The HDAC Inhibitor Quisinostat (JNJ-26481585) Supresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma alone and Synergistically in Combination with Sorafenib by G0/G1 phase arrest and Apoptosis induction

The high activity of Histone deacetylases (HDACs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually positively correlates with poor prognosis of patients. Accordingly histone deacetylases inhibitors (HDACis) are considered to be potential agents treating patients with HCC. In our study, we evaluated effect of quisinostat alone and in combination with sorafenib in HCC cells via inducing G0/G1 phase arrest through PI3K/AKT/p21 pathway and apoptosis by JNK/c-Jun/caspase3 pathway in vitro and in vivo. The proliferation assay and flow cytometry were used to measure the viability, cell cycle and apoptosis. And Western blot assay was carried out to determine expression alternations of related proteins. Moreover HCCLM3 xenograft was further performed to detect antitumor effect of quisinostat in vivo. Here, we found that quisinostat impeded cell proliferation, and remarkably induced G0/G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in HCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. G0/G1 phase arrest was observed by alterations in PI3K/AKT/p21 proteins. Meanwhile the JNK, c-jun and caspase-3 were activated by quisinostat in a dose-dependent manner. Correspondingly quisinostat facilitated G0/G1 cycle arrest and apoptosis in HCC cells through PI3K/AKT/p21 pathways and JNK/c- jun/caspase3 pathways. Moreover, the potent tumor-suppressive effects facilitated by quisinostat, was significantly potentiated by combination with sorafenib in vitro and vivo. The combination treatment of quisinostat and sorafenib markedly suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a synergistic manner. Moreover the therapy of quisinostat combined with sorafenib could apparently decrease tumor volume of a HCCLM3 xenograft model. Our study indicated that quisinostat, as a novel chemotherapy for HCC, exhibited excellent antitumor activity in vitro and vivo, which was even enhanced by the addition of sorafenib, implying combination of quisinostat with sorafenib a promising and alternative therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

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S1096 Quisinostat (JNJ-26481585) 2HCl Quisinostat (JNJ-26481585) 2HCl is a novel second-generation HDAC inhibitor with highest potency for HDAC1 with IC50 of 0.11 nM in a cell-free assay, modest potent to HDACs 2, 4, 10, and 11; greater than 30-fold selectivity against HDACs 3, 5, 8, and 9 and lowest potency to HDACs 6 and 7. Phase 2.

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