZTDlfJBz\XO|aX;uJI9nKFSJRj5OtlEh[W6mIFPUS2bDqA>? NEDaNJQ9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkKwNlM2Oid-Mk[yNFI{PTJ:L3G+
RPMI 8226 NVzZPG9uS2WubDDWbYFjcWyrdImgRZN{[Xl? NYjhbG9TOC1zMECg{txO MYq3NwKBkWh? MWTpcoR2[2W|IHPlcIwh\GWjdHig[I9{\SCmZYDlcoRmdnSueR?= MnTmQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZ|ME[2NlQoRjJ4M{C2OlI1RC:jPh?=
H929 MWLD[YxtKF[rYXLpcIl1gSCDc4PhfS=> NVfFdnlSOC1zMECg{txO Ml;oO|LjiImq NHv2cZlqdmS3Y3XzJINmdGxiZHXheIgh\G:|ZTDk[ZBmdmSnboTsfS=> NUnkUXc{RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[zNFY3OjRpPkK2N|A3PjJ2PD;hQi=>
U266 MVPD[YxtKF[rYXLpcIl1gSCDc4PhfS=> NFn2PWMxNTFyMDFOwG0> NGC1NGM4OuLCiXi= M2mxdYlv\HWlZYOgZ4VtdCCmZXH0bEBld3OnIHTldIVv\GWwdHz5 NVjxWnJCRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[zNFY3OjRpPkK2N|A3PjJ2PD;hQi=>
OPM-2 MYPD[YxtKF[rYXLpcIl1gSCDc4PhfS=> NEfKfWoxNTFyMDFOwG0> NWnLTJhOPzMkgJno NWTZPW9XcW6mdXPld{Bk\WyuIHTlZZRpKGSxc3Wg[IVx\W6mZX70cJk> NGiw[pI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkOwOlYzPCd-Mk[zNFY3OjR:L3G+
INA-6 M{P5[GNmdGxiVnnhZoltcXS7IFHzd4F6 MXywMVExOCEQvF2= NUTleYd4PzMkgJno Mo\rbY5lfWOnczDj[YxtKGSnYYToJIRwe2ViZHXw[Y5l\W62bIm= M4f3fFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4M{C2OlI1Lz5{NkOwOlYzPDxxYU6=
RBMECs  M3LIemZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M4niZlXDqM7:TR?= MUKxxsBp M{HodYJtd2OtczD0bIUhWmGlMTDpcoFkfGm4YYTpc44hcW6mdXPl[EBjgSCHTVHQMWlK NGLXNoo9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkO1PFA{QSd-Mk[zOVgxOzl:L3G+
Mo-DCs NGLrblJHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NHzsRmQ2OCEQvF2= NIDUR4MzPOLCiXi= M1LON5Bzd22xdHXzJGlNNTJ|IIDyc4R2[3Srb36gbY4hfGinIIP1dIVzdmG2YX70JI9nKHq7bX;zZY4he3SrbYXsZZRm\CCPbz3ER5PDqA>? NUno[Wh4RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[0NVI6PDhpPkK2OFEzQTR6PD;hQi=>
HEK293 NEi0S2JHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M2DlblExKM7:TR?= NHjtRmE3KGh? MoT5bY5kemWjc3XzJJBpd3OyaH;yfYxifGmxbjDv[kBwfmW{ZYjwdoV{e2WmIFvMTGw{KGG2IGO0N|M> M172OVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4NEO1OFk5Lz5{NkSzOVQ6QDxxYU6=
ASK NUjnclBVTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M1\tZVEhcHJ? Mn;vQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjh2OU[0NUc,Ojh2OU[0NVww[T5?
Vero E6 MVnBcpRqfmm{YXygZZN{[Xl? M{j2N|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF5Nk[zOVM6Lz5zN{[2N|U{QTxxYU6=
epithelial cells M3HzUGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MWCxJJVO NHrUXHk1NCB4LDDhcoQhQCCmYYnz MXu8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yQTl4Nke4PUc,OTl7Nk[3PFk9N2F-
HepG2 (DPX-2) MXzGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? Ml20NlQhcHK| MoTWQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjB7Nk[wOFMoRjJyOU[2NFQ{RC:jPh?=
HepG2 NHrETZpHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NITFUHMzPCCqcoO= NF36XnM9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MEm2OlA1Oyd-MkC5OlYxPDN:L3G+
HepG2 (DPX-2) NV3kWXJjTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MlzKNlQhcHK| M4PJSVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJyOU[2NFQ{Lz5{MEm2OlA1OzxxYU6=
HEK293T NW\uVWpbTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= MWOxNEB2VQ>? NYnXflFlRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkSzPFc{OjVpPkK0N|g4OzJ3PD;hQi=>
HEK293 NID0NoJHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NF74bHMyOCC3TR?= NVz1No41OTZiaILz M3fDPVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4NEO1OVEzLz5{NkSzOVUyOjxxYU6=
MCF7 NV;a[lBIS3m2b4TvfIlkcXS7IHHzd4F6 MmfOOFghcHK| M4TDXlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ6OEO4OlkzLz5{OEizPFY6OjxxYU6=
HEK293 NUnFbFQ5TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= Mlf0N|AhdWmwcx?= MlHpQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOzByME[xO|YoRjNyMEC2NVc3RC:jPh?=
Assay
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot cleaved caspase-3 / caspase-3 ; cleaved caspase-9 / caspase-9 ; β-catenin ; c-myc / Cyclin D1 ; pS6K1 / S6K1 / pCREB / CREB ; p-JNK / JNK / P-p38 / p38 30863177 31112131 20070884
Immunofluorescence 5hmC ; Fe(II) ; CYP17A1 / CYP21A2 29239726 25334044
Growth inhibition assay Cell viability 30863177

Protocol (from reference)

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 410.5
Formula

C22H34O7

CAS No. 66575-29-9
Storage 3 years -20°C powder
2 years -80°C in solvent
Smiles CC(=O)OC1C(C2C(CCC(C2(C3(C1(OC(CC3=O)(C)C=C)C)O)C)O)(C)C)O

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)

mg/kg g μL

Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation (This is only the calculator, not formulation. Please contact us first if there is no in vivo formulation at the solubility Section.)

% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O
%DMSO %

Calculation results:

Working concentration: mg/ml;

Method for preparing DMSO master liquid: mg drug pre-dissolved in μL DMSO ( Master liquid concentration mg/mL, Please contact us first if the concentration exceeds the DMSO solubility of the batch of drug. )

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next addμL PEG300, mix and clarify, next addμL Tween 80, mix and clarify, next add μL ddH2O, mix and clarify.

Method for preparing in vivo formulation: Take μL DMSO master liquid, next add μL Corn oil, mix and clarify.

Note: 1. Please make sure the liquid is clear before adding the next solvent.
2. Be sure to add the solvent(s) in order. You must ensure that the solution obtained, in the previous addition, is a clear solution before proceeding to add the next solvent. Physical methods such
as vortex, ultrasound or hot water bath can be used to aid dissolving.

Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment Interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT04254705 Unknown status Procedure: Rectal Biopsy Cystic Fibrosis Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven|Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated|KU Leuven|University of Lisbon March 1 2020 Not Applicable
NCT02807415 Completed Drug: Lumacaftor plus Ivacaftor Cystic Fibrosis Hannover Medical School|Heidelberg University|University of Giessen June 1 2016 --
NCT02586883 Completed Other: bronchial ddp test Idiopathic Dilation of the Bronchi Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris March 29 2016 Not Applicable
NCT03652090 Completed Procedure: cell sampling Cystic Fibrosis Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale France|ABCF2 September 1 2010 --

(data from https://clinicaltrials.gov, updated on 2022-08-01)

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

Tel: +1-832-582-8158 Ext:3
If you have any other enquiries, please leave a message.

* Indicates a Required Field

Please enter your name.
Please enter your email. Please enter a valid email address.
Please write something to us.
Tags: buy Colforsin | Colforsin supplier | purchase Colforsin | Colforsin cost | Colforsin manufacturer | order Colforsin | Colforsin distributor