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Blog of Signaling Pathways

Overview of CDK9 as a target in cancer research

42 views | Aug 13 2019

Morales F et al. concluded that there are many small molecules that bind to CDK9, but their lack of selectivity against other CDKs do not allow them to get to the clinical use. However, drug designers currently have the tools needed to improve the selectivity of CDK9 inhibitors and to make successful treatment available to patients. [Read the Full Post]

Doxorubicin as a fluorescent reporter identifies novel MRP1 (ABCC1) inhibitors missed by calcein-based high content screening of anticancer agents

68 views | Aug 13 2019

Sampson A et al. indicated mifepristone and doramapimod as pan inhibitors of these three drug transporters while celecoxib exhibited selective MRP1 inhibition. Together, our findings signify the importance of MRP1 in drug discovery and demonstrate the effectiveness and value of doxorubicin-based high content screening approach. Anti-cancer agents that exhibit MRP1 inhibition may be used to reverse multidrug resistance or to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of various cancer chemotherapies. On the other hand, anti-cancer drugs that did not interact with MRP1 carry a low risk for developing MRP1-mediated resistance. [Read the Full Post]

First-in-human dose study of the novel transforming growth factor-β receptor I kinase inhibitor LY2157299 monohydrate in patients with advanced cancer and glioma

141 views | Aug 12 2019

Rodon J et al. showed that on the basis of the safety, pharmacokinetics, and antitumor activity in patients with glioma, the intermittent administration of LY2157299 at 300 mg/day is safe for future clinical investigation. [Read the Full Post]

Efficacy of the CDK inhibitor dinaciclib in vitro and in vivo in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia

0 views | Aug 12 2019

Moharram SA et al. identified the CDK inhibitor dinaciclib as a potential drug for T-ALL. Dinaciclib treatment significantly reduced cell viability and completely blocked colony formation. Furthermore, cells treated with dinaciclibshowed decreased expression of several pro-survival proteins including survivin, cyclin T1 and c-MYC. Dinaciclib treatment also increased accumulation of cells in G2/M phase and significantly induced apoptosis. Finally, dinaciclib extended survival of mice in a T-ALL cell xenograft model. Collectively, these data suggest that the CDK inhibitor dinaciclib is an active drug for T-ALL in the preclinical settings. [Read the Full Post]

The Wnt inhibitor LGK-974 enhances radiosensitivity of HepG2 cells by modulating Nrf2 signaling

67 views | Aug 11 2019

Tian D et al. found that HepG2 cells became more sensitive to radiation with increasing LGK-974 concentrations. Upon 2 Gy or 4 Gy irradiation, the cells treated with LGK-974 more frequently underwent apoptosis and grew less rapidly. PCR and western blot results showed that inhibiting the secretion of Wnt3A blocked the Wnt signaling pathway and prevented Nrf2 signaling. Notably, the Wnt inhibitor may serve as a radiosensitizing drug. [Read the Full Post]

Clinical development of galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate), a small molecule inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway

66 views | Aug 11 2019

Herbertz S et al. summarized the past and current experiences with different pharmacological treatments that enabled galunisertib to be investigated in patients. [Read the Full Post]

Treatment Patterns in Patients with Chronic-Phase Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia in Routine Clinical Practice: the SIMPLICITY Italian Population

253 views | Aug 10 2019

Abruzzese E et al. provided valuable insights into management and treatment patterns in Italian patients with CML within routine clinical practice. [Read the Full Post]

Inhibition of the amino-acid transporter LAT1 demonstrates anti-neoplastic activity in medulloblastoma

42 views | Aug 10 2019

Cormerais Y et al. demonstrated that a long-term treatment with JPH203 does not lead to resistance in MB cells. Therefore, this study suggests that targeting LAT1 with JPH203 is a promising therapeutic approach for MB treatment. [Read the Full Post]

Allosteric inhibition of SHP2 phosphatase inhibits cancers driven by receptor tyrosine kinases

55 views | Aug 09 2019

Chen YN et al. demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of SHP2 is a valid therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancers. [Read the Full Post]

Irinotecan monotherapy as third-line or later treatment in advanced gastric cancer

60 views | Aug 09 2019

Makiyama A et al. showed that Irinotecan monotherapy was relatively safely performed as salvage-line treatment for AGC in Japanese clinical practice. Careful patient selection and intensive modification of the dose of irinotecan might possibly be associated with favorable survival. [Read the Full Post]

Protection of Mcc950 against high-glucose-induced human retinal endothelial cell dysfunction

45 views | Aug 08 2019

Zhang Y et al. showed that Mcc950 inhibited HREC dysfunction under high-glucose conditions and this research may offer insight for future pharmaceutical approaches for treating DR. [Read the Full Post]

Safety and efficacy of INCB018424, a JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, in myelofibrosis

128 views | Aug 07 2019

Verstovsek S et al. indicated that INCB018424 was associated with marked and durable clinical benefits in patients with myelofibrosis for whom no approved therapies existed. [Read the Full Post]

Targeting autophagy potentiates the anti-tumor effect of PARP inhibitor in pediatric chronic myeloid leukemia

75 views | Aug 07 2019

Liu Y et al. demonstrated that autophagy played a cyto-protective role in talazoparib-treated pediatric CML and co-treatment with talazoparib and autophagy inhibitor could induce synergetic anti-tumor effect, providing novel insights for pediatric CML treatment. [Read the Full Post]

Heme oxygenase-1 accelerates erastin-induced ferroptotic cell death

49 views | Aug 06 2019

Kwon MY et al. showed that hemin and CORM accelerate the HO-1 expression in the presence of Erastin and increase membranous lipid peroxidation. Thus, HO-1 is an essential enzyme for iron-dependent lipid peroxidation during ferroptotic cell death. [Read the Full Post]

RSL3 and Erastin differentially regulate redox signaling to promote Smac mimetic-induced cell death

0 views | Aug 06 2019

Dächert J et al. showed that RSL3/BV6 and Erastin/BV6 differentially regulate redox signaling and cell death in ALL cells. While RSL3/BV6 cotreatment induces ferroptotic cell death, Erastin/BV6 stimulates oxidative cell death independently of iron. These findings have important implications for the therapeutic targeting of redox signaling to enhance Smac mimetic-induced cell death in ALL. [Read the Full Post]

Supramolecular Nanorods of (N-Methylpyridyl) Porphyrin With Captisol: Effective Photosensitizer for Anti-bacterial and Anti-tumor Activitie

42 views | Aug 05 2019

Khurana R et al. indicatted that all these synergistic effects of supramolecular nanorods of Captisol-TMPyP complex make the system an effective photosensitizer and a superior antibacterial and antitumor agent. [Read the Full Post]

PF-06463922 is a potent and selective next-generation ROS1/ALK inhibitor capable of blocking crizotinib-resistant ROS1 mutations

114 views | Aug 05 2019

Zou HY et al. indicated that PF-06463922 has potential for treating ROS1 fusion-positive cancers, including those requiring agents with CNS-penetrating properties, as well as for overcoming crizotinib resistance driven by ROS1 mutation. [Read the Full Post]

Human primary liver cancer-derived organoid cultures for disease modeling and drug screening

44 views | Aug 04 2019

Broutier L et al. demonstrated the wide-ranging biomedical utilities of PLC-derived organoid models in furthering the understanding of liver cancer biology and in developing personalized-medicine approaches for the disease. [Read the Full Post]

Phase Ib study of the combination of pexidartinib (PLX3397), a CSF-1R inhibitor, and paclitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumors

58 views | Aug 03 2019

Wesolowski R et al. showed the combination of pexidartinib and paclitaxel was generally well tolerated. RP2D for pexidartinib was 1600 mg/day. Pexidartinib blocked CSF-1R signaling, indicating potential for mitigating macrophage tumor infiltration. [Read the Full Post]

Conversion of Terminally Committed Hepatocytes to Culturable Bipotent Progenitor Cells with Regenerative Capacity

75 views | Aug 03 2019

Katsuda T et al. reported that a cocktail of small molecules, Y-27632, A-83-01, and CHIR99021, can convert rat and mouse MHs in vitro into proliferative bipotent cells, which we term chemically induced liver progenitors (CLiPs). CLiPs can differentiate into both MHs and biliary epithelial cells that can form functional ductal structures. CLiPs in long-term culture did not lose their proliferative capacity or their hepatic differentiation ability, and rat CLiPs were shown to extensively repopulate chronically injured liver tissue. Thus, our study advances the goals of liver regenerative medicine. [Read the Full Post]