Effects of orlistat combined with enzalutamide and castration through inhibition of fatty acid synthase in a PC3 tumor-bearing mouse model

Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is one of the typical treatments used for patients with prostate cancer (PCa). ADT, however, may fail when PCa develops castration-resistance. Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a critical enzyme involved in fatty acid synthesis, is found to be upregulated in PCa. Since enzalutamide and ADT are frequently used for the treatment of PCa, this study aimed to unravel the underlying mechanism of combination of orlistat, a FASN inhibitor, and enzalutamide using PC3 cell line; and orlistat and castration in PC3 tumor-bearing animal model. Cytotoxicity was determined by AlamarBlue assay. Drug effects on the cell cycle and protein expressions were assayed by the flow cytometry and Western blot. Electromobility shift assay was used to evaluate the NF-κB activity. The tumor growth delay, expressions of the signaling-related proteins, and histopathology post treatments of orlistat and castration were evaluated in PC3 tumor-bearing mouse model. The results showed that orlistat arrested the PC3 cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle and enhanced the cytotoxic effects of enzalutamide synergistically. Pretreatment with orlistat combined with castration inhibited the tumor growth significantly compared with those of castration and orlistat treatments alone in PC3 tumor-bearing mice. Combination treatment reduced both fatty acid synthase and NF-κB activities and their downstream effector proteins. The present study demonstrated the synergistic effects of orlistat combined with enzalutamide in vitro and castration in vivo on human prostate cancer.

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