DNA Damage Response in Human Stem Cells and Neural Descendants

Glial cells are crucial for the normal function of neurons and are intricately involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases as well as neurologic malignancies. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which glial cells influence the development of such pathologies will undoubtedly lead to new and improved therapeutic approaches. Commercially available human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), both of which can be differentiated into neural progenitors (NPs) and various neural cell lineages, have become widely used as sources for producing normal human central nervous system (CNS) cells. A better understanding of the DNA damage response (DDR) that occurs in these cells after therapeutic ionizing radiation (IR) and chemotherapy is essential for assessing the effects on healthy human brain.Neurodegenerative features associated with conditions such as ataxia telangiectasia and Nijmegen breakage syndrome highlight the importance of DNA double strand break (DSB) repair pathways in maintaining genomic integrity in cells of the CNS. Similarly, the development of brain tumors is also intricately linked to DNA repair. The importance of ATM and the other phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family members, ATR and DNA-PKcs, is not fully defined in either CNS developmental or pathological states. While their roles are relatively well established in the DDR of proliferating cells, our recent work has demonstrated that these processes exhibit spatiotemporal evolution during cell differentiation. This chapter discusses and explores various laboratory techniques for investigating the role of ATM in hESCs and differentiated neural cells.

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S1092 KU-55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor) KU-55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor) is a potent and specific ATM inhibitor with IC50/Ki of 12.9 nM/2.2 nM in cell-free assays, and is highly selective for ATM as compared to DNA-PK, PI3K/PI4K, ATR and mTOR. KU‑55933 (ATM Kinase Inhibitor) inhibits the activation of autophagy‑initiating kinase ULK1 and results in a significant decrease of autophagy.

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