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Blog of Signaling Pathways

Small molecule epigenetic screen identifies novel EZH2 and HDAC inhibitors that target glioblastoma brain tumor-initiating cells

344 views | Jun 30 2018

Grinshtein N et al. identified key epigenetic modulators in GBM that regulate BTIC growth and survival and highlight promising combination therapies. [Read the Full Post]

Pharmacological inhibition of NOX4 ameliorates alcohol-induced liver injury in mice through improving oxidative stress and mitochondrial function

393 views | Jun 29 2018

Sun Q et al. found that pharmacological inhibition of NOX4 activity protects against alcohol-induced fat accumulation and activation of intrinsic apoptosis via improving mitochondrial function. [Read the Full Post]

FcγRIIB mediates antigen-independent inhibition on human B lymphocytes through Btk and p38 MAPK

532 views | Jun 29 2018

Tzeng SJ et al. found the importance of antigen-independent inhibition by FcγRIIB in the prevention from antibody-mediated autoimmune diseases and in the regulation of B cell homeostasis. [Read the Full Post]

Therapeutic effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors in a murine asthma model

592 views | Jun 28 2018

Ren Y, et al. suggested that treatment with HDAC inhibitors can reduce airway inflammation, airway remodeling, and airway hyperresponsiveness in chronic allergic airway disease in mice. [Read the Full Post]

LTR12 promoter activation in a broad range of human tumor cells by HDAC inhibition

619 views | Jun 28 2018

Krönung SK et al. showed that inhibition of HDAC1-3 is sufficient for LTR12 activation. Importantly, HDAC inhibitors induce LTR12 activity not only in testicular cancer cells, but also in cells derived from many additional tumor species. Finally, we characterize the transcription factor NF-Y as a mediator of LTR12 promoter activity and HDAC inhibitor-induced apoptosis, in the context of widespread genomic binding of NF-Y to specific LTR12 sequences. Thus, HDAC inhibitor-driven LTR12 activation represents a generally applicable means to induce proapoptotic genes in human cancer cells. [Read the Full Post]

Identification of approved and investigational drugs that inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 signaling

603 views | Jun 27 2018

Hsu CW et al. underline the importance of developing a battery of robust assay platforms and confirmation studies that focus on endogenous protein targets so that only relevant and reliable data will be taken into pre-clinical and clinical studies. [Read the Full Post]

HDAC5, a potential therapeutic target and prognostic biomarker, promotes proliferation, invasion and migration in human breast cancer

681 views | Jun 27 2018

Li A et al. indicated that HDAC5 is a promising prognostic marker and drug target for BC and that the combination of LMK-235 and bortezomib presents a novel therapeutic strategy for BC. [Read the Full Post]

HPOB, an HDAC6 inhibitor, attenuates corticosterone-induced injury in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma PC12 cells by inhibiting mitochondrial GR translocation and the intrinsic apoptosis pathway

580 views | Jun 26 2018

Li ZY et al. suggested that the anti-apoptotic activity of HDAC6 inhibition against the mitochondria-mediated impairment pathway might be mechanistically linked to the hyperacetylation of Hsps and consequent suppression of GR translocation to the mitochondria. [Read the Full Post]

Investigation of MTH1 activity via mismatch-based DNA chain elongation

365 views | Jun 26 2018

As the method is designed directly towards the cellular function of MTH1, activity of MTH1 in different breast cancer cell lines has been detected, implying the potential application of this assay method for biomedical research and clinical diagnose in the future. [Read the Full Post]

Inhibition of local estrogen synthesis in the hippocampus impairs hippocampal memory consolidation in ovariectomized female mice

0 views | Jun 25 2018

Tuscher JJ et al. examined the role of hippocampal E2 synthesis in hippocampal memory consolidation. Using bilateral dorsal hippocampal infusions of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole, we first found that blockade of dorsal hippocampal E2 synthesis impaired hippocampal memory consolidation. We next found that elevated levels of E2 in the dorsal hippocampus observed 30min after object training were blocked by dorsal hippocampal infusion of letrozole, suggesting that behavioral experience increases acute and local E2 synthesis. Finally, aromatase inhibition did not prevent exogenous E2 from enhancing hippocampal memory consolidation, indicating that hippocampal E2 synthesis is not necessary for exogenous E2 to enhance hippocampal memory. Combined, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that hippocampally-synthesized E2 is necessary for hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation in rodents. [Read the Full Post]

Adenovirus-mediated TIPE2 overexpression inhibits gastric cancer metastasis via reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition

693 views | Jun 25 2018

Yin H et al. provided the first evidence that TIPE2 inhibits gastric cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis very probably via reversal of EMT, revealing that TIPE2 may be a novel therapeutic target for human gastric cancer EMT and metastasis. [Read the Full Post]

Estrogen promotes the brain metastatic colonization of triple negative breast cancer cells via an astrocyte-mediated paracrine mechanism

389 views | Jun 24 2018

Sartorius CA et al. provided a novel mechanism by which estrogens, acting through ER+ astrocytes in the brain microenvironment, can promote BM of TN breast cancers, and suggests existing endocrine agents may provide some clinical benefit towards reducing and managing BM. [Read the Full Post]

Letrozole-induced functional changes in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts and their influence on breast cancer cell biology

430 views | Jun 24 2018

Li K et al. revealed that down-regulation of several secreted factors (CCL2, CCL5, CXCL1 etc.) in CAFs might be partially responsible for the efficacy of letrozole. [Read the Full Post]

Targeting the gyrase of Plasmodium falciparum with topoisomerase poisons

412 views | Jun 23 2018

Tang Girdwood SC et al. highlighted the utility of the new methods and of fluoroquinolones as a tool for studying the in situ workings of gyrase and its plDNA substrate. [Read the Full Post]

Acetylation of p53 Protein at Lysine 120 Up-regulates Apaf-1 Protein-and-Sensitizes-the-Mitochondrial-Apoptotic-Pathway

775 views | Jun 23 2018

Yun T et al. found that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, including butyrate, augment Lys-120 acetylation of p53 and thus Apaf-1 expression by inhibiting HDAC1. [Read the Full Post]

Ionizing Radiation Induces Altered Neuronal Differentiation by mGluR1 through PI3K-STAT3 Signaling in C17.2 Mouse Neural Stem-Like Cells

321 views | Jun 22 2018

Eom HS et al. suggested that the IR-induced altered neuronal differentiation may play a role in the brain dysfunction caused by IR. [Read the Full Post]

A cell-autonomous tumour suppressor role of RAF1 in hepatocarcinogenesis

420 views | Jun 22 2018

Jeric I et al. indicated the contribution of the cellular/tissue environment in determining the function of a protein, and underscores the importance of understanding the molecular context of a disease to inform therapy design. [Read the Full Post]

Identification of cytotoxic agents disrupting synovial sarcoma oncoprotein interactions by proximity ligation assay

0 views | Jun 21 2018

Laporte AN et al. reported use of the proximity ligation assay to confirm the oncogenic association of SS18-SSX with its co-factor TLE1 in multiple human synovial sarcoma cell lines and in surgically-excised human tumor tissue. SS18-SSX/TLE1 interactions are disrupted by class I HDAC inhibitors and novel small molecule inhibitors. This assay can be applied in a high-throughput format for drug discovery in fusion-oncoprotein associated cancers where key effector partners are known. [Read the Full Post]

Registered report: RAF inhibitors prime wild-type RAF to activate the MAPK pathway and enhance growth

328 views | Jun 21 2018

Bhargava A et al. indicated that cancer Biology is a collaboration between the Center for Open Science and Science Exchange, and the results of the replications will be published by eLife. [Read the Full Post]

Loss of ARID1A expression leads to sensitivity to ROS-inducing agent elesclomol in gynecologic cancer cells

591 views | Jun 20 2018

Kwan SY et al. demonstrated for the first time that loss of ARID1A leads to accumulation of ROS and suggest that elesclomol may be used to target ARID1A-mutant gynecologic cancer cells. [Read the Full Post]