Oncolytic Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Inhibits Human Lung Adenocarcinoma A549 Cell Proliferation and Tumor Growth by Inducing DNA Damage

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a promising oncolytic virus with broad antitumor spectrum; however, its oncolytic effects on human lung adenocarcinoma in vivo have not been reported. In this study, we report that BoHV-1 can be used as an oncolytic virus for human lung adenocarcinoma, and elucidate the underlying mechanism of how BoHV-1 suppresses tumor cell proliferation and growth. First, we examined the oncolytic activities of BoHV-1 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. BoHV-1 infection reduced the protein levels of histone deacetylases (HDACs), including HDAC1-4 that are promising anti-tumor drug targets. Furthermore, the HDAC inhibitor Trichostatin A (TSA) promoted BoHV-1 infection and exacerbated DNA damage and cytopathology, suggesting a synergy between BoHV-1 and TSA. In the A549 tumor xenograft mouse model, we, for the first time, showed that BoHV-1 can infect tumor and suppressed tumor growth with a similar high efficacy as the treatment of TSA, and HDACs have potential effects on the virus replication. Taken together, our study demonstrates that BoHV-1 has oncolytic effects against human lung adenocarcinoma in vivo.

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