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Blog of Signaling Pathways

Overcoming Resistance of Cancer Cells to PARP-1 Inhibitors with Three Different Drug Combinations

982 views | Oct 28 2017

Yalon M et al. showed that combination of vorinostat and ABT-888 could potentially prove useful for treatment of cancer with innate resistance to PARPis due to active HRR machinery, while the combination of vorinostat and 6-TG could potentially overcome innate or acquired resistance to PARPis due to secondary or reversal BRCA mutations, to decreased PARP-1 level or to increased expression of multiple drug resistant proteins. [Read the Full Post]

Cancer-associated fibroblasts promote hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis through chemokine-activated hedgehog and TGF-β pathways

1216 views | Oct 28 2017

Liu J et al. found that CAF-secreted CCL2, CCL5, CCL7 and CXCL16 promote HCC metastasis through the coordinate activation of Hh and TGF-β pathways in HCC cells. [Read the Full Post]

Disulfiram overcomes bortezomib and cytarabine resistance in Down-syndrome-associated acute myeloid leukemia cells

722 views | Oct 26 2017

Bista R et al. provided evidence that DSF/Cu2+ overcomes Ara-C and BTZ resistance in cell lines from DS-AMKL patients. A novel mutation underlying BTZ resistance was detected that may identify BTZ-resistant patients, who may not benefit from treatment with CFZ or Ara-C, but may be responsive to DSF/Cu2+. Our findings support the clinical development of DSF/Cu2+ as a less toxic efficacious treatment approach in patients with relapsed/refractory DS-AMKL. [Read the Full Post]

MEK inhibitors block growth of lung tumours with mutations in ataxia-telangiectasia mutated

1190 views | Oct 26 2017

Smida M et al. showed that ATM mutational status in lung cancer is a mechanistic biomarker for MEK inhibitor response, which may improve patient stratification and extend the applicability of these drugs beyond RAS and BRAF mutant tumours. [Read the Full Post]

Impairment of Cargo Transportation Caused by gbf1 Mutation Disrupts Vascular Integrity and Causes Hemorrhage in Zebrafish Embryos

1121 views | Oct 25 2017

Chen J et al. showed that endothelial endoplasmic reticulum stress and subsequent apoptosis induced by gbf1 deficiency may account for the vascular collapse and hemorrhage. [Read the Full Post]

EMT is associated with, but does not drive resistance to ALK inhibitors among EML4-ALK non-small cell lung cancer

0 views | Oct 25 2017

Gower A et al. showed that EMT does not drive resistance to ALK inhibitors and HSP90 inhibition demonstrates more efficacy when further ALK inhibition may not. This study warrants more exploration of HSP90 inhibitors for ALK-positive patients who progress on 1st and 2nd line ALK inhibitor therapy. [Read the Full Post]

Targeting the Notch-regulated non-coding RNA TUG1 for glioma treatment

1833 views | Oct 24 2017

Katsushima K et al. showed that highlight the importance of the Notch-lncRNA axis in regulating self-renewal of glioma cells and provide a strong rationale for targeting TUG1 as a specific and potent therapeutic approach to eliminate the GSC population. [Read the Full Post]

PI3K Inhibitors Synergize with FGFR Inhibitors to Enhance Antitumor Responses in FGFR2mutant Endometrial Cancers

0 views | Oct 24 2017

Packer L et al. provided evidence that subtherapeutic doses of PI3K inhibitors enhance the efficacy of anti-FGFR therapies, and a combination therapy may represent a superior therapeutic treatment in patients with FGFR2mutant endometrial cancer. [Read the Full Post]

HSPA5 Regulates Ferroptotic Cell Death in Cancer Cells

737 views | Oct 23 2017

Zhu S et al. identified a novel role of HSPA5 in ferroptosis and suggest a potential therapeutic strategy for overcoming gemcitabine resistance. [Read the Full Post]

Chemotherapy-induced Dkk-1 expression by primary human mesenchymal stem cells is p53 dependent

1252 views | Oct 23 2017

Hare I et al. indicated that Dkk-1 has been shown to promote tumor growth in several models of malignancy, suggesting that MSC-derived Dkk-1 could counteract the intent of cytotoxic chemotherapy, and that pharmacologic inhibition of Dkk-1 in patients receiving chemotherapy treatment for certain malignancies may be warranted. [Read the Full Post]

Novel Mechanisms for the Antifibrotic Action of Nintedanib

1460 views | Oct 22 2017

Rangarajan S et al. showed that Nintedanib down-regulated protein and mRNA expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, fibronectin, and collagen 1a1 while inhibiting transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation. Nintedanib also induced beclin-1-dependent, ATG7-independent autophagy. Nintedanib's ECM-suppressive actions were not mediated by canonical autophagy. Nintedanib inhibited early events in TGF-β signaling, specifically tyrosine phosphorylation of the type II TGF-β receptor, activation of SMAD3, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Nintedanib down-regulates ECM production and induces noncanonical autophagy in IPF fibroblasts while inhibiting TGF-β signaling. [Read the Full Post]

ABT-888 and quinacrine induced apoptosis in metastatic breast cancer stem cells by inhibiting base excision repair via adenomatous polyposis coli

1357 views | Oct 22 2017

Siddharth S et al. showed that increased APC physically interacts with PARP-1 and inhibits PARylation causing the non assembly of base excision repair (BER) multiprotein complex, resulting in an irreparable DNA damage and subsequent apoptosis. Knockdown of APC in mBCSCs inhibited DNA damage, increased BER and PARylation, reduces apoptosis while the over-expression of APC in BT20 (APC low expressing) cells reversed the effect. Thus, combination of QC and ABT-888 decreased mBCSCs growth by activating APC and inhibiting BER within the cells. [Read the Full Post]

Transforming growth factor-β1 suppresses bone morphogenetic protein-2-induced mesenchymal-epithelial transition in HSC-4 human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells via Smad1/5/9 pathway suppression

1158 views | Oct 21 2017

Chiba T et al. suggested that TGF-β positively regulates hOSCC invasion in the primary tumor, whereas BMP-2 facilitates cancer cell colonization at secondary metastatic sites. Thus, the invasive and metastatic characteristics of hOSCC appear to be reciprocally regulated by BMP and TGF-β. [Read the Full Post]

Synthetic Lethality Exploitation by an Anti-Trop-2-SN-38 Antibody-Drug Conjugate, IMMU-132, Plus PARP Inhibitors in BRCA1/2-wild-type Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

1312 views | Oct 20 2017

Cardillo TM et al. demonstrated the added benefit of combining Topo I inhibition mediated by IMMU-132 with synthetic lethality provided by PARPi in TNBC, regardless of BRCA1/2 status, thus supporting the rationale for such a combination clinically. [Read the Full Post]

Nuclear Export of Ubiquitinated Proteins Determines the Sensitivity of Colorectal Cancer to Proteasome Inhibitor

665 views | Oct 20 2017

Wu T et al. indicated that nuclear p53 is a major mediator in the synergistic antitumor effect of bortezomib and KPT330, and provides a rationale for the use of proteasome inhibitor together with nuclear export blocker in the treatment of colorectal cancer. It is conceivable that targeting nuclear exportation may serve as a novel strategy to overcome resistance and raise chemotherapeutic efficacy, especially for the drugs that activate the p53 system. [Read the Full Post]

Crosstalk between the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway and the tumor suppressors p53 and p27 determines cisplatin sensitivity and limits the effectiveness of an IGF-1R pathway inhibitor

606 views | Oct 19 2017

Davaadelger B, et al. demonstrated 1) p53 expression determines the effect of IGF-1R inhibition on cancer cell CP response, and 2) crosstalk between the IGF-1R/AKT/mTORC1 pathway and p53 and p27 can reduce cancer cell responsiveness to chemotherapy and may ultimately limit the effectiveness of IGF-1R pathway inhibitors in the clinic. [Read the Full Post]

Cytokine correlation analysis based on drug perturbation

0 views | Oct 19 2017

Wallner FK et al. showed that cytokines are highly co-regulated, which provide valuable information for how a therapeutic drug might affect clusters of cytokines. In addition, a cytokine that is used as a therapeutic biomarker could be combined with its related cytokines into a biomarker panel to improve diagnostic accuracy. [Read the Full Post]

Cytokine correlation analysis based on drug perturbation

0 views | Oct 18 2017

Wallner FK et al. showed that cytokines are highly co-regulated, which provide valuable information for how a therapeutic drug might affect clusters of cytokines. In addition, a cytokine that is used as a therapeutic biomarker could be combined with its related cytokines into a biomarker panel to improve diagnostic accuracy. [Read the Full Post]

Cytokine correlation analysis based on drug perturbation

2753 views | Oct 17 2017

Wallner FK et al. showed that cytokines are highly co-regulated, which provide valuable information for how a therapeutic drug might affect clusters of cytokines. In addition, a cytokine that is used as a therapeutic biomarker could be combined with its related cytokines into a biomarker panel to improve diagnostic accuracy. [Read the Full Post]

Canonical hedgehog signalling regulates hepatic stellate cell-mediated angiogenesis in liver fibrosis

1648 views | Oct 16 2017

Zhang F et al. provided evidence that the canonical hedgehog pathway controlled HSC-mediated liver angiogenesis. Selective inhibition of HSC hedgehog signalling could be a promising therapeutic approach for hepatic fibrosis. [Read the Full Post]