Salvianolate ameliorates oxidative stress and podocyte injury through modulation of NOX4 activity in db/db mice

Podocyte injury is associated with albuminuria and the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the kidney and NOX4 is up-regulated in podocytes in response to high glucose. In the present study, the effects of Salvianolate on DN and its underlying mechanisms were investigated in diabetic db/db mice and human podocytes. We confirmed that the Salvianolate administration exhibited similar beneficial effects as the NOX1/NOX4 inhibitor GKT137831 treated diabetic mice, as reflected by attenuated albuminuria, reduced podocyte loss and mesangial matrix accumulation. We further observed that Salvianolate attenuated the increase of Nox4 protein, NOX4-based NADPH oxidase activity and restored podocyte loss in the diabetic kidney. In human podocytes, NOX4 was predominantly localized to mitochondria and Sal B treatment blocked HG-induced mitochondrial NOX4 derived superoxide generation and thereby ameliorating podocyte apoptosis, which can be abrogated by AMPK knockdown. Therefore, our results suggest that Sal B possesses the reno-protective capabilities in part through AMPK-mediated control of NOX4 expression. Taken together, our results identify that Salvianolate could prevent glucose-induced oxidative podocyte injury through modulation of NOX4 activity in DN and have a novel therapeutic potential for DN.

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S7171 Setanaxib (GKT137831) Setanaxib (GKT137831, GKT831) is a potent, dual NADPH oxidase NOX1/NOX4 inhibitor with Ki of 110 nM and 140 nM, respectively. Treatment with GKT137831 suppresses reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. GKT137831 partly inhibits ferroptosis. (41) (4)

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