Blog of Signaling Pathways

Lorlatinib in non-small-cell lung cancer with ALK or ROS1 rearrangement: an international, multicentre, open-label, single-arm first-in-man phase 1 trial

420 views | May 07 2019

Shaw AT et al. indicated lorlatinib might be an effective therapeutic strategy for patients with ALK-positive NSCLC who have become resistant to currently available TKIs, including second-generation ALK TKIs, and is being investigated in a phase 3 randomised controlled trial comparing lorlatinib to crizotinib (, NCT03052608). [Read the Full Post]

Barasertib (AZD1152), a Small Molecule Aurora B Inhibitor, Inhibits the Growth of SCLC Cell Lines In Vitro and In Vivo

340 views | May 07 2019

Helfrich BA et al. suggested that SCLC tumors with cMYC amplification/high gene expression will frequently respond to Aurora B inhibitors and that clinical studies coupled with predictive biomarkers are indicated. [Read the Full Post]

Drug sensitivity profiling identifies potential therapies for lymphoproliferative disorders with overactive JAK/STAT3 signaling

430 views | May 06 2019

Kuusanmäki H et al. showed alternative approaches to inhibit STAT3 activity and suggest Hsp90 as a therapeutic target in lymphoproliferative disorders with constitutively active STAT3. [Read the Full Post]

MPP+ induces necrostatin-1- and ferrostatin-1-sensitive necrotic death of neuronal SH-SY5Y cells

0 views | May 06 2019

Ito K et al. found that MPP+ predominantly induced non-apoptotic death of neuronally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. This cell death was strongly inhibited by necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), a necroptosis inhibitor, and by an indole-containing compound (3,3'-diindolylmethane: DIM). However, it occurred independently of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1/3 (RIP1/RIP3), indicating that this form of cell death was not necroptosis. MPP+-induced cell death was also inhibited by several inhibitors of ferroptosis, including ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1). Although MPP+-induced death and ferroptosis shared some features, such as occurrence of lipid peroxidation and inhibition by Fer-1, MPP+-induced death seemed to be distinct from ferroptosis because MPP+-induced death (but not ferroptosis) was inhibited by Nec-1, was independent of p53, and was accompanied by ATP depletion and mitochondrial swelling. Further investigation of MPP+-induced non-apoptotic cell death may be useful for understanding the mechanisms of neuronal loss and for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease. [Read the Full Post]

Superior anti-tumor activity of the MDM2 antagonist idasanutlin and the Bcl-2 inhibitor venetoclax in p53 wild-type acute myeloid leukemia models

0 views | May 04 2019

Lehmann C et al. provided functional and molecular insight on the superior anti-tumor activity of combined idasanutlin and venetoclax treatment in AML and support its further exploration in clinical studies. [Read the Full Post]

Suppression of human T cell proliferation by the caspase inhibitors, z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK is independent of their caspase inhibition properties

409 views | May 04 2019

Lawrence CP et al. demonstrated that both z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK are immunosuppressive in vitro and inhibit T cell proliferation without blocking the processing of caspase-8 and caspase-3. [Read the Full Post]

Simultaneous long-lasting regression of multiple nevi and melanoma metastases after ipilimumab therapy

201 views | May 03 2019

Plaquevent M et al. suggested that a major regression of multiple nevi on ipilimumab might be associated with immunotherapy response. [Read the Full Post]

Embryonic stem cells differentiated into neuron-like cells using SB431542 small molecule on nanofibrous PLA/CS/Wax scaffold

268 views | May 03 2019

Hoveizi E et al. revealed that electrospun PLA/CS/Wax scaffolds associated with the induction medium can assemble proper conditions for stem cell differentiation into NLCs. [Read the Full Post]

Vemurafenib Treatment of Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma in a Child With Down Syndrome

192 views | May 02 2019

Petruzzellis G et al. report the case of an 8-years-old child with DS that presented to our attention for neurological and endocrinological issues. [Read the Full Post]

Mortalin (GRP75/HSPA9) Promotes Survival and Proliferation of Thyroid Carcinoma Cells

155 views | May 02 2019

Mito-CP-induced cell death was partially rescued by mortalin overexpression, suggesting that Mito-CP may inactivate a mechanism that requires mortalin function. These findings support the significance of mortalin and mitochondrial activity in a broad spectrum of thyroid cancer. [Read the Full Post]

On the Mechanism of Cytoprotection by Ferrostatin-1 and Liproxstatin-1 and the Role of Lipid Peroxidation in Ferroptotic Cell Death

272 views | Apr 30 2019

Zilka O et al. demonstrated that potent RTAs subvert ferroptosis and suggest that lipid peroxidation (autoxidation) may play a central role in the process. [Read the Full Post]

Treatment of γ-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) and γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) Overdose with Two Potent Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1) Inhibitors, AZD3965 and AR-C155858

493 views | Apr 29 2019

Follman KE et al. indicated that inhibition of MCT1 is an effective treatment for GHB/GBL overdose. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This research demonstrates the efficacy of a potent MCT1 inhibitor, AZD2965, as a treatment for GHB overdose. AZD3965 was shown to reduce the brain exposure of GHB, and therefore reduce the toxic impact of GHB. This compound may have the potential to be developed to treat GHB overdose clinically. [Read the Full Post]

A Preclinical Model for Studying Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

254 views | Apr 29 2019

Tajpara P et al. discovered that both drugs had a comparable efficacy for inhibiting HSV-1 replication, suggesting that pritelivir could be an alternative therapeutic agent for patients infected with acyclovir-resistant strains. To our knowledge, we present a previously unreported ex vivo HSV-1 infection model with abdominal human skin to test antiviral drugs, thus bridging the gap between in vitro and in vivo drug screening and providing a valuable preclinical platform for HSV research. [Read the Full Post]

In vitro activity of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CYC202 (Seliciclib, R-roscovitine) in mantle cell lymphomas

225 views | Apr 28 2019

Lacrima K et al. suggested that CYC202 is an active agent in MCL. The concomitant decrease of the phosphorylated and total forms of RNA polymerase II suggests that this could be the main mechanism mediating the biological effects of CYC202 in MCL cells. The drug might represent a new therapeutic agent in this lymphoma subtype. [Read the Full Post]

Targeting ERK1/2 protein-serine/threonine kinases in human cancers

232 views | Apr 28 2019

Roskoski R Jr indicated that Ulixertinib, MK-8353, and GDC-0994 are orally effective, potent, and specific inhibitors of ERK1/2 that are in early clinical trials for the treatment of various advanced/metastatic solid tumors. These agents are effective against cell lines that are resistant to B-Raf and MEK1/2 inhibitor therapy. Although MK-8353 does not directly inhibit MEK1/2, it decreases the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 as well as the phosphorylation of RSK, an ERK1/2 substrate. The decrease in RSK phosphorylation appears to be a result of ERK inhibition and the decrease in ERK1/2 phosphorylation is related to the inability of MEK to catalyze the phosphorylation of the ERK-MK-8353 complex; these decreases characterize the ERK dual mechanism inhibition paradigm. Additional work will be required to determine whether ERK inhibitors will be successful in the clinic and are able to forestall the development of drug resistance of the MAP kinase pathway. [Read the Full Post]

Thromboembolic events in polycythemia vera

585 views | Apr 27 2019

Griesshammer M et al. discussed factors associated with thrombosis and recent data on current treatments, including anticoagulation, highlighting the need for more controlled studies to determine the most effective cytoreductive therapies for reducing the risk of thrombosis in patients with PV. [Read the Full Post]

Quantitative Interrogation of the Human Kinome Perturbed by Two BRAF Inhibitors

188 views | Apr 27 2019

We confirmed that vemurafenib could compromise the ATP binding capacity of MAP2K5 in vitro and inhibit its kinase activity in cells. [Read the Full Post]

Mechanisms of Action of Ruxolitinib in Murine Models of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

637 views | Apr 26 2019

Ruxolitinib operates through IFNγ-dependent and independent mechanisms to dampen HLH by targeting the deleterious effects of T cells and neutrophils, the latter representing an unappreciated and understudied cell type that contributes to HLH pathogenesis. [Read the Full Post]

A possible mechanism for hepatotoxicity induced by BIRB-796, an orally active p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor

234 views | Apr 25 2019

Iwano S et al. indicated that a reactive intermediate of BIRB-796 was detected by the glutathione-trapping method using mouse and human liver microsomes. The production of this reactive metabolite in the liver may be one of the causes of BIRB-796's hepatotoxicity. [Read the Full Post]

Integrated analysis of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases identifies Axl as a therapeutic target and mediator of resistance to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma

206 views | Apr 24 2019

Pinato DJ et al. found that suppression of Axl-dependent signalling influences the transformed phenotype in HCC cells and contributes to adaptive resistance to sorafenib, providing a pre-clinical rationale for the development of Axl inhibitors as a measure to overcome sorafenib resistance. [Read the Full Post]