HDAC3 Regulates Gingival Fibroblast Inflammatory Responses in Periodontitis

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important regulators of gene expression that are aberrantly regulated in several inflammatory and infectious diseases. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) suppress inflammatory activation of various cell types through epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms, and ameliorate pathology in a mouse model of periodontitis. Activation of gingival fibroblasts (GFs) significantly contributes to the development of periodontitis and the anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis plays a key role in driving chronic inflammation. Here, we analyzed the role of HDACs in inflammatory responses of GFs. Pan-HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and/or ITF2357 (givinostat) significantly reduced TNFα- and P. gingivalis-inducible expression and/or production of a cluster of inflammatory mediators in healthy donor GFs (IL1B, CCL2, CCL5, CXCL10, COX2, and MMP3) without affecting cell viability. Selective inhibition of HDAC3/6, but not specific HDAC1, HDAC6, or HDAC8 inhibition, reproduced the suppressive effects of pan-HDACi on the inflammatory gene expression profile induced by TNFα and P. gingivalis, suggesting a critical role for HDAC3 in GF inflammatory activation. Consistently, silencing of HDAC3 expression with siRNA largely recapitulated the effects of HDAC3/6i on mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators in P. gingivalis-infected GFs. In contrast, P. gingivalis internalization and intracellular survival in GFs remained unaffected by HDACi. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NFκB signaling was unaffected by global or HDAC3/6-selective HDACi, and new protein synthesis was not required for gene suppression by HDACi. Finally, pan-HDACi and HDAC3/6i suppressed P. gingivalis-induced expression of IL1B, CCL2, CCL5, CXCL10, MMP1, and MMP3 in GFs from patients with periodontitis. Our results identify HDAC3 as an important regulator of inflammatory gene expression in GFs and suggest that therapeutic targeting of HDAC activity, in particular HDAC3, may be clinically beneficial in suppressing inflammation in periodontal disease.

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