Jatrophane Diterpenoids as Modulators of P-Glycoprotein-Dependent Multidrug Resistance (MDR): Advances of Structure-Activity Relationships and Discovery of Promising MDR Reversal Agents

The phytochemical study of Pedilanthus tithymaloides led to the isolation of 13 jatrophane diterpenoids (1-13), of which eight (1-8) are new. Subsequent structural modification of the major components by esterification, hydrolysis, hydrogenation, or epoxidation yielded 22 new derivatives (14-35). Thus, a jatrophane library containing two series of compounds was established to screen for P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-dependent MDR modulators. The activity was evaluated through a combination of Rho123 efflux and chemoreversal assays on adriamycin resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 (HepG2/ADR) and adriamycin resistant human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7 (MCF-7/ADR). Compounds 19, 25, and 26 were identified as potent MDR modulators with greater chemoreversal ability and less cytotoxicity than the third-generation drug tariquidar. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) was discussed, which showed that modifications beyond just increasing the lipophilicity of this class of Pgp inhibitors are beneficial to the activity. Compound 26, which exhibited a remarkable metabolic stability in vitro and a favorable antitumor effect in vivo, would serve as a promising lead for the development of new MDR reversal agents.

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