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First-in-Human Phase I Study of the Oral Inhibitor of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase-1 Epacadostat (INCB024360) in Patients with Advanced Solid Malignancies

Purpose: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO1) catalyzes the degradation of tryptophan to N-formyl-kynurenine. Overexpressed in many solid malignancies, IDO1 can promote tumor escape from host immunosurveillance. This first-in-human phase I study investigated the maximum tolerated dose, safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity of epacadostat (INCB024360), a potent and selective inhibitor of IDO1.Experimental Design: Fifty-two patients with advanced solid malignancies were treated with epacadostat [50 mg once daily or 50, 100, 300, 400, 500, 600, or 700 mg twice daily (BID)] in a dose-escalation 3 + 3 design and evaluated in 28-day cycles. Treatment was continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.Results: One dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) occurred at the dose of 300 mg BID (grade 3, radiation pneumonitis); another DLT occurred at 400 mg BID (grade 3, fatigue). The most common adverse events in >20% of patients overall were fatigue, nausea, decreased appetite, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dyspnea, back pain, and cough. Treatment produced significant dose-dependent reductions in plasma kynurenine levels and in the plasma kynurenine/tryptophan ratio at all doses and in all patients. Near maximal changes were observed at doses of ≥100 mg BID with >80% to 90% inhibition of IDO1 achieved throughout the dosing period. Although no objective responses were detected, stable disease lasting ≥16 weeks was observed in 7 of 52 patients.Conclusions: Epacadostat was generally well tolerated, effectively normalized kynurenine levels, and produced maximal inhibition of IDO1 activity at doses of ≥100 mg BID. Studies investigating epacadostat in combination with other immunomodulatory drugs are ongoing.

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Cat.No. Product Name Information Publications Customer Product Validation
S7910 Epacadostat (INCB024360) Epacadostat (INCB024360) is a potent and selective indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) inhibitor with IC50 of 10 nM and displays high selectivity over other related enzymes such as IDO2 or tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO). (12) (3)

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