Category

Archives

Blog of Signaling Pathways

A Preclinical Model for Studying Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

119 views | Apr 29 2019

Tajpara P et al. discovered that both drugs had a comparable efficacy for inhibiting HSV-1 replication, suggesting that pritelivir could be an alternative therapeutic agent for patients infected with acyclovir-resistant strains. To our knowledge, we present a previously unreported ex vivo HSV-1 infection model with abdominal human skin to test antiviral drugs, thus bridging the gap between in vitro and in vivo drug screening and providing a valuable preclinical platform for HSV research. [Read the Full Post]

In vitro activity of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor CYC202 (Seliciclib, R-roscovitine) in mantle cell lymphomas

96 views | Apr 28 2019

Lacrima K et al. suggested that CYC202 is an active agent in MCL. The concomitant decrease of the phosphorylated and total forms of RNA polymerase II suggests that this could be the main mechanism mediating the biological effects of CYC202 in MCL cells. The drug might represent a new therapeutic agent in this lymphoma subtype. [Read the Full Post]

Targeting ERK1/2 protein-serine/threonine kinases in human cancers

109 views | Apr 28 2019

Roskoski R Jr indicated that Ulixertinib, MK-8353, and GDC-0994 are orally effective, potent, and specific inhibitors of ERK1/2 that are in early clinical trials for the treatment of various advanced/metastatic solid tumors. These agents are effective against cell lines that are resistant to B-Raf and MEK1/2 inhibitor therapy. Although MK-8353 does not directly inhibit MEK1/2, it decreases the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 as well as the phosphorylation of RSK, an ERK1/2 substrate. The decrease in RSK phosphorylation appears to be a result of ERK inhibition and the decrease in ERK1/2 phosphorylation is related to the inability of MEK to catalyze the phosphorylation of the ERK-MK-8353 complex; these decreases characterize the ERK dual mechanism inhibition paradigm. Additional work will be required to determine whether ERK inhibitors will be successful in the clinic and are able to forestall the development of drug resistance of the MAP kinase pathway. [Read the Full Post]

Thromboembolic events in polycythemia vera

266 views | Apr 27 2019

Griesshammer M et al. discussed factors associated with thrombosis and recent data on current treatments, including anticoagulation, highlighting the need for more controlled studies to determine the most effective cytoreductive therapies for reducing the risk of thrombosis in patients with PV. [Read the Full Post]

Quantitative Interrogation of the Human Kinome Perturbed by Two BRAF Inhibitors

96 views | Apr 27 2019

We confirmed that vemurafenib could compromise the ATP binding capacity of MAP2K5 in vitro and inhibit its kinase activity in cells. [Read the Full Post]

Mechanisms of Action of Ruxolitinib in Murine Models of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

286 views | Apr 26 2019

Ruxolitinib operates through IFNγ-dependent and independent mechanisms to dampen HLH by targeting the deleterious effects of T cells and neutrophils, the latter representing an unappreciated and understudied cell type that contributes to HLH pathogenesis. [Read the Full Post]

A possible mechanism for hepatotoxicity induced by BIRB-796, an orally active p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor

117 views | Apr 25 2019

Iwano S et al. indicated that a reactive intermediate of BIRB-796 was detected by the glutathione-trapping method using mouse and human liver microsomes. The production of this reactive metabolite in the liver may be one of the causes of BIRB-796's hepatotoxicity. [Read the Full Post]

Integrated analysis of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases identifies Axl as a therapeutic target and mediator of resistance to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma

88 views | Apr 24 2019

Pinato DJ et al. found that suppression of Axl-dependent signalling influences the transformed phenotype in HCC cells and contributes to adaptive resistance to sorafenib, providing a pre-clinical rationale for the development of Axl inhibitors as a measure to overcome sorafenib resistance. [Read the Full Post]

Favorable predictors for survival in advanced ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer patients beyond crizotinib resistance

191 views | Apr 24 2019

Xu H et al. found that long PFS with crizotinib (≥10.4 months), intracranial progression, and use of next-generation ALK inhibitors might be favorable predictors for OS in advanced ALK-positive NSCLC patients. [Read the Full Post]

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibitor APO866 induces C6 glioblastoma cell death via autophagy

119 views | Apr 23 2019

Yang P et al indicated that APO866 induced pro-death autophagy in C6 glioblastoma cells by decreasing intracellular NAD, and low concentration of APO866 can be used as an autophagy inducer in autophagic-death sensitive glioblastoma. [Read the Full Post]

Population pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in pediatric refractory nephrotic syndrome and a summary of other pediatric disease models

111 views | Apr 23 2019

Wang D et al. developed and validated the first TAC PPK model for patients with PRNS. The study also provided a summary of previous literature concerning other TAC PPK models in different pediatric diseases. [Read the Full Post]

The Caspase 1 Inhibitor VX-765 Protects the Isolated Rat Heart via the RISK Pathway

165 views | Apr 22 2019

Do Carmo H et al. indicated the caspase 1 inhibitor, VX-765, was able to reduce myocardial infarction in a model of IR injury. However, the addition of IPC did not demonstrate any further protection. [Read the Full Post]

FK866-induced NAMPT inhibition activates AMPK and downregulates mTOR signaling in hepatocarcinoma cells

102 views | Apr 22 2019

Schuster S et al. revealed an important role of the NAMPT-mediated NAD salvage pathway in the energy homeostasis of hepatocarcinoma cells and suggest NAMPT inhibition as a potential treatment option for HCC. [Read the Full Post]

ITF2357 transactivates Id3 and regulate TGFβ/BMP7 signaling pathways to attenuate corneal fibrosis

521 views | Apr 21 2019

Lim RR et al. concludd that ITF2357 is a potential anti-fibrotic drug that exerts its action via activation of Id3, a downstream target of TGFβ/BMP7 signaling pathways. [Read the Full Post]

The dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor GSK2126458 is effective for treating solid renal tumours in Tsc2+/- mice through suppression of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis

0 views | Apr 19 2019

Narov K et al. found that both GSK2126458 and rapamycin caused significant reduction in number and size of solid renal tumours. GSK2126458 also significantly reduced the number and size of all lesions (cystic, papillary and solid) although to a lesser extent compared to rapamycin. GSK2126458 inhibited both PI3K and mTOR while rapamycin exerted stronger inhibitory effect on mTORC1 in renal tumours. Furthermore, GSK2126458 and rapamycin suppressed proliferation of tumour cells. Importantly, GSK2126458 increased apoptosis of solid tumours but rapamycin did not. Further investigations are therefore needed to test whether rapamycin in combination with GSK2126458 could promote apoptosis and thus improve therapy of TSC-associated renal tumours. [Read the Full Post]

The HSP90 inhibitor, NVP-AUY922, attenuates intrinsic PI3K inhibitor resistance in KRAS-mutant non-small cell lung cancer

150 views | Apr 19 2019

Park KS et al. indicated that dual inhibition of the HSP90 and PI3K signaling pathways with sub-therapeutic doses of these combined anticancer drugs may represent a potent treatment strategy for KRAS-mutant NSCLC with intrinsic resistance to PI3K inhibition. [Read the Full Post]

Roscovitine ameliorates endotoxin-induced uveitis through neutrophil apoptosis

107 views | Apr 18 2019

Jiang ZX et al. showed that roscovitine ameliorates EIU by effecting neutrophil apoptosis. Timely apoptosis of neutrophils may be an effective process to promote the amelioration of EIU. [Read the Full Post]

Copanlisib: An Intravenous Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) Inhibitor for the Treatment of Relapsed Follicular Lymphoma

149 views | Apr 18 2019

Eltantawy A et al. indicated Copanlisib provides an alternative option for patients with relapsed FL. It is safe and effective and has an acceptable toxicity profile. [Read the Full Post]

Alleviation of Senescence via ATM Inhibition in Accelerated Aging Models

193 views | Apr 17 2019

Kuk MU et al. indicated that the mitochondrial functional recovery by ATM inhibition might represent a promising strategy to ameliorate the accelerated aging phenotypes and to treat age-related disease. [Read the Full Post]

In vitro anti-osteoclastogenic activity of p38 inhibitor doramapimod via inhibiting migration of pre-osteoclasts and NFATc1 activity

111 views | Apr 17 2019

Moon SH et al. suggested anti-osteoclastogenic activity of doramapimod via inhibiting migration/fusion of pre-osteoclasts and NFATc1 activity. [Read the Full Post]