Colforsin (Forskolin, HL 362)

For research use only.

Catalog No.S2449 Synonyms: Coleonol, Colforsin

94 publications

Colforsin (Forskolin, HL 362) Chemical Structure

CAS No. 66575-29-9

Colforsin (Forskolin, HL 362, Coleonol, Colforsin) is a ubiquitous activator of eukaryotic adenylyl cyclase (AC) in a wide variety of cell types, commonly used to raise levels of cAMP in the study and research of cell physiology. Forskolin also activates PXR and FXR activity. Forskolin stimulates autophagy.

Selleck's Colforsin (Forskolin, HL 362) has been cited by 94 publications

Purity & Quality Control

Choose Selective cAMP Inhibitors

Biological Activity

Description Colforsin (Forskolin, HL 362, Coleonol, Colforsin) is a ubiquitous activator of eukaryotic adenylyl cyclase (AC) in a wide variety of cell types, commonly used to raise levels of cAMP in the study and research of cell physiology. Forskolin also activates PXR and FXR activity. Forskolin stimulates autophagy.
Targets
Adenylyl cyclase (AC) [1]
(A wide variety of cell types)
In vitro

Forskolin increases cAMP levels in preparations of membranes, cells, or tissues. Forskolin not only activates AC but also interacts with certain other proteins, including glucose transporters and ion channels. Forskolin is able to promote activation of nine different transmembrane iso-forms of AC, albeit with somewhat less efficacy for AC9, which could be used to provides a means to identify and quantify high-affinity binding sites, i.e., G-proteins (Gs)–AC complexes. Activation of s by GPCRs contributes to Forskolin-stimulated cAMP generation in cells because of s-Forskolin potentiation of AC activity. [1] Forskolin stimulates adenylate cyclase activity without interacting with cell surface receptors. Forskolin's potentiation of cAMP in turn inhibits basophil and mast cell degranulation and histamine release, lowers blood pressure and intraocular pressure, inhibits platelet aggregation, promotes vasodilation, bronchodilation, and thyroid hormone secretion, and stimulates lipolysis in fat cells. Forskolin inhibits the binding of platelet-activating factor (PAF), independently of cAMP formation, which may be a result of Forskolin's direct effect on PAF or via interference with PAF binding to receptor sites. Forskolin also appears to have an effect on several membrane transport proteins, and inhibits glucose transport in erythrocytes, adipocytes, platelets, and other cells. Forskolin is used to treat with glaucoma. [2]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
HT-29  M4X4UmFxd3C2b4Ppd{BCe3OjeR?= NWPX[5lnPDEEoN88US=> NGPFUmo1QMLiaB?= MVLEUXNQ MYDpcoR2[2W|IHPoZY5o\XNiaX6geIhmKHCqb4PwbI9zgWyjdHnvckB{fGG2dYOgc4YhWFB{QTD0ZZJo\XS| M1\keVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2OUm3OFUyLz5{NEm5O|Q2OTxxYU6=
SW480 MYnBdI9xfG:|aYOgRZN{[Xl? MWi0NOKh|ryP NHLwfYc1QMLiaB?= M{X2SWROW09? M2TZSIlv\HWlZYOgZ4hidmenczDpckB1cGVicHjvd5Bpd3K7bHH0bY9vKHO2YYT1d{Bw\iCSUELBJJRiemendIO= M3fNOlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2OUm3OFUyLz5{NEm5O|Q2OTxxYU6=
HT-29  MoO1RZBweHSxc3nzJGF{e2G7 NEnQ[Gw1OMLizszN MVG0POKhcA>? NUnwTVBQTE2VTx?= NWDjTmtrcW6mdXPld{BidiCjY4TpeoF1cW:wIH;mJINie3Cjc3WgN{84 MXm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDl7N{S1NUc,OjR7OUe0OVE9N2F-
SW480 NXXTPVhzSXCxcITvd4l{KEG|c3H5 NHLjRW41OMLizszN MlP4OFjDqGh? NIT1fXBFVVOR M1TOUIlv\HWlZYOgZY4h[WO2aY\heIlwdiCxZjDjZZNx[XOnIEOvOy=> NEnscpA9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEm5O|Q2OSd-MkS5PVc1PTF:L3G+
HT-29  MnO3SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NUG3fFFEPDEEoN88US=> MkTvO{Bl M{LTdWROW09? MXHy[YR2[2W|IHPvcI9vd3OyaHXy[UBnd3KvYYTpc44h[2GyYXLpcIl1gcLi M2HrZ|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2OUm3OFUyLz5{NEm5O|Q2OTxxYU6=
SW480 NXTNfJJ7TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M{C2dFQxyqEQvF2= MYm3JIQ> MWPEUXNQ Ml7NdoVlfWOnczDjc4xwdm:|cHjldoUh\m:{bXH0bY9vKGOjcHHibYxqfHoEoB?= NFzucmI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEm5O|Q2OSd-MkS5PVc1PTF:L3G+
HT-29  MUDHdo94fGhiSX7obYJqfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? M3vZUlQxyqEQvF2= MYewMVczKGh? NW\JSFN2TE2VTx?= Mli5bY5pcWKrdIOgZ4VtdCCpcn;3eIghfGmvZTDk[ZBmdmSnboTsfS=> NHTPVIo9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NEm5O|Q2OSd-MkS5PVc1PTF:L3G+
SW480 MUHHdo94fGhiSX7obYJqfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? M4\3R|QxyqEQvF2= NFTWO40xNTd{IHi= MoT3SG1UVw>? MUnpcohq[mm2czDj[YxtKGe{b4f0bEB1cW2nIHTldIVv\GWwdHz5 MlHFQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR7OUe0OVEoRjJ2OUm3OFUyRC:jPh?=
HT-29  MVPGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NEW2NXA1OMLizszN MUm0POKhcA>? MYrEUXNQ NXTBb5A3[WO2aY\heIV{KFCSMlG= M1;YUVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ2OUm3OFUyLz5{NEm5O|Q2OTxxYU6=
SW480 MWDGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MkjTOFDDqM7:TR?= NXLxT5pvPDkEoHi= MWDEUXNQ NHexUHVi[3SrdnH0[ZMhWFB{QR?= MlrHQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjR7OUe0OVEoRjJ2OUm3OFUyRC:jPh?=
C6 MkPjSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MVexNEDPxE4EoB?= MUSyNEBucW5? NGTzOoJqdmO{ZXHz[ZMh[0GPUDDhZ4N2dXWuYYTpc44> NIPOPWM9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUC2PVQyPyd-MkWwOlk1OTd:L3G+
Huh-7 M1nv[mZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NV3zT|JrOC1{MDFOwG0> MnrHNkBpyqB? MXXy[ZN2dHS|IHnuJIEh\G:|ZT3k[ZBmdmSnboSgbY5kemWjc3WgbY4h[y2PeXOg[ZhxemW|c3nvckBifCC2aHWgdJJwfGWrbjDhcoQhdVKQQTDs[ZZmdHN? M1HCSlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3MUC5PFM1Lz5{NUGwPVg{PDxxYU6=
THP-1  Mmn0SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NXXhXJpQOS9zMDFOwG0> M2LZR|LDqGh? NXrQd4pCTE2VT9Mg MmnMd5VxeHKnc4Pld{BOS1BvMTDwdo9lfWO2aX;uxsA> NXfhdo5IRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWxOVQ5QDJpPkK1NVU1QDh{PD;hQi=>
BeWo  MVvGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MUKyNEDDvU1? MnvNOFghcA>? NFGzUIdFVVORwrC= M4Prc4lv\HWlZYOgZ4VtdCCodYPpc44> NVzIU|BSRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWxPFQ1PzdpPkK1NVg1PDd5PD;hQi=>
ventricular cardiomyocytes  Mn7CSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NELPbVExNjBzLUGwJO69VQ>? Mkn1[ZZwc2W|IHHuJIlvd3S{b4DpZ{Bz\XOyb37z[UAyOjEEsUG1KUBi[m:4ZTDiZZNidCC5aYToJIFvKEWFNUFCpI9nKDJwMjFCuW0> MUK8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTJyM{GxN{c,OjV{MEOxNVM9N2F-
ventricular cardiomyocytes  M1fLTmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MoG1NE4xOS1zMDFOwG0> Mk\FbY5kemWjc3XzJEBkSU2SIHHjZ5VufWyjdHnvci=> NHPKWlQ9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUKwN|EyOyd-MkWyNFMyOTN:L3G+
MIN6  MnjxSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MWCxNEDPxE4EoB?= NYqwW5Y2OyCq MWPpcoNz\WG|ZYOgSFMhdVKQQTDlfJBz\XO|aX;u M17KbVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3MkSxNVI1Lz5{NUK0NVEzPDxxYU6=
L6 NU\EXnh2TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MnrqOFAhyrWP NWjVOnpIOjRiaB?= MUPpcohq[mm2czDEUWgyNWmwZIXj[YQhSWu2IHHjeIl3[XSrb36= MYe8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTJ2N{W1NEc,OjV{NEe1OVA9N2F-
HEK‐CFTR NW\pdY9MTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NH;MUpgz6oDVNUFCpO69VQ>? NVrPV4NmOC1zMjDtbY4> M1vXUmROW00EoB?= MXXpcoR2[2W|IHGg[I9{\eLCkHTldIVv\GWwdDDpc4Rq\GViZX\mcJV5yqB? NYC2V3dZRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWyOlMzODdpPkK1NlY{OjB5PD;hQi=>
SK-N-SH MmnlR4VtdCCYaXHibYxqfHliQYPzZZk> MUixNEDPxE4EoB?= MmDBOFghcA>? MVjlcohidmOnczDTT{1PNVOKIH7leZJw[myjc4TvcYEh[2WubDD2bYFjcWyrdIm= MkC5QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV{Nk[wOlMoRjJ3Mk[2NFY{RC:jPh?=
SK-N-AS  Mmi0SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NIHlUnAyOCEQvF5CpC=> NGG1ZnkyOC9|MD:2NEBucW5? NH\INVlqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhdGW4ZXzzJI9nKHBvzsKtZ4F1\W6rbjCod4VzPjd3KTDhcoQhcW6mdXPld{Bi[2O3bYXsZZRqd25ib3[gdE3Pui2lYYTlcolvKCi|ZYK2O|UqKGmwIDjw[ZJqMW63Y3zlZZIhemWpaX;udy=> MYq8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTJ4NkC2N{c,OjV{Nk[wOlM9N2F-
SK-N-AS  MXLGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NHL5RZUyOCEQvF5CpC=> NUnsbYpUOzBibXnu MXLpcoR2[2W|IIDoc5NxcG:{eXzheIlwdiCxZjFOtk1k[XSnbnnuJEh{\XJ4N{WpMEBxNUeVS{ROtkApe2W{OTmgZY5lKGOxbnPvcYl1[W62IHjp[4hmeiCuZY\lcJMhd2ZiYXP0bZZmNCC3boDoc5NxcG:{eXzheIVlNCEQsj3jZZRmdmmw MVq8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTJ4NkC2N{c,OjV{Nk[wOlM9N2F-
SK-N-AS  M1HoTWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NWizcYoyOTBizszNxsA> NUPlW5AyOjRiaB?= M{PmXYlv[3KnYYPld{B1cGViZYjwdoV{e2mxbjDv[kBkgWOuaX6gSFE> MWW8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTJ4NkC2N{c,OjV{Nk[wOlM9N2F-
SK-N-AS  MV;GeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MX[xNEDPxE4EoB?= NVv4WJRpOjRiaB?= M4mwWIlv[3KnYYPld{B1cGViY1HNVEBt\X[nbIRCpC=> NX:2[HB7RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWyOlYxPjNpPkK1NlY3ODZ|PD;hQi=>
SK-N-AS  NFLa[ZlE\WyuIG\pZYJqdGm2eTDBd5NigQ>? NH7FPVMyOCEQvF5CpC=> M1\tSFI1NzR6IHi= Ml7x[Y5p[W6lZYOgeIlu\S2mZYDlcoRmdnSueTDj[YxtfWyjcjD2bYFjcWyrdIpCpC=> NFL6clg9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUK2OlA3Oyd-MkWyOlYxPjN:L3G+
granulosa cells M1rYSmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M{\hRVExKM7:TR?= MXKyOEBp M2PWV4lv[3KnYYPld{B1cGVibHX2[Yx{KG:oIGLHV|IheHKxbX;0[ZIh[WO2aY\peJk> NEHn[pg9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUOzPVExPSd-MkWzN|kyODV:L3G+
granulosa cells MlzESpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NGTEZpgyOCEQvF2= M4i3dlI1KGh? MkTEbY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SCrboTlcpNqfHlib3[gSG5CN3C{b4TlbY4h[2:vcHzlfC=> MlHBQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV|M{mxNFUoRjJ3M{O5NVA2RC:jPh?=
granulosa cells MmPQSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M13sVlExKM7:TR?= M2[1bFEzNzJ2IHi= NX3reVA4cW6lcnXhd4V{KHSqZTDs[ZZmdHNib3[gdoVxd3K2ZYKgZYN1cX[rdImg[o9zKHSqZTDsc45o\XO2IH\yZYdu\W62IDlijLI5PTRxK{G4VmdUOi6OVVOp M2\CdFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3M{O5NVA2Lz5{NUOzPVExPTxxYU6=
granulosa cells M1XLNWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MXOxNEDPxE1? M{\CclEzNzJ2IHi= Ml31bY5kemWjc3XzJJRp\SCuZY\lcJMhd2cEoGLHV|LDqG2UTlG= NF71OVM9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUOzPVExPSd-MkWzN|kyODV:L3G+
BeWo  MVHGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? NVz4RWViOjEEoNM1US=> MnPBOFjDqGkEoB?= M3PwdGROW00EoB?= NVnFN4h1\G:5boLl[5Vt[XSnczD0bIUhdGW4ZXygc4YhT0OPLUG= NH;jb5c9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUO2NlI3OCd-MkWzOlIzPjB:L3G+
BeWo  MVzGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MWOyNOKhyrWP NXTJUVd1PDkEoHlCpC=> MUHEUXNQyqB? NF21VGtld3ewcnXneYxifGW|IITo[UBt\X[nbDDv[kBVVUWPRkG2 M4PTT|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3M{[yNlYxLz5{NUO2NlI3ODxxYU6=
BeWo  NYDyZnJ7TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NVzadoxwOjEEoNM1US=> NFq3OIY1QMLiaNMg M2K3N2ROW00EoB?= MWLpcoNz\WG|ZYOgeIhmKGKndHGtbGNIKHKnbHXhd4U> NVOzV4p7RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWzOlIzPjBpPkK1N|YzOjZyPD;hQi=>
EM1  MkXWSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? Ml3mNVXjiIsQvF2= NYjHVm5QPDhiaB?= NGWyTIhz\WS3Y3XzJJRp\SCneIDy[ZN{cW:wIH;mxsBNUUcEoH;yxsBRXEeVMtMgbY7DqEODTGKtJI9zyqCHUFHDNk1{cWynbnPl[EBGVTFiY3XscJPDqA>? NVvKUHVXRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkWzO|g3PjFpPkK1N|c5PjZzPD;hQi=>
Primary bovine chondrocytes NETVT4RIem:5dHigTY5pcWKrdHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MWe1{txO M{Dac|Q5KGh? MlvHdoV3\XK|ZYOgeIhmKGmwaHnibZRwenliZX\m[YN1KG:oIHPlcIVkd3irYjDvckBxem:uaX\ldoF1cW:wIHnuJIdzd3e2aDDwcIF1\SClaH;u[JJw[3m2ZYO= MVe8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTRyNkCxOkc,OjV2ME[wNVY9N2F-
RBMECs M1LNSGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MV61xsDPxE1? NXfPfpFuOSCq MlTCZoxw[2u|IITo[UBi[3SrbjDjfZRwe2unbHX0c44hemWjcoLhcodmdWWwdDDz[YVvKHerdHigSW1CWC2LSTD0doVifG2nboVCpC=> MUi8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTRzNk[1NUc,OjV2MU[2OVE9N2F-
RBMECs MXLGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? M1W3[lXDqM7:TR?= NUC2XHh5OSCq MULicI9kc3NidHjlJGVOSVBvSVmtbY5lfWOnZDDjbIFv\2ViaX6gUWxEKHCqb4PwbI9zgWyjdHnvci=> M1Xj[lxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEG2OlUyLz5{NUSxOlY2OTxxYU6=
RBMECs MlXzSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NXixTFFMPcLizszN MYexJIg> NXLqTmpzemW4ZYLz[ZMhfGinIHPoZY5o\XNiaX6gXm8uOSCmaYP0doljfXSrb36gd4VmdiC5aYToJGVOSVBvSVmgeJJm[XSvZX70 MVm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTRzNk[1NUc,OjV2MU[2OVE9N2F-
RBMECs NHGz[ZFHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= Ml;aOeKh|ryP M1LnTlEhcA>? NUf5[Gp{cW6qaXLpeJMhfGinIHTlZ5Jm[XOnZDDv[kBidW:3boSgc4YhYk9vMTDpckBOTnNiaX7keYNm\CCkeTDFUWFRNUmL M3zMWVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEG2OlUyLz5{NUSxOlY2OTxxYU6=
RBMECs NUXFOHVXTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NV7iXJUxPcLizszN MX2xJIg> NVLqVnoxeHKndnXueJMhfGinIHnuZ5Jm[XOnIHnuJGhTWCCobIX4JIFkem:|czD0bIUhSlSEIHnu[JVk\WRiYomgJGVOSVBvSVm= Mlu4QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV2MU[2OVEoRjJ3NEG2OlUyRC:jPh?=
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RBMECs M3rYb2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 NYnacohmOC5yNT:wMlUwPSEQvF2= MmfoNE4zPSCq NXjJV5ZEcW6lcnXhd4V{KGODTWCgZ49v[2WwdILheIlwdg>? M3fJe|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEG2OlUyLz5{NUSxOlY2OTxxYU6=
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LNCaP  MVnGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MX2xNOKh|ryP NV7lUW5JOTJiaNMg NX2yWYpWTE2VTx?= MlKzbY5lfWOnczDhJIRz[W2jdHnjJIlv[3KnYYPlJI9nKEOURVKxJIFkfGm4aYT5 MmHPQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV3NEiwPVkoRjJ3NUS4NFk6RC:jPh?=
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OCI-Ly18  NFPQcpNHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NIjQUlg1OMLizszN NF\5bJQyyqCqwrC= NG\ObW9FVVOR NVLXN41IcW6mdXPld{B1cGViaX7jdoVu\W62IH;mJINCVVBiY3;uZ4VvfHKjdHnvcpM> M4TpbVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NUe2NlIxLz5{NUW3OlIzODxxYU6=
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3T3-L1 MlnkSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NEHSVJczNjVxNTFOwG0> NUHJZ29COjRiaNMg MULzbYdvcW[rY3HueIx6KGSnY4LlZZNmeyCDVFfMJJBzd3SnaX6g[ZhxemW|c3nvckBifCCjbHyg[I9{\XNidHXzeIVl NYnVeoMxRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW1PVA2QTdpPkK1OVkxPTl5PD;hQi=>
HEK293  NFz4UJBHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NHGwbmY26oDLwsXN NWj3fHZyOzBibXnu M3vkeolv[3KnYYPld{BkSU2SIHzleoVtew>? NYPRPGlZRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW1PVE6ODhpPkK1OVkyQTB6PD;hQi=>
hADSCs M1LETWZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MmjKOgKBkcL3TR?= M3PzV|MxKG2rbh?= MnPQbY5kemWjc3XzJINCVVBibHX2[Yx{ NU\YO3Q3RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW1PVE6ODhpPkK1OVkyQTB6PD;hQi=>
SH-SY5Y  Mlu5SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NX\VVlI6OTEEoN88US=> MorENeKhcMLi NGPEPVVqdmO{ZXHz[ZMhSUeFMTDtVm5CKGyndnXs MnrUQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV3OUe0N|MoRjJ3NUm3OFM{RC:jPh?=
SH-SY5Y  Mn3lSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MlP4NVDDqM7:TR?= MXKxxsBpyqB? M{DzbYlv[3KnYYPld{BNXUNiYXP0bZZqfHl? NELodVk9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUW5O|Q{Oyd-MkW1PVc1OzN:L3G+
UACC-647  NG\WeVJHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M4nvOFExyqEQvF2= NGLYcXEyPSCvaX6= MYnEUXNQ NG[0W5BqdmO{ZXHz[ZMh\UWIMjDwbI9{eGixconsZZRqd25ibHX2[Yx{yqB? NF7JXFU9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NUewN|AzPSd-MkW3NFMxOjV:L3G+
UACC-647  NIf1bG5HfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NXOw[lYyOTEEoN88US=> NHzSdZMyPSCvaX6= MXXEUXNQ NWPQZlNMcW6qaXLpeJMhTVKNIIDoc5NxcG:{eXzheIlwdg>? MV68ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTdyM{CyOUc,OjV5MEOwNlU9N2F-
UACC-647  NWDTZ4ViTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MojBSG1UVw>? MUHs[YFleyC2bzDhJJJqe2ViaX6gZ2FOWCCuZY\lcJMhMEWFNUFCpF3DqDJyLkO5xsDPxE1r NWHyc3lWRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW3NFMxOjVpPkK1O|A{ODJ3PD;hQi=>
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oocytes NEC5TIRHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MVO1JO69VQ>? MnLVNlQhcA>? NHmxS4pifHSnboXheIV{KHKqLXnud5VtcW5iYXP0bY9vKG:wIH;vZ5l1\SCJVlLEJJNq\26rZnnjZY51dHoEoB?= NUT5WJc2RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW3NFc5PTRpPkK1O|A4QDV2PD;hQi=>
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GH3 NH3kSIRHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MlXnNeKh|ryP NH;4[o03NWh? MknubY5lfWOnczDQVmwh[W6mIFLtZYwyNCCkdYSgco91KEOub3PrMEBuWk6DIHX4dJJme3Orb36= MXu8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTd{N{CxPEc,OjV5MkewNVg9N2F-
GH3 Mk\6SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MX6xxsDPxE1? NXHEPVduPi2q NFzrVmtifHSnboXheIV{KHSqZTDjc5Jz\WyjdHnvckBj\XS5ZXXuJHBTVCCjbnSgRo1idDFiZYjwdoV{e2mxbh?= M3yycVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3N{K3NFE5Lz5{NUeyO|AyQDxxYU6=
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SH-SY5Y M{XLXmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 M3vXUVMxKM7:TR?= M4jmeVMxKG2rbh?= NYfLV4hPTE2VTx?= M2TXRpNq\26rZnnjZY51dHliaX7jdoVie2W|IITo[UBi[3SrdnH0bY9vKG:oIGDLRS=> MX68ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPjB{NUGzO{c,OjZyMkWxN|c9N2F-
EndoC-βH1 M{fIXmZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MorGOeKh|ryP M2PCV|EhcA>? MW\s[YFleyC2bzDhJJN1em:wZzDjRW1RKGmwY4LlZZNm NYjmUnpDRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[wNlg2PjJpPkK2NFI5PTZ{PD;hQi=>
EndoC-βH1 MXLGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MmXEOeKh|ryP MoW0NUBp NVLk[G0{eG:2ZX70bYF1\XNiZ3z1Z49{\S2rbnT1Z4VlKGmwc4XsbY4he2WlcnX0bY9vKGmwIITo[UBxemW|ZX7j[UBw\iCpbIXjc5Nm NV7vXFl4RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[wNlg2PjJpPkK2NFI5PTZ{PD;hQi=>
RBMECs NGXpUYVHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= MYO1xsDPxE1? Mlu3NUBp NX[3UW5wcW6qaXLpeJMhTU2DUD3JTU1qdmS3Y3XkJIlv[WO2aY\heIlwdiCxZjDSZZAyyqB? NGHhSWg9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkC0OFY3Oyd-Mk[wOFQ3PjN:L3G+
AML-12  NIexcVlHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= M3rp[|IxKM7:TR?= NXHTPZJ{OyCq MXXpcoR2[2W|IITo[UBl\XCqb4PwbI9zgWyjdHnvckBw\iCFUmTDNuKh MmjKQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZyNEi5PFUoRjJ4MES4PVg2RC:jPh?=
AML-12  M4LXWGZ2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 Mkm5NlAh|ryP NVuyTnplOyCq MYP1dE1z\We3bHH0[ZPDqFCpY{HhMOKhWGWyY3usJIFv\MLiR{\wZ:KhdVKQQTDs[ZZmdHN? NFvjXIY9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkC0PFk5PSd-Mk[wOFg6QDV:L3G+
AML-12  MUjGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MoS1NlAh|ryP MWexMVghcA>? NU[4OYI6cW6lcnXhd4V{KGeudXPvd4UheHKxZIXjeIlwdg>? MkTPQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZyNEi5PFUoRjJ4MES4PVg2RC:jPh?=
AML-12  Ml6xSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? MnfjNlAh|ryP M33qRVMhcA>? NInGbXd2eHKnZ4XsZZRmeyC2aHWgdIhwe3Cqb4L5cIF1cW:wIHzleoVteyCjdDDUbJIuPDFzIHHu[EBU\XJvNEmz MnXHQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZyNEi5PFUoRjJ4MES4PVg2RC:jPh?=
Caco-2  M3v3c2Z2dmO2aX;uJGF{e2G7 MXywMlEwOS9zMDFOwG0> NUfGN2R5OjRiaB?= MV3pcoNz\WG|ZYOgUXJROiCycn;0[YlvKGyndnXs MoLnQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZyNEmxNFIoRjJ4MES5NVAzRC:jPh?=
Caco-2  NViwdphoTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= NIHCRWkxNjFxMT:xNEDPxE1? MkjCNlDDqG2rbh?= NYOx[3A6cW6mdXPld{BiKGSxc3Wt[IVx\W6mZX70JIlv[3KnYYPlJIlvKGmwdILhZ4VtdHWuYYKgZ2FOWCCuZY\lcJM> NYLZS2ZbRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[wOFkyODJpPkK2NFQ6OTB{PD;hQi=>
bovine oocytes MVvGeY5kfGmxbjDBd5NigQ>? MlnhNVAxyqEQvF2= NIrDUm4yOsLiaB?= MW\pcohq[mm2czD0bIUh\W[oZXP0JI9nKE6SUFGgZY5lN2:{IF7QVGMhfG9ic4TpcZVt[XSnIILld5VueHSrb36gc4YhdWWrb4Ppdy=> MlnsQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZyNUG2NVEoRjJ4MEWxOlEyRC:jPh?=
BeWo  NX\SNYdkTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M3rjTlI26oDLzszN NX;pc2FTOjRxNEivO|IhcA>? MULs[YFleyC2bzDhckBqdmO{ZXHz[UBqdiC2aHWg[ZhxemW|c3nvckBw\iCxdHjldkBnfXOrb36gcYFzc2W{cx?= NUDKR5NNRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[wOVM2PDlpPkK2NFU{PTR7PD;hQi=>
Spinal cords  NXzIc5N6TnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= M3nHOlHDqM7:TR?= MWOzNEBucW5? NFfuNld{fGmvdXzheIV{KGODTWCgcIV3\Wy| M{[5R|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4MUK2PVI3Lz5{NkGyOlkzPjxxYU6=
MDCK  MlX6SpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? NV3ve3BYOTBiwsXN NYX2UGFsOjRiaB?= MXvEUXNQ M{n4SYlvcGmkaYTzJJRp\SCrbnPy[YF{\WRiZYjwdoV{e2mxbjDv[kBHViClYYXz[YQh[nliVFfGMe6zOQ>? NETyVpo9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{NkKwNlM2Oid-Mk[yNFI{PTJ:L3G+
MDCK  NWqySm9MTnWwY4Tpc44hSXO|YYm= MkXFNVAhyrWP M4rhNVI1KGh? NYW2XnRVTE2VTx?= M1TnO5VxemWpdXzheIV{KHSqZTDlfJBz\XO|aX;uJI9nKFSJRj5OtlEh[W6mIFPUS2bDqA>? NUO0OmdnRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[yNFI{PTJpPkK2NlAzOzV{PD;hQi=>
RPMI 8226 NX;RXZc6S2WubDDWbYFjcWyrdImgRZN{[Xl? NVW1U3l5OC1zMECg{txO MWC3NwKBkWh? NETuW5FqdmS3Y3XzJINmdGxiZHXheIgh\G:|ZTDk[ZBmdmSnboTsfS=> MVm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPjNyNk[yOEc,OjZ|ME[2NlQ9N2F-
H929 NIP5[YZE\WyuIG\pZYJqdGm2eTDBd5NigQ>? M1TEe|AuOTByIN88US=> M2PkTVcz6oDLaB?= MlPMbY5lfWOnczDj[YxtKGSnYYToJIRwe2ViZHXw[Y5l\W62bIm= NXmzb5hCRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[zNFY3OjRpPkK2N|A3PjJ2PD;hQi=>
U266 MnnwR4VtdCCYaXHibYxqfHliQYPzZZk> M{PmfFAuOTByIN88US=> Moe3O|LjiImq NGjQTZRqdmS3Y3XzJINmdGxiZHXheIgh\G:|ZTDk[ZBmdmSnboTsfS=> Mmm3QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZ|ME[2NlQoRjJ4M{C2OlI1RC:jPh?=
OPM-2 NV\WPZlXS2WubDDWbYFjcWyrdImgRZN{[Xl? M1vKWlAuOTByIN88US=> M1;0d|cz6oDLaB?= MUPpcoR2[2W|IHPlcIwh\GWjdHig[I9{\SCmZYDlcoRmdnSueR?= M3XPV|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4M{C2OlI1Lz5{NkOwOlYzPDxxYU6=
INA-6 MkHSR4VtdCCYaXHibYxqfHliQYPzZZk> MlnSNE0yODBizszN M1PL[Fcz6oDLaB?= MX;pcoR2[2W|IHPlcIwh\GWjdHig[I9{\SCmZYDlcoRmdnSueR?= M3:2NFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4M{C2OlI1Lz5{NkOwOlYzPDxxYU6=
RBMECs  NHLMcpVHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NYTOZYg2PcLizszN NHLPcYoyyqCq M12w[IJtd2OtczD0bIUhWmGlMTDpcoFkfGm4YYTpc44hcW6mdXPl[EBjgSCHTVHQMWlK MmXlQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZ|NUiwN|koRjJ4M{W4NFM6RC:jPh?=
Mo-DCs MmPGSpVv[3Srb36gRZN{[Xl? M3jwb|UxKM7:TR?= MWeyOQKBkWh? NXGzbItleHKxbX;0[ZMhUUxvMkOgdJJw\HWldHnvckBqdiC2aHWgd5Vx\XKwYYThcpQhd2Zieontc5NidiC|dHnteYxifGWmIF3vMWREe8Li MnHZQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjZ2MUK5OFgoRjJ4NEGyPVQ5RC:jPh?=
HEK293 NGjUfZpHfW6ldHnvckBCe3OjeR?= NWD4N2pUOTBizszN M4HPPVYhcA>? MYfpcoNz\WG|ZYOgdIhwe3Cqb4L5cIF1cW:wIH;mJI93\XKneIDy[ZN{\WRiS1zIUFMh[XRiU{SzNy=> NX7DO4Z3RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMk[0N|U1QThpPkK2OFM2PDl6PD;hQi=>
ASK NE\pRYZHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NVPkVIE4OSCqch?= MUG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zQDR7NkSxK|4zQDR7NkSxQE9iRg>?
Vero E6 NGLadZhCdnSrdnnyZYwh[XO|YYm= NIfQN|k9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zN{[2N|U{QSd-MUe2OlM2Ozl:L3G+
epithelial cells MVHGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NWrWSo5uOSC3TR?= NUHvO4Y{PCxiNjygZY5lKDhiZHH5dy=> NVe4b5AzRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUm5OlY4QDlpPkG5PVY3Pzh7PD;hQi=>
HepG2 (DPX-2) Mne0SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NGXPbYUzPCCqcoO= MV28ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zODl4NkC0N{c,OjB7Nk[wOFM9N2F-
HepG2 MmfSSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MnH0NlQhcHK| M1;D[FxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJyOU[2NFQ{Lz5{MEm2OlA1OzxxYU6=
HepG2 (DPX-2) NFfafYVHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NEfpN3IzPCCqcoO= M3r6clxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJyOU[2NFQ{Lz5{MEm2OlA1OzxxYU6=
HEK293T MXHGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M4TLeVExKHWP NWflcmlmRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkSzPFc{OjVpPkK0N|g4OzJ3PD;hQi=>
HEK293 NUnrZ45STnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M3nGZ|ExKHWP Ml\mNVYhcHK| M1jQWVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ4NEO1OVEzLz5{NkSzOVUyOjxxYU6=
MCF7 MXTDfZRwfG:6aXPpeJkh[XO|YYm= NIHHRYw1QCCqcoO= M3OyeFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ6OEO4OlkzLz5{OEizPFY6OjxxYU6=
HEK293 M3rMRmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NGP5N5k{OCCvaX7z NWjyTms1RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxM{CwNFYyPzZpPkOwNFA3OTd4PD;hQi=>

... Click to View More Cell Line Experimental Data

Assay
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot
cleaved caspase-3 / caspase-3; 

PubMed: 30863177     


Toledo, NK-92, RL, and Farage cells were treated with 30 μM of forskolin for 48 hours, then the cells were harvested for Western blotting to assess the expression of total or cleaved caspase-3

cleaved caspase-9 / caspase-9 ; 

PubMed: 30863177     


Toledo, NK-92, RL, and Farage cells were treated with 30 μM of forskolin for 48 hours, then the cells were harvested for Western blotting to assess the expression of total or cleaved caspase-9.

β-catenin; 

PubMed: 30863177     


(A, B) The protein expression of cytoplasmic and nuclear β-catenin in Toledo and NK-92 cells in the presence of 0, 10, 20, or 40 μM forskolin was detected by Western blotting.

c-myc / Cyclin D1; 

PubMed: 30863177     


(C, D) Western blotting analysis of the total protein expression of c-myc and cyclin D1 influenced by 0, 10, 20, or 40 μM of forskolin in Toledo and NK-92 cells (n=3, *P<0.05, forskolin group vs control group).

pS6K1 / S6K1 / pCREB / CREB; 

PubMed: 31112131     


Forskolin inhibits mTORC1 in multiple cell lines. PC3, LNcap/AR, H1299, H1944, MDA-MB-231, MEF, HAP1, COS7, HeLa, MIA Paca-2, and PANC-1 were treated with or without 10 μM forskolin for 1 h and mTORC1 activity, CREB phosphorylation, and loading controls were analyzed.

p-JNK / JNK / P-p38 / p38; 

PubMed: 20070884     


L929 cells were pretreated with forskolin (10 μM) for various times as indicated, followed by stimulation with or without 10 ng/ml TNF-α for 15 min.

30863177 31112131 20070884
Immunofluorescence
5hmC; 

PubMed: 29239726     


Schwann cells were treated with forskolin (10 μM) for 3 hr followed by washout. 5hmC induction was detected at of 0, 3, and 24 hr time points following treatment. Cells continuously treated with forskolin (5, 10 μM) for 24 hr showed comparable 5hmC levels. Scale bar = 20 μm. 

Fe(II); 

PubMed: 29239726     


AMP (100 mM) treatment for 4 hr did not induce labile Fe(II) while AC activators (forskolin (100 mM), bicarbonate (50 mM)) and PDE inhibitors (caffeine (100 mM), IBMX (100 mM)) increased labile Fe(II) detected by Trx-Puro probes.

CYP17A1 / CYP21A2; 

PubMed: 25334044     


H295R cells were treated with 8-Br-cAMP or forskolin for 48 h under growth conditions, and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. (A) Immunostaining for CYP17A1. Red staining shows the anti-CYP17A1 antibody and blue staining shows DAPI (cell nuclei). (B) Immunostaining for CYP21A2. Red staining shows the anti-CYP21A2 antibody and blue staining shows DAPI (cell nuclei). Scale bars represent 100 µm.

29239726 25334044
Growth inhibition assay
Cell viability; 

PubMed: 30863177     


(C) MTT assay was conducted to test the cell growth after Toledo cells were administered 0, 20, 40, 80, or 160 μM of forskolin for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 days. (D) Toledo cells were administered 0, 20, 40, 80, or 160 μM of forskolin for 48 hours, then MTT assay was used to evaluate the IC50 of forskolin. (F) MTT assay was conducted to test the cell growth after NK-92 cells were administered 0, 20, 40, 80, or 160 μM of forskolin for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6 days. (G) NK-92 cells were administered 0, 20, 40, 80, or 160 μM of forskolin for 48 hours, then MTT assay was used to evaluate the IC50of forskolin. 

30863177

Protocol

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 82 mg/mL (199.75 mM)
Water Insoluble
Ethanol ''37 mg/mL

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 410.5
Formula

C22H34O7

CAS No. 66575-29-9
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms Coleonol, Colforsin
Smiles CC(=O)OC1C(C2C(CCC(C2(C3(C1(OC(CC3=O)(C)C=C)C)O)C)O)(C)C)O

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Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT04254705 Not yet recruiting Procedure: Rectal Biopsy Cystic Fibrosis Universitaire Ziekenhuizen Leuven|Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated|KU Leuven|University of Lisbon March 1 2020 Not Applicable
NCT02807415 Completed Drug: Lumacaftor plus Ivacaftor Cystic Fibrosis Hannover Medical School|Heidelberg University|University of Giessen June 1 2016 --
NCT02586883 Completed Other: bronchial ddp test Idiopathic Dilation of the Bronchi Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris March 29 2016 Not Applicable
NCT03652090 Completed Procedure: cell sampling Cystic Fibrosis Institut National de la Santé Et de la Recherche Médicale France|ABCF2 September 1 2010 --

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cAMP Signaling Pathway Map

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID