The role of RIPK1 mediated cell death in acute on chronic liver failure

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is characterized predominantly by non-apoptotic forms of hepatocyte cell death. Necroptosis is a form of programmed lytic cell death in which receptor interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 1, RIPK3 and phosphorylated mixed lineage kinase domain-like (pMLKL) are key components. This study was performed to determine the role of RIPK1 mediated cell death in ACLF. RIPK3 plasma levels and hepatic expression of RIPK1, RIPK3, and pMLKL were measured in healthy volunteers, stable patients with cirrhosis, and in hospitalized cirrhotic patients with acutely decompensated cirrhosis, with and without ACLF (AD). The role of necroptosis in ACLF was studied in two animal models of ACLF using inhibitors of RIPK1, necrostatin-1 (NEC-1) and SML2100 (RIPA56). Plasma RIPK3 levels predicted the risk of 28- and 90-day mortality (AUROC, 0.653 (95%CI 0.530-0.776), 0.696 (95%CI 0.593-0.799)] and also the progression of patients from no ACLF to ACLF [0.744 (95%CI 0.593-0.895)] and the results were validated in a 2nd patient cohort. This pattern was replicated in a rodent model of ACLF that was induced by administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to bile-duct ligated rats and carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis mice administered galactosamine (CCL4/GalN). Suppression of caspase-8 activity in ACLF rodent model was observed suggesting a switch from caspase-dependent cell death to necroptosis. NEC-1 treatment prior to administration of LPS significantly reduced the severity of ACLF manifested by reduced liver, kidney, and brain injury mirrored by reduced hepatic and renal cell death. Similar hepato-protective effects were observed with RIPA56 in a murine model of ACLF induced by CCL4/GalN. These data demonstrate for the first time the importance of RIPK1 mediated cell death in human and rodent ACLF. Inhibition of RIPK1 is a potential novel therapeutic approach to prevent progression of susceptible patients from no ACLF to ACLF.

Related Products

Cat.No. Product Name Information
S8037 Necrostatin-1 Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) is a specific RIP1 (RIPK1) inhibitor and inhibits TNF-α-induced necroptosis with EC50 of 490 nM in 293T cells. Necrostatin-1 also blocks IDO and suppresses autophagy and apoptosis.

Related Targets

TNF-alpha IDO/TDO RIP kinase Apoptosis related Autophagy