Rosiglitazone (BRL 49653)

For research use only.

Catalog No.S2556

39 publications

Rosiglitazone (BRL 49653) Chemical Structure

CAS No. 122320-73-4

Rosiglitazone (BRL 49653) is a potent antihyperglycemic agent and a potent thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizer with IC50 of 12, 4 and 9 nM for rat, 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes, respectively. Rosiglitazone is a pure ligand of PPAR-gamma, and has no PPAR-alpha-binding action. Rosiglitazone modulates TRP channels and induces autophagy. Rosiglitazone prevents ferroptosis.

Selleck's Rosiglitazone (BRL 49653) has been cited by 39 publications

Purity & Quality Control

Choose Selective PPAR Inhibitors

Biological Activity

Description Rosiglitazone (BRL 49653) is a potent antihyperglycemic agent and a potent thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizer with IC50 of 12, 4 and 9 nM for rat, 3T3-L1 and human adipocytes, respectively. Rosiglitazone is a pure ligand of PPAR-gamma, and has no PPAR-alpha-binding action. Rosiglitazone modulates TRP channels and induces autophagy. Rosiglitazone prevents ferroptosis.
Targets
PPAR [1]
(Cell-free assay)
TRPC [5]
()
Ferroptosis [6]
()
In vitro

Rosiglitazone markedly increase phosphorylation of threonine 172 within the α subunit of AMPK, with increased AMP:ATP ratio. Rosiglitazone has been reported to decrease cholesterol synthesis in a number of cell lines in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-independent manner. Rosiglitazone activates both α1- and α2-containing AMPK complexes, and this leads to a marked increase in the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. [1] Rosiglitazone activates PPAR-gamma2 which acts as a dominant inhibitor of osteoblastogenesis in murine bone marrow in vitro.[2] Rosiglitazone increases adiponectin secretion from omental cells up to 2.3-fold higher, whereas secretion from subcutaneous adipose cells is unaffected. [3] Rosiglitazone changes the morphological features and protein profiles of mitochondria in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. [4]

Cell Data
Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID
HepG2 NFLZ[VVHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M2nySGVn\mWldHn2[UBkd26lZX70doF1cW:wIHHnZYlve3RiaIXtZY4hWFCDUnfhcY1iKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDI[ZBIOiClZXzsd{whTUN3ME2wMlAzKM7:TR?= NHjRPGc9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zNUiwNVgyPyd-MUW4NFE5OTd:L3G+
CV-1 MmDVSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? M2HoZWlvKH[rdILvJJRz[W6|Y4LpdJRqd26jbDDhZ5RqfmG2aX;uJI9nKFCncn;4bZNwdWVicILvcIln\XKjdH;yJIFkfGm4YYTl[EBz\WOncITvdkBo[W2vYTCoVHBCWiliZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGNXNTFiY3XscJMtKEWFNUCgQUAxNjB4IN88UU4> MXG8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek85PTd4OUC3K|45PTd4OUC3QE9iRg>?
CV-1 MXrGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M{LITmFkfGm4YYTpc44hd2ZicHXyc5hqe2:vZTDwdo9tcW[ncnH0c5Ih[WO2aY\heIVlKHKnY3XweI9zKGejbX3hJI1m[XO3cnXkJIJ6KGmwZIXjeIlwdiCxZjC1NEUhd2ZibXH4bY12dSCjbHvhcIlv\SCyaH;zdIhifGG|ZTDhZ5Rqfmm2eTygeJJidnOoZXP0bY9vKGG|c3H5JIlvKEOYLUGgZ4VtdHNuIFXDOVAhRSByLkC4PVE{KM7:TT6= M4LGRVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493Nzl6M{[2NlAoRjl6M{[2NlA9N2F-
3T3-L1 NWX4XZlmTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NX;PN|BtW3SrbYXsZZRqd25ib3[gZYRqeG:pZX7ld4l{KGmwIEPUN{1NOSClZXzsd{BqeyCneIDy[ZN{\WRiYYOgZ49v[2WwdILheIlwdiCncYXpeoFt\W62IITvJJRp\SCdIEGtNVREZSC3cIThb4Uh[2:3boTzJIFnfGW{IITy[YF1dWWwdDD3bZRpKDBwMjD1[{9uVCC2cn;ncIl1[XqxbnWsJGVEKD1iMD6wPUDPxE1w NYCze|c6RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUC5OVYzOTNpPkGwPVU3OjF|PD;hQi=>
CV-1 NXHJUm1QTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NEnkTXRO[XirbXHsJJJmeG:{dHXyJIFkfGm4aYT5JIFo[Wmwc4SgbJVu[W5iUHXyc5hqe2:vZTDwdo9tcW[ncnH0c5Ih[WO2aY\heIVlKHKnY3XweI9zKGejbX3hJGdidDRiY3jpcYVzcWNiaX6geJJidnOrZX70cJkhfHKjboPm[YN1\WRiQ2[tNUBk\WyuczDifUBnfW6ldHnvcoFtKGG|c3H5MkwhTUN3MDC9JFAvODR|IN88UU4> M13pflxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzFzN{KwPFU1Lz5zMUeyNFg2PDxxYU6=
COS1 NF\pZ5dHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MnLiRYdwdmm|dHnjJIFkfGm4aYT5JJdieyCmZYTldo1qdmWmIHnuJGNQWzFiY3XscJMhfHKjboPm[YN1\WRid3n0bEBISUxiND3QVGFTKGejbX3hJJJm[2WydH;yMEBGSzVyIE2gNE4xOjFizszNMi=> M4PXfVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF{NkG3PVI1Lz5zMk[xO|kzPDxxYU6=
COS1 NGCzXY1HfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M1zDZWlvKH[rdILvJIFod26rc4SgZYN1cX[rdImgeIV{fGWmIH\vdkB1emGwc3HjeIl3[XSrb36gbY4hcHWvYX6gVHBCWiCpYX3tZU1I[Wx2IHPobY1memmlIFPPV{0yKGOnbHzzMEBGSzVyIE2gNE4xOiEQvF2u M3Pu[VxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF{N{K5OlY5Lz5zMkeyPVY3QDxxYU6=
COS1 NHq3T4VHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NFHOR3FKdiC4aYTyc{B1emGwc3HjeIl3[XSrb36gc4YhcHWvYX6gdIVzd3irc3;t[UBxem:uaX\ldoF1d3JiYXP0bZZifGWmIILlZ4VxfG:{IHfhcY1iKG2nYYP1doVlKGmwIGDQRXIuT0GONDDjbIlu\XKrYzDDU3MuOSClZXzsd{whTUN3MDC9JFAvODJizszNMi=> M2PSZlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF{OEezOVE4Lz5zMki3N|UyPzxxYU6=
CV-1 M4D3N2Z2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M{f3b2lvKH[rdILvJIV3[Wy3YYTpc44h[WejaX7zeEBTYFJvYXzwbIEwWFCDUj3nZY1u[SCrbjDDWk0yKGOnbHzzJIJ6KGOxdILhcpNn\WO2aX;uJIF{e2G7IIfhd{Bl\XSncn3pcoVlNCCHQ{WwJF0hOC5|MkWg{txONg>? M4XnbFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF{OUW0NFYyLz5zMkm1OFA3OTxxYU6=
3T3-L1 NGq1SVZHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MVrF[oZm[3SrdnWgZ49v[2WwdILheIlwdiCob4Kg[Y5p[W6lZX3lcpQhd2ZiaX7zeYxqdi2rbnT1Z4VlKHS{aXfsfYNmemmmZTDhZ4N2dXWuYYTpc44hcW5iM2SzMWwyKGOnbHzzMEBGSzNyIE2gNE4xOiEQvF2u MnHJQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTR3MEW2OFQoRjF2NUC1OlQ1RC:jPh?=
HepG2 NH7kV|NHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NWL1c|ZsTW[oZXP0bZZmKGOxbnPlcpRz[XSrb36gZYdicW6|dDDoeY1idiCSUFHS[4FudWFiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGhmeEd{IHPlcIx{NCCHQ{WwJF0hOC5yM{mg{txONg>? NF7pXI09[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zNkGwO|E2OCd-MU[xNFcyPTB:L3G+
U2OS M{\DNmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 M1jMVGVn\mWldDDvckBRWEGUZ3HtcYEhfHKjboPhZ5RqfmG2aX;uJIFkfGm4aYT5JIlvKFV{T2OgZ4VtdHNuIFXDOVAhRSByLkCzJO69VS5? M2\tflxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF4M{CwPVQ1Lz5zNkOwNFk1PDxxYU6=
Huh7 MYXGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NYW1TmRwTnWwY4Tpc45idCCjY4Tpeol1gSCjdDDoeY1idiCSUFHSJIdidW2jIHnuJGh2cDdiY3XscJMh[nlidILhcpNi[3SrdnH0bY9vKGG|c3H5MEBGSzVyIE2gNE4zOiEQvF2u MlP0QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTZ|Nk[2NFEoRjF4M{[2OlAyRC:jPh?=
Huh7 Mm\vSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MoP4SYZn\WO2IH;uJHBRSVJiZ3HtcYEhfHKjboPhZ5RqfmG2aX;uJIFkfGm4aYT5JIlvKEi3aEegZ4VtdHNuIFXDOVAhRSByLkKyJO69VS5? NXO3N41URGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMU[0OVExQDdpPkG2OFUyODh5PD;hQi=>
HEK293 MWDGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NXrZTol4SWexbnnzeEBi[3Srdnn0fUBifCCSUFHS[4FudWFiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGhGUzJ7MzDj[YxteyCjc4Pld5Nm\CCjczDpcoR2[3Srb36gc4YhemWlZYD0c5IhcW62ZYLhZ5Rqd25id3n0bEB{fGW{b3nkJJJm[2WydH;yJINw[WO2aY\heI9zNTFiYomgSXlHWCCkYYPl[EBz\XCxcoTldkBo\W6nIHHzd4F6 M{[ydFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF4NkiwNVU6Lz5zNk[4NFE2QTxxYU6=
HEK293 MWXGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M{fhPWFod26rc4SgZYN1cX[rdImgZZQhWFCDUnfhcY1iKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDISWszQTNiY3XscJMh[XO|ZYPz[YQh[XNiaX7keYN1cW:wIH;mJJJm[2WydH;yJIlvfGW{YXP0bY9vKHerdHigdoV1cW6xaXSgXE1z\WOncITvdkBidHCqYTDifUBGYU[SIHLhd4VlKHKncH;yeIVzKGenbnWgZZN{[Xl? NEnyeI09[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zNk[4NFE2QSd-MU[2PFAyPTl:L3G+
CV1 NHTEZWJHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NH73ToVVemGwc3HjeIl3[XSrb36gc4YhWFCDUnfhcY1iKGmwIFPWNUBk\WyuczygSWM2OCB;IECuNFc3KM7:TT6= NGraTJo9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zNkiyNVc3QSd-MU[4NlE4Pjl:L3G+
NIH3T3 M1PRXmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NXzxTI5CSWO2aY\peJkh[XRiaIXtZY4hWFCDUjDnZY1u[SC2cnHud4Zm[3SnZDDpckBPUUh|VEOgZ4VtdHNiYomgcJVkcW[ncnHz[UBi[3Srdnn0fUBie3OjeTygSWM2OCB;IECuN|Ih|ryPLh?= MkTqQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTZ6NUSwPFUoRjF4OEW0NFg2RC:jPh?=
CV1 NH20d|hHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NIrVb2hVemGwc3HjeIl3[XSrb36gc4YhcHWvYX6gVHBCWmejbX3hJIlvKEOYMTDj[YxteyCkeTDseYNq\mW{YYPlJJJmeG:{dHXyJIdmdmViYYPzZZktKEWFNUCgQUAxNjNyODFOwG0v MXO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yPjl5MEO5NUc,OTZ7N{CzPVE9N2F-
HepG2 MkTWSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? M4PyeGFod26rc4SgZYN1cX[rdImgZZQhcHWvYX6gVHBCWiCpYX3tZUBqdiCjIFjldGczKGOnbHzzJIJ6KFCSQWKtS2FNPCC2cnHud4FkfGm4YYTpc44h[XO|YYmsJGVEPTBiPTCwMlE2QCEQvF2u MnTQQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTZ7N{OzOVgoRjF4OUezN|U5RC:jPh?=
HepG2 MWrGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? Moq3RYdwdmm|dDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBpfW2jbjDQVGFTKGejbX3hJIlvKEincFeyJINmdGy|IHL5JHBRSVJvR1HMOEB1emGwc3HjeIl3[XSrb36gZZN{[XluIFXDOVAhRSByLkG1PEDPxE1w M1L1bFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF4OUe5N|QyLz5zNkm3PVM1OTxxYU6=
CV1 MYDGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? Ml\TRYN1cX[rdImgZZQhcHWvYX6gVHBCWmejbX3hJIlvKEOYMTDj[YxteyxiRVO1NEA:KDBwM{C4JO69VS5? M{nqTFxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzF5MEC1N|k1Lz5zN{CwOVM6PDxxYU6=
Huh7 MnHpSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MnzBRYN1cX[rdImgZZQhcHWvYX6gVHBCWiCpYX3tZUBqdiCKdXi3JINmdGy|IHL5JJRz[W6|YXP0bZZifGmxbjDhd5NigSxiRVO1NEA:KDBwMkKg{txONg>? NV\sdmdoRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUewN|QyPDlpPkG3NFM1OTR7PD;hQi=>
CV1 NWrUd3g2TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M1O4WGFod26rc4SgZYN1cX[rdImgZZQhWFCDUnfhcY1iKGmwIFPWNUBk\WyuczDifUB1emGwc3HjeIl3[XSrb36gZZN{[XluIFXDOVAhRSByLkOwPEDPxE1w MWe8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yPzF{OUeyOUc,OTdzMkm3NlU9N2F-
HepG2 M4nsd2Z2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MmDnRYdwdmm|dDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBpfW2jbjDQVGFT\2GvbXGgbY4hUGWyR{KgZ4VtdHNiYomgVHBCWi2JQVy0JJRz[W6|YXP0bZZifGmxbjDhd5NigSxiRVO1NEA:KDBwMEiyJO69VS5? MoC0QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTdzNUewNVkoRjF5MUW3NFE6RC:jPh?=
HEK293 Mmj2SpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MmiyRYdwdmm|dDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBRWEGUZ3HtcYEhemWlZYD0c5Ih\XiycnXzd4VlKGmwIFjFT|I6OyClZXzsd{BjgSCJQVy0JJRz[W6|YXP0bZZifGmxbjDhd5NigSxiRVO1NEA:KDBwMEO1JO69VS5? NIXsTok9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zN{K5NlYxPid-MUeyPVI3ODZ:L3G+
HEK293 M1HhVWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MWTBZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBpfW2jbjDh[Ilxd3OnIITpd5N2\SCSUFHSJIdidW2jIHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBJTUt{OUOgZ4VtdHNiYomgVHBCWi2JQVy0JJRz[W6|YXP0bZZifGmxbjDhd5NigSxiRVO1NEA:KDBwM{Gg{txONg>? MnvqQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTd|NEOzO|EoRjF5M{SzN|cyRC:jPh?=
L6 NWTvXW1PTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= Mlu3SYZn\WO2IH;uJIZifHS7IHHjbYQhd3irZHH0bY9vKGmwIILheEBNPiClZXzsd{whTUN3MDC9JFUh|ryPLh?= NVjRUmVvRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUezOFM{PzFpPkG3N|Q{OzdzPD;hQi=>
HepG2/C3A MXPGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NYLvdndtSWO2aY\heIlwdiCxZjDoeY1idiCSUFHS[4FudWFibHnnZY5lKGKrbnTpcoch\G:vYXnuMY1m\GmjdHXkJJRz[W6|Y4LpdJRqd26jbDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDpckBpfW2jbjDI[ZBIOi:FM1GgZ4VtdHNiY3:teJJidnOoZXP0[YQhf2m2aDDmeZNm\CCJYXy0MWxDTCCkeTDjc5Rz[W6|ZnXjeIlwdiCjc4PhfUwhTUN3MDC9JFAvODB|ODFOwG0v MnvVQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOTd2MEO2PFgoRjF5NECzOlg5RC:jPh?=
CV1 NH\ve|lHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NVz0PIJHOjRiaILz M2XtVGFod26rc4SgZYN1cX[rdImgZZQhcHWvYX6gVHBCWmejbX3hJIlvKEOYMTDj[YxteyCkeTDHRWw1KHS{YX7zZYN1cX[jdHnvckBie3OjeTDh[pRmeiB{NDDodpMtKEWFNUCgQUAxNjB|IN88UU4> NXfoWWkxRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMUe1NFczOjVpPkG3OVA4OjJ3PD;hQi=>
CV1 MlXkSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MYKyOEBpenN? Mk\kRYdwdmm|dDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBpfW2jbjDQVGFT[WyyaHGgbY4hS1ZzIHPlcIx{KGK7IFfBUFQhfHKjboPhZ5RqfmG2aX;uJIF{e2G7IHHmeIVzKDJ2IHjyd{whTUN3MDC9JFMvPDZizszNMi=> NFrR[II9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zN{WwO|IzPSd-MUe1NFczOjV:L3G+
NIH3T3 Ml;aSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MVTB[49vcXO2IHHjeIl3cXS7IHH0JIh2dWGwIGDQRXJo[W2vYTDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4hVkmKM2SzJINmdGy|IHL5JGdCVDRidILhcpNi[3SrdnH0bY9vKGG|c3H5MEBGSzVyIE2gNE4{OiEQvF2u NEW5VlI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9zN{[yOFc4Pyd-MUe2NlQ4Pzd:L3G+
HEK293 MVzGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MYjB[49vcXO2IHHjeIl3cXS7IHH0JHBRSVKpYX3tZUBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iSFXLNlk{KGOnbHzzJIF{e2W|c3XkJIF{KGGSMjDn[Y5mKGmwZIXjeIlwdixiRVO1NEA:KDBwMUKg{txONg>? MUS8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8yQDB{OUG3Okc,OThyMkmxO|Y9N2F-
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HEK293 M1rrSWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 Ml;MNVYhfG9iMkCgbJJ{ M37UUXRz[W6|YXP0bZZifGmxbjDv[kBI[Wx2LX\1d4VlKGi3bXHuJHBRSVKpYX3tZUBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iSFXLNlk{KGOnbHzzJIFnfGW{IEG2JJRwKDJyIHjyd{BjgSCudXPp[oVz[XOnIILldI9zfGW{IHflcoUh[XO|YYmsJGVEPTBiPTCwMlA1OyEQvF2u MXq8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOTF{OE[wNEc,OjFzMki2NFA9N2F-
HepG2 NGrEdpJHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M1vtZVExKHWvb3yvUC=> M17F[FI1KGi{cx?= MnTmTY5kemWjc3WgbY4h\2y3Y3;z[UBkd26|dX3weIlwdiCrbjDoeY1idiCKZYDHNkBk\WyuczDheEAyOCC3bX;sM2wh[W[2ZYKgNlQhcHK|IILlcIF1cX[nIITvJINwdnS{b3y= NH\3UmE9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MUK1Olc1QCd-MkGyOVY4PDh:L3G+
HepG2 MX7GeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? M{HzenRz[W6|YXP0bZZifGmxbjDv[kBpfW2jbjDQVGFT\2GvbXGg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKGi3bXHuJGhmeEd{IHPlcIx{KGOxLYTyZY5{\mWldHXkJJdqfGhiUGDSSVMuXEtvTIXjJIJ6KGy3Y3nm[ZJie2VicnXwc5J1\XJiZ3Xu[UBie3OjeTygSWM2OCB;IECuNFUh|ryPLh?= NXzvU4tSRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkG0OVA1PjhpPkKxOFUxPDZ6PD;hQi=>
HepG2 NHjEe5VHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= NYLlVo1HSWexbnnzeEBi[3Srdnn0fUBifCCSUFHS[4FudWFicnXj[ZB1d3JiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJIh2dWGwIFjldGczKGOnbHzzJIJ6KFCSUlWtcJVkcW[ncnHz[UBz\XCxcoTldkBo\W6nIHHzd4F6NCCHQ{WwJF0hOC5yMTFOwG0v Ml[3QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjF2OEK0OFYoRjJzNEiyOFQ3RC:jPh?=
CV1 M3u1TGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MVG0NEBpenN? MljvRYdwdmm|dDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBpfW2jbjDQVGFT\2GvbXGtUGJFKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDDWlEh[2WubIOgZ48ufHKjboPm[YN1\WRid3n0bEBI[Wx2IHHmeIVzKDRyIHjyd{BjgSCudXPp[oVz[XOnIHLhd4VlKHS{YX7zZYN1cX[jdHnvckBie3OjeTygSWM2OCB;IECuNUDPxE1w MYS8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOTVzNUC2N{c,OjF3MUWwOlM9N2F-
3T3L1 MWXGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NIDXZYcyOCC3TR?= M4XKdmlv[3KnYYPlJIlvKGGmaYDvcoVkfGmwIH3SUmEhdGW4ZXzzJIlvKFSQRnHsdIhiNWmwZIXj[YQhdW:3c3WgN3Q{VDFiY3XscJMheHKndILlZZRm\CCjdDCxNEB2VSCkZX\vdoUhXE6ILXHsdIhiKGOqYXzs[Y5o\SC{ZXzheIl3\SC2bzDjc451em:u M{i0N|xiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJzOEWxNFg6Lz5{MUi1NVA5QTxxYU6=
COS7 NX;afmtOTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M1Xv[G1w\HWuYYTpc44hd2ZiaIXtZY4hWFCDUnfhcY1iNUyERDDlfJBz\XO|ZXSgbY4h[W[{aXPhckBoemWnbjDtc45s\XliQ1;TO{Bk\WyuczDjc{11emGwc3\lZ5Rm\CC5aYToJGdidDRiYYPz[ZN{\WRiYYOgZYN1cX[jdHnvckBw\iC2cnHud4FkfGm4YYTpc44h[WO2aY\peJkh[nlibIXjbYZmemG|ZTDhd5NigSxiRVO1NEA:KDBwMESzJO69VS5? NYrvOodxRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkG4O|MxPzBpPkKxPFc{ODdyPD;hQi=>
Sf21 NFLQcI9HfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MlPKTY5pcWKrdHnvckBw\iCqdX3hckBDW0WSIHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBxdGG|bXGgcYVu[nKjbnWgeoV{cWOuZYOgc4YhW2Z{MTDj[YxteyCjc4Pld5Nm\CCjczDpcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKEGWUD3k[ZBmdmSnboSgX|NJZXSjdYLvZ4hwdGG2ZTD1dJRic2VuIFnDOVAhRSB4LkSg{txONg>? Mo\WQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjF7NkW2NlMoRjJzOU[1OlI{RC:jPh?=
Sf21 MVHGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MVvJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKFOycnHneYUuTGG5bHX5JJJifCCEc3XwJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCybHHzcYEhdWWvYoLhcoUhfmW|aXPs[ZMhd2ZiU3[yNUBk\WyuczDhd5Nme3OnZDDhd{BqdmirYnn0bY9vKG:oIFHUVE1l\XCnbnTlcpQhYzOKXYTheZJw[2ixbHH0[UB2eHSja3WsJGlEPTBiPTC0NEDPxE1w NEKyXmY9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MUm2OVYzOyd-MkG5OlU3OjN:L3G+
COS-1 M3fhdWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MnvPNlQhcHK| MkexRYdwdmm|dDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBpfW2jbjDQVGFT\2GvbXGgcIlo[W6mIHLpcoRqdmdiZH;tZYlvKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDDU3MuOSClZXzsd{Bi\nSncjCyOEBpenNiYomgcJVkcW[ncnHz[UBz\XCxcoTldkBo\W6nLXLhd4VlKGy3bXnuc41mfHKrYzDhcoFtgXOrczygSWM2OCB;IECuNFQ5KM7:TT6= MV:8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOjB3MUC1OEc,OjJyNUGwOVQ9N2F-
COS1 NEXPbZNHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M1jITmJqdmSrbnegZYZncW6rdImgeI8hcHWvYX6ge4lt\CC2eYDlJHBRSVKpYX3tZUBNSkRiZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJGNQWzFiY3XscJMh[29vZYjwdoV{e2mwZzDHRWw1KGK7IIPjbY51cWyuYYTpc44heHKxeHntbZR6KGG|c3H5 NXLoeJo3RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkKwO|A3ODRpPkKyNFcxPjB2PD;hQi=>
HepG2 M4PvfGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NWrqOVBHOjBiaILz M2PyZWFod26rc4SgZYN1cX[rdImgZZQhcHWvYX6gS2FNPC2odYPl[EBRWEGUZ3HtcYEhdGmpYX7kJIJqdmSrbneg[I9u[WmwIHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBJ\XCJMjDj[YxteyCjZoTldkAzOCCqcoOgZpkhdHWlaX\ldoF{\SC{ZYDvdpRmeiCpZX7lJJRz[W6|YXP0bZZifGmxbjDhd5NigSxiRVO1NEA:KDBwMEKg{txONg>? NY[4RmRQRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkKwPFE6OzJpPkKyNFgyQTN{PD;hQi=>
BL21 DE3 M4[2eGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MoHnSIl{eGyjY3Xt[Y51KG:oIGuzTH1zd3OrZ3zpeIF7d26nIH\yc40hVi22ZYLtbY5idCCKaYOteIFo\2WmIHj1cYFvKFCSQWLnZY1u[SCuaXfhcoQh[mmwZHnu[{Bld22jaX6g[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEW|Y3jldolkcGmjIHPvcIkhSkx{MTDESVMh[2WubIOgZpkhe2OrboTpcIxifGmxbjDwdo95cW2rdImgZZN{[XluIFvpJF0hOC5yN{Sg{txONg>? MkfCQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjJyOEG5N|IoRjJ{MEixPVMzRC:jPh?=
COS1 M1XOPWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NGO5OGUzPCCqcoO= MkPnWJJidnOjY4TpeoF1cW:wIH;mJIh2dWGwIH\1cIwhdGWwZ4ToJHBRSVKpYX3tZUBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iQ1;TNUBk\WyuczDjc{11emGwc3\lZ5Rm\CC5aYToJHJZWmGucHjhJIFnfGW{IEK0JIhzeyCkeTDseYNq\mW{YYPlJJJmeG:{dHXyJIdmdmViYYPzZZktKEWFNUCgQUAxNjF{IN88UU4> NXzlcVhyRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkKxPVc{QTZpPkKyNVk4Ozl4PD;hQi=>
MG-63 NVe1e4FzTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NES5O3dC\2:waYP0JIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KGi3bXHuJHBRSVKpYX3tZUBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iTVetOlMh[2WubIOgZpkhemWyb4L0[ZIh\2WwZT3iZZNm\CC2cnHud4FkfGm4YYTpc44h[XO|YYmsJGVEPTBiPTCwMlAyOSEQvF2u NVjQVpQ1RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkKyNlU3PDFpPkKyNlI2PjRzPD;hQi=>
293H DA MUjGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MVuxOkBpenN? MYfB[49vcXO2IHHjeIl3cXS7IHH0JHBRSVKpYX3tZUBNSkRiaX6gbJVu[W5iMkmzTEBFSSClZXzsd{Bi\nSncjCxOkBpenNiYomgWHIuTlKHVDDhZ5RqfmG2aX;uJJJmeG:{dHXyJIF{e2G7LDDFR|UxKD1iMD6wNFI1KM7:TT6= NH[ze2s9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MkW4Nlk4Oyd-MkK1PFI6PzN:L3G+
MG-63 NWrBSFBrTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M{XSVlI1KGi{cx?= M1\2XW1w\HWuYYTpc44hd2ZiZoXscE1t\W6pdHigbJVu[W5icGPHOU1nfXOnZDDQVGFT\2GvbXGg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKE2JLU[zJINmdGy|IHPvMYV5eHKnc4PpcocheEeYLWCyMXBRWkViYX\0[ZIhOjRiaILzJIJ6KGy3Y3nm[ZJie2VicnXwc5J1\XJiZ3Xu[UBj[XOnZDD0doFve2GldHn2ZZRqd25iYYPzZZktKEWFNUCgQUAxNjBzMTFOwG0v NGrMRYI9[SC2YYLn[ZQ:L1:kbHHub{chcHKnZk2nbJR1eHN8Lz;weYJu\WRwbnPibU5vdG1wbnnoModwfi9{MkeyO|Q1QCd-MkK3Nlc1PDh:L3G+
Ac2F NX;Ze5l4TnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NWLPXplQOC5zIITvJFExKHWP M1jNblYhcHK| NHXUcZRC\2:waYP0JIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KFCSQWLnZY1u[SCrbjDyZZQhSWN{RjDj[YxteyCjc4Pld5Nm\CCjczDseYNq\mW{YYPlJIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KDBwMTD0c{AyOCC3TTDh[pRmeiB4IHjyd{BjgSC{ZYDvdpRmeiCpZX7lJIF{e2G7 Mn[1QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjJ6MUmxPVAoRjJ{OEG5NVkxRC:jPh?=
HepG2 MXXGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MX3UdoFve2GldHn2ZZRqd25ib3[gS2FNPC2odYPl[EBRWEGUZ3HtcYEhdGmpYX7kJIJqdmSrbneg[I9u[WmwIITyZY5{\mWldHXkJIlvKGi3bXHuJGhmeEd{IHPlcIx{KGK7IHz1Z4ln\XKjc3WgdoVxd3K2ZYKg[4Vv\SCjc4PhfUwhTUN3MDC9JFAvOSEQvF2u NUDMTnFXRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkK5N|Q2OzdpPkKyPVM1PTN5PD;hQi=>
THP1 MWfGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MYexNFAhfU1? M3TXXVMhcHK| NYe4fpR3XHKjboPhZ5RqfmG2aX;uJI9nKFCSQWLnZY1u[SCrbjDoeY1idiCWSGCxJINmdGy|IHHzd4V{e2WmIHHzJIRm[3KnYYPlJIlvKEySUz3pcoR2[2WmIF3DVFEhdVKQQTDlfJBz\XO|aX;uJIF1KDFyMDD1UUBxemWrbnP1ZoF1\WRiZn;yJFMhcHK|IIDybY9zKHSxIFzQV{BkcGGubHXu[4UhdWWjc4Xy[YQh[W[2ZYKgNVghcHK|IHL5JHJVNVCFUjDhcoFtgXOrczDy[YxifGm4ZTD0c{B2dnS{ZXH0[YQh[2:wdILvcC=> NWTBOpFbRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkK5N|Q2OzdpPkKyPVM1PTN5PD;hQi=>
THP1 MnTRSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MUexNFAhfU1? NUP6XFB{OyCqcoO= NIT0NYpVemGwc3HjeIl3[XSrb36gc4YhWFCDUnfhcY1iKGmwIHj1cYFvKFSKUEGgZ4VtdHNiYYPz[ZN{\WRiYYOg[IVkemWjc3WgbY4hVFCVLXnu[JVk\WRiSVy2JI1TVkFiZYjwdoV{e2mxbjDheEAyODBidV2gdJJmcW6ldXLheIVlKG[xcjCzJIhzeyCycnnvdkB1dyCOUGOgZ4hidGynbnflJI1m[XO3cnXkJIFnfGW{IEG4JIhzeyCkeTDSWE1RS1JiYX7hcJl{cXNicnXsZZRqfmVidH:geY51emWjdHXkJINwdnS{b3y= NXuzO3dFRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkK5N|Q2OzdpPkKyPVM1PTN5PD;hQi=>
HepG2 MlHmSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? MWSxNEB2VQ>? MlLvNlQhcHK| MX7S[YR2[3Srb36gc4Yh\2y3Y3;z[UBkd26|dX3weIlwdiCrbjDpcpN2dGmwLYLld4l{fGGwdDDoeY1idiCKZYDHNkBk\WyuczDheEAyOCC3TTDh[pRmeiB{NDDodpMh[nliZ3z1Z49{\SCxeHnkZZNmKG2ndHjv[EBqdiCycnXz[Y5k\SCxZjCwMlEhfU1ib3[gbY5{fWyrbh?= MmLGQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjNyMkWyOFQoRjJ|MEK1NlQ1RC:jPh?=
HepG2 M4TUWGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 Ml;hNVAhfU1? NVvZTVl3OjRiaILz NHLhWHpT\WS3Y4Tpc44hd2ZiZ3z1Z49{\SClb37zeY1xfGmxbjDpckBqdnO3bHnuMZJme2m|dHHueEBpfW2jbjDI[ZBIOiClZXzsd{BifCBzMDD1UUBi\nSncjCyOEBpenNiYomg[4x2[2:|ZTDvfIll[XOnIH3leIhw\CCrbjDwdoV{\W6lZTDv[kAzOi5{IH3NJI9nKGeudXPvd4U> M13YfVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ|MEK1NlQ1Lz5{M{CyOVI1PDxxYU6=
HepG2 NVfkWpkzTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M3LEXlIxKGi{cx?= NGm0WndVemGwc3HjeIl3[XSrb36gc4YhT0GOND3meZNm\CCqdX3hckBRWEGUZ3HtcYEhdGmpYX7kJIJqdmSrbneg[I9u[WmwIHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBJ\XCJMjDj[YxteyCjZoTldkAzOCCqcoOgZpkhdHWlaX\ldoF{\SC{ZYDvdpRmeiCpZX7lJIF{e2G7LDDFR|UxKD1iMD6wN|kh|ryPLh?= MVS8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOzF5MUC0OUc,OjNzN{GwOFU9N2F-
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HEK293 M1:3NmZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NV7Iem9WOTBidV2= MkTHWJJidnOjY4TpeoF1cW:wIH;mJHBRSVKpYX3tZUApfW6tbn;3ckBwemmpaX6pJIV5eHKnc4Pl[EBqdiCKRVuyPVMh[2WubIOgZ48ufHKjboPm[YN1\WRid3n0bEBCWDJvUGDSSUBifCBzMDD1UUBjgSCudXPp[oVz[XOnIILldI9zfGW{IHflcoUh[XO|YYm= NWfDW3lRRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkOyO|M2OTlpPkKzNlc{PTF7PD;hQi=>
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HepG2 NIfWeHVHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MXjB[49vcXO2IHHjeIl3cXS7IHH0JGdCVDRvZoXz[YQhWFCDUnfhcY1iKE12NkPBJI12fGGwdDCoeY5sdm:5bjDvdolocW5rIHX4dJJme3OnZDDpckBpfW2jbjDI[ZBIOiClZXzsd{BjgSC2cnHud4FkfGm4YYTpc44h[XO|YYmsJGVEPTBiPTCwMlAxOiEQvF2u MlfYQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjN3MEKyNVIoRjJ|NUCyNlEzRC:jPh?=
HepG2 NVvVfGVDTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NEn1XXlC\2:waYP0JIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KEeDTESt[pV{\WRiUGDBVodidW2jIDj1cotvd3ewIH;ybYdqdiliZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJIh2dWGwIFjldGczKGOnbHzzJIJ6KHS{YX7zZYN1cX[jdHnvckBie3OjeTygSWM2OCB;IECuNFEh|ryPLh?= MYm8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zOzVyMkKxNkc,OjN3MEKyNVI9N2F-
L6 NGrXT5hHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= MYCyOEBpenN? NWPtd2JvUW6mdXP0bY9vKG:oIHfseYNwe2VidYD0ZYtmKGmwIILheEBNPiClZXzsd{BxfWy|ZXSge4l1cCCFMUSt[IVwgHliZ3z1Z49{\SCjZoTldkAzPCCqcoOgbY4heHKnc3XuZ4Uhd2ZiaX7zeYxqdixiRVO1NEA:KDRwNEmg{txONg>? NV[3dY1pRGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkO5PVI5PjJpPkKzPVkzQDZ{PD;hQi=>
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HEK293 MomySpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NXTtdoNIOjRiaILz Ml;DRYdwdmm|dDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBud3W|ZTDQVGFT\2GvbXGg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEiHS{K5N{Bk\WyuczDjc{1mgHC{ZYPzbY5oKHerdHigS4FtPCC{ZYDvdpRmeiC4ZXP0c5Ih[W[2ZYKgNlQhcHK|IHL5JIR2[WxvbIXjbYZmemG|ZTDy[ZBwenSncjDhd5NigSxiRVO1NEA:KDBwMEOg{txONg>? MWO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDl3NUi4PUc,OjR7NUW4PFk9N2F-
DU145 MYfDfZRwfG:6aXPpeJkh[XO|YYm= NWHrXGJRPDhiaILz MX\DfZRwfG:6aXPpeJkh[WejaX7zeEBpfW2jbjDEWVE1PSClZXzsd{Bie3Onc4Pl[EBieyCpcn;3eIghcW6qaXLpeIlwdiCjZoTldkA1QCCqcoOgZpkhVVSWIHHzd4F6NCCLQ{WwJF0hOTZizszNMi=> MVe8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPDl7NkG0N{c,OjR7OU[xOFM9N2F-
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HEK293 MUnGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? MkH1RYdwdmm|dDDhZ5Rqfmm2eTDheEBpfW2jbjDQVGFT\2GvbXGg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEiHS{K5N{Bk\WyuczDifUBtfWOrZnXyZZNmKHKncH;yeIVzKGenbnWgZZN{[XluIFXDOVAhRSByLkCxJO69VS5? MVe8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTNyNU[4PEc,OjV|MEW2PFg9N2F-
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HEK293 MXXGeY5kfGmxbjDhd5NigQ>? NVHBdG5wOjRiaILz MXrUdoFve2GldHn2ZZRqd25ib3[gVHBCWmejbX3hJEh2dmuwb4fuJI9zcWerbjmg[ZhxemW|c3XkJIlvKEiHS{K5N{Bk\WyuczDpcoN2[mG2ZXSg[o9zKDJ2IHjyd{BjgSCudXPp[oVz[XOnIILldI9zfGW{IHflcoUh[XO|YYm= NVPiVpp7RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:vdJVjdWWmLn7jZokvdmyvLn7pbE5od3ZxMkW0OFI{OjJpPkK1OFQzOzJ{PD;hQi=>
HepG2 M2nPO2Z2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 NHe0Nm5C\2:waYP0JIFkfGm4aYT5JIF1KGi3bXHuJGdCVDRvUGDBVodidW2jIHzp[4Fv\CCkaX7kbY5oKGSxbXHpckBmgHC{ZYPz[YQhcW5iaIXtZY4hUGWyR{KgZ4VtdHNiYomgcJVkcW[ncnHz[UBz\XCxcoTldkBo\W6nIHHzd4F6NCCHQ{WwJF0hOC5yM{mg{txONg>? MVu8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTR4MkK4NUc,OjV2NkKyPFE9N2F-
HepG2 NGL2V4lHfW6ldHnvckBie3OjeR?= M3jJOVIxKGi{cx?= MYHB[49vcXO2IHHjeIl3cXS7IHH0JGdCVDRvRF7BJIJqdmSrbneg[I9u[WmwIH\1d4VlKGi3bXHuJHBRSVKpYX3tZUBtcWejbnSgZolv\GmwZzDkc41icW5iZYjwdoV{e2WmIHnuJIh2dWGwIFjldGczKGOnbHzzJIF{e2W|c3XkJIF{KHKnY3XweI9zKHS{YX7zZYN1cX[jdHnvckBqdmO3YnH0[YQh\m:{IEKwJIhzeyCkeTDseYNq\mW{YYPlJJJmeG:{dHXyJIdmdmViYYPzZZktKEWFNUCgQUAxNjB2IN88UU4> MXO8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:ydXLt[YQvdmOkaT7ucI0vdmmqLnfvek8zPTR7N{GzNkc,OjV2OUexN|I9N2F-
HepaR MlPCSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? M{\KcFEhfU1? MX:xJIRigQ>? MV\B[49vcXO2IHHjeIl3cXS7IHH0JHBRSVKpYX3tZUBqdiCqdX3hckBJ\XCjUjDj[YxteyCjc4Pld5Nm\CCjczDpcoNz\WG|ZTDpckBHSUKSMTDn[Y5mKGW6cILld5Nqd25iYYSgNUB2VSCrbnP1ZoF1\WRiZn;yJFEh\GG7IHL5JJF2[W62aYTheIl3\SCSQ2KgcYV1cG:mIILlcIF1cX[nIITvJJVvfHKnYYTl[EBkd262cn;s M1rCPVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4D1Zo1m\C6wY3LpMo5tdS6waXiu[493NzJ3NEm3NVMzLz5{NUS5O|E{OjxxYU6=
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HepaR NVfhXWdpTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= M1jWWFEhfU1? M2HxdlEh\GG7 M{e1bWFod26rc4SgZYN1cX[rdImgZZQhWFCDUnfhcY1iKGmwIHj1cYFvKEincHHSJINmdGy|IHHzd4V{e2WmIHHzJIlv[3KnYYPlJIlvKEiPR1PTNkBo\W6nIHX4dJJme3Orb36gZZQhOSC3TTDpcoN2[mG2ZXSg[o9zKDFiZHH5JIJ6KHG3YX70bZRifGm4ZTDQR3IhdWW2aH;kJJJmdGG2aY\lJJRwKHWwdILlZZRm\CClb370do9t Mm\5QIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xcIXicYVlNm6lYnmucoxuNm6raD7nc5YwOjV2OUexN|IoRjJ3NEm3NVMzRC:jPh?=
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3T3L1 M1jocWZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MUG3JIRigXN? NFHqTpBWeHKnZ4XsZZRqd25ib3[gZXAzKHC{b4TlbY4h\XiycnXzd4lwdiCrbjDkbYZn\XKnboTpZZRm\CCvb4Xz[UA{XDOOMTDj[YxteyCjZoTldkA4KGSjeYOgZpkhf2W|dHXyckBjdG:2IHHuZYx6e2m| M1rOWVxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4f3e{5m[mlwYXOueYsw[2inbXLsM4NwdXCxdX7kY5JmeG:{dG;jZZJlN0OKRV3CUFEzOS9pPlPoSW1DVDxxYU6=
3T3L1 NW\1[I9rTnWwY4Tpc44h[XO|YYm= NHLvOFAzPCCqcoO= MYHJcohq[mm2aX;uJI9nKGOqcn;ubYMhcW6|dXzpck1{fGmvdXzheIVlKGmwc4XsbY4hemW|aYP0ZY5k\SCrbjDkbYZn\XKnboTpZZRm\CCvb4Xz[UA{XDOOMTDj[YxteyCjc4Pld5Nm\CCjczCyMYRmd3i7LVStX|NJZS2pbIXjc5NmKHWydHHr[UBi\nSncjCyOEBpenNiYomgd4NqdnSrbHzheIlwdiClb4XueIlv\yCjbnHsfZNqew>? M1\NTlxiKHSjcnfleF0oZ2KuYX7rK{BpemWoPTfoeJRxezpxL4f3e{5m[mlwYXOueYsw[2inbXLsM4NwdXCxdX7kY5JmeG:{dG;jZZJlN0OKRV3CUFEzOS9pPlPoSW1DVDxxYU6=
3T3L1 Ml;kSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? M{DS[FExKHWP NV;nZmtFOjRiaILz MoLHTY5lfWO2aX;uJI9nKGmwc4XsbY4ue3SrbYXsZZRm\CB{LXTlc5h6NURvW{PIYU1odHWlb4PlJJVxfGGtZTDpckBlcW[oZYLlcpRq[XSnZDDtc5V{\SB|VEPMNUBk\WyuczDheEAyOCC3TTDh[pRmeiB{NDDodpMh[nlic3PpcpRqdGyjdHnvckBkd3WwdHnu[{BidmGueYPpdy=> MnvYQIEhfGG{Z3X0QUdg[myjbnunJIhz\WZ;J3j0eJB{Qi9xd4f3MoVjcS6jYz71b{9kcGWvYnyvZ49ueG:3bnTfdoVxd3K2X3PhdoQwS0iHTVLMNVIyNyd-Q3jFUWJNRC:jPh?=
3T3L1 Ml;MSpVv[3Srb36gZZN{[Xl? NIOyXFczKHWP M4\nO|E1KGSjeYO= MWnB[49vcXO2IHHjeIl3cXS7IHH0JHBRSVJiaX6gcY92e2ViM2SzUFEh[2WubIOgZZN{\XO|ZXSgZZMhcW6lcnXhd4UhcW5iYXTpdI9kgXSnIHTp[oZmemWwdHnheIlwdiCjdDCyJJVOKGGodHXyJFE1KGSjeYOgZpkhV2muIGLl[EBQKHO2YXnubY5oKG2ndHjv[C=> MVu8ZUB1[XKpZYS9K39jdGGwazegbJJm\j1paIT0dJM7Ny:5d4eu[YJqNmGlLoXrM4Np\W2kbD;jc41xd3WwZG;y[ZBwenShY3Hy[E9EUEWPQlyxNlEwLz6FaFXNRmw9N2F-
U2OS M17KNGZ2dmO2aX;uJIF{e2G7 MX:xNEB2VQ>? NGrw[pkzPCCqcoO= NXjhcGxySWO2aY\heIlwdiCxZjDQVGFTTyBqdX7rco94diCxcnnnbY4qKGW6cILld5Nm\CCrbjDoeY1idiCXMl;TJINmdGy|IHH0JFExKHWPIHnuZ5Vj[XSnZDDmc5IhOjRiaILzJIJ6KGy3Y3nm[ZJie2VicnXwc5J1\XJiZ3Xu[UBie3OjeR?= NWC5bno6RGFidHHy[4V1RSehYnzhcosoKGi{ZX[9K4h1fHC|Oj:ve5d4NmWkaT7hZ{52cy:laHXtZoww[2:vcH;1coRgemWyb4L0Y4NiemRxQ1jFUWJNOTJzLze+R4hGVUKOPD;hQi=>

... Click to View More Cell Line Experimental Data

Assay
Methods Test Index PMID
Western blot
Cyclin D1 / CDK2 / CDK4 / Bax / Bcl-2 ; 

PubMed: 29725405     


A431 cells at 80% confluence were stimulated with rosiglitazone for 24 h, and the effects on Bax, Bcl-2, cyclin D1, cdk2 and cdk4 expression were analyzed by western blotting. Data were quantified by scanning densitometry, and the ratio of the protein of interest was normalized to GAPDH. Data are presented as means ± SEM (n=3). #P<0.05 (10, 20, 30, 40 mM rosiglitazone treatment compared with control treatment for cyclin D1/GAPDH and Cdk4/GAPDH; 30, 40 mM rosiglitazone treatment compared with control treatment for Cdk2/GAPDH) as analyzed with one-way ANOVA. 

29725405
Immunofluorescence
PPARγ / E-cadherin ; 

PubMed: 27145370     


Increased PPARγ (green) and E-cadherin (red) with rosiglitazone treatment and overlaid image showing colocalization (yellow, arrows) in high glucose condition (30 mM).

27145370
Growth inhibition assay
Cell viability ; 

PubMed: 29725405     


MTS assay of A431 cell viability. A431 cells were incubated with different concentrations (0–100 µM) rosiglitazone for 24 h. Cell viability was determined by MTS assay kit. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation of three independent experiments. #P<0.05 (0 µM rosiglitazone vs. 100 µM rosiglitazone) as analyzed with one-way analysis of variance.

29725405
In vivo

Rosiglitazone administration results in significant bone loss, including a decrease in bone volume, trabecular width, and trabecular number and an increase in trabecular spacing. Rosiglitazone also leads to a decrease in bone formation rate, with a simultaneous increase in fat content in the bone marrow. Rosiglitazone decreases the expression of the osteoblast-specific genes Runx2/Cbfa1, Dlx5, and alpha1(I)collagen, whereas the expression of the adipocyte-specific fatty acid binding protein aP2 is increased. [2] Rosiglitazone upregulates gene transcripts encoding mitochondrial proteins in white adipocytes from ob/ob mice accompanied by an increase in mitochondrial mass and changes in mitochondrial structure. [4]

Protocol

Solubility (25°C)

In vitro DMSO 71 mg/mL (198.64 mM)
Water Insoluble
Ethanol Insoluble
In vivo Add solvents to the product individually and in order(Data is from Selleck tests instead of citations):
4% DMSO+30% PEG 300+5% Tween 80+ddH2O
For best results, use promptly after mixing.
5mg/mL

* Please note that Selleck tests the solubility of all compounds in-house, and the actual solubility may differ slightly from published values. This is normal and is due to slight batch-to-batch variations.

Chemical Information

Molecular Weight 357.43
Formula

C18H19N3O3S

CAS No. 122320-73-4
Storage powder
in solvent
Synonyms N/A
Smiles CN(CCOC1=CC=C(C=C1)CC2C(=O)NC(=O)S2)C3=CC=CC=N3

In vivo Formulation Calculator (Clear solution)

Step 1: Enter information below (Recommended: An additional animal making an allowance for loss during the experiment)
Dosage mg/kg Average weight of animals g Dosing volume per animal ul Number of animals
Step 2: Enter the in vivo formulation ()
% DMSO % % Tween 80 % ddH2O
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Bio Calculators

Molarity Calculator

Molarity Calculator

Calculate the mass, volume or concentration required for a solution. The Selleck molarity calculator is based on the following equation:

Mass (mg) = Concentration (mM) × Volume (mL) × Molecular Weight (g/mol)

  • Mass
    Concentration
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*When preparing stock solutions, please always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the via label and SDS / COA (available on product pages).

Dilution Calculator

Dilution Calculator

Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution. The Selleck dilution calculator is based on the following equation:

Concentration (start) x Volume (start) = Concentration (final) x Volume (final)

This equation is commonly abbreviated as: C1V1 = C2V2 ( Input Output )

  • C1
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    C2
    V2

* When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and SDS / COA (available online).

The Serial Dilution Calculator Equation

  • Serial Dilutions

  • Computed Result

  • C1=C0/X C1: LOG(C1):
    C2=C1/X C2: LOG(C2):
    C3=C2/X C3: LOG(C3):
    C4=C3/X C4: LOG(C4):
    C5=C4/X C5: LOG(C5):
    C6=C5/X C6: LOG(C6):
    C7=C6/X C7: LOG(C7):
    C8=C7/X C8: LOG(C8):
Molecular Weight Calculator

Molecular Weight Calculator

Enter the chemical formula of a compound to calculate its molar mass and elemental composition:

Total Molecular Weight: g/mol

Tip: Chemical formula is case sensitive. C10H16N2O2 c10h16n2o2

Instructions to calculate molar mass (molecular weight) of a chemical compound:

To calculate molar mass of a chemical compound, please enter its chemical formula and click 'Calculate'.

Definitions of molecular mass, molecular weight, molar mass and molar weight:

Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u). (1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12)
Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/mol.

Molarity Calculator

Mass Concentration Volume Molecular Weight

Clinical Trial Information

NCT Number Recruitment interventions Conditions Sponsor/Collaborators Start Date Phases
NCT02737709 Terminated Drug: Paclitaxel and Carboplatin regimen Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Sun Yat-sen University March 2016 Phase 2
NCT01402076 Completed Drug: Tasimelteon|Drug: Rosiglitazone|Drug: Midazolam Healthy Volunteers Vanda Pharmaceuticals August 2011 Phase 1
NCT01100619 Completed Drug: rosiglitazone|Drug: XL184 Papillary Thyroid Cancer|Follicular Thyroid Cancer|Huerthle Cell Thyroid Cancer|Renal Cell Carcinoma Exelixis April 2010 Phase 1
NCT01415128 Completed Drug: Omeprazole|Drug: Rosiglitazone|Drug: Desipramine Erectile Dysfunction VIVUS Inc. April 2010 Phase 1
NCT01376063 Completed Drug: FG-4592 Healthy Adult Subjects FibroGen March 2010 Phase 1

Tech Support

Answers to questions you may have can be found in the inhibitor handling instructions. Topics include how to prepare stock solutions, how to store inhibitors, and issues that need special attention for cell-based assays and animal experiments.

Handling Instructions

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PPAR Signaling Pathway Map

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Cell Lines Assay Type Concentration Incubation Time Formulation Activity Description PMID