Interspecies Differences in Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ by Pharmaceutical and Environmental Chemicals

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are able to deregulate the hormone system, notably through interactions with nuclear receptors (NRs). The mechanisms of action and biological effects of many EDCs have mainly been tested on human and mouse but other species such as zebrafish and xenopus are increasingly used as a model to study the effects of EDCs. Among NRs, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a main target of EDCs, for which most experimental data have been obtained from human and mouse models. To assess interspecies differences, we tested known human PPARγ ligands on reporter cell lines expressing either human, mouse, zebrafish, or xenopus PPARγ. Using these cell lines, we were able to highlight major interspecies differences. Known hPPARγ pharmaceutical ligands modulated hPPARγ and mPPARγ activities in a similar manner, while xPPARγ was less responsive and zfPPARγ was not modulated at all by these compounds. On the contrary, human liver X receptor (hLXR) ligands GW 3965 and WAY-252623 were only active on zfPPARγ. Among environmental compounds, several molecules activated the PPARγ of the four species similarly, e.g., phthalates (MEHP), perfluorinated compounds (PFOA, PFOS), and halogenated derivatives of BPA (TBBPA, TCBPA), but some of them like diclofenac and the organophosphorus compounds tri-o-tolyl phosphate and triphenyl phosphate were most active on zfPPARγ. This study confirms or shows for the first time the h, m, x, and zfPPARγ activities of several chemicals and demonstrates the importance of the use of species-specific models to study endocrine and metabolism disruption by environmental chemicals.

Related Products

Cat.No. Product Name Information
S2630 GW3965 HCl GW3965 HCl is a potent, selective LXR agonist for hLXRα and hLXRβ with EC50 of 190 and 30 nM in cell-free assays, respectively.

Related Targets

Liver X Receptor