Nuclear Export Inhibitor KPT-8602 Synergizes with PARP Inhibitors in Escalating Apoptosis in Castration Resistant Cancer Cells

Aberrant nuclear protein transport, often observed in cancer, causes mislocalization-dependent inactivation of critical cellular proteins. Earlier we showed that overexpression of exportin 1 is linked to higher grade and Gleason score in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We also showed that a selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) selinexor and second generation eltanexor (KPT-8602) could suppress mCRPC growth, reduce androgen receptor (AR), and re-sensitize to androgen deprivation therapy. Here we evaluated the combination of KPT-8602 with PARP inhibitors (PARPi) olaparib, veliparib and rucaparib in 22rv1 mCRPC cells. KPT-8602 synergized with PARPi (CI < 1) at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. KPT-8602-PARPi showed superior induction of apoptosis compared to single agent treatment and caused up-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes BAXTP53 and CASPASE 9. Mechanistically, KPT-8602-PARPi suppressed ARARv7PSA and AR targets FOXA1 and UBE2C. Western blot analysis revealed significant down-regulation of AR, ARv7, UBE2C, SAM68, FOXA1 and upregulation of cleaved PARP and cleaved CASPASE 3. KPT-8602 with or without olaparib was shown to reduce homologous recombination-regulated DNA damage response targets including BRCA1BRCA2CHEK1EXO1BLMRAD51LIG1XRCC3 and RMI2. Taken together, this study revealed the therapeutic potential of a novel combination of KPT-8602 and PARP inhibitors for the treatment of mCRPC.

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