A novel HDAC6 inhibitor Tubastatin A: Controls HDAC6-p97/VCP-mediated ubiquitination-autophagy turnover and reverses Temozolomide-induced ER stress-tolerance in GBM cells

Temozolomide (TMZ) is the cornerstone of therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, its efficacy is limited due to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, we first identified the occurrence of ER stress-tolerance (ERST) in glioma cells and confirmed that ERST was positively correlated with TMZ resistance. We further showed that the seesaw-effect of HDAC6-p97/VCP (increased HDAC6 and decreased p97/VCP) in glioma cells was crucial to ERST-associated TMZ resistance. Moreover, the combination treatment of Tubastatin A (TUB, a selective inhibitor of HDAC6) and TMZ synergistically overcame ERST, reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in TMZ-resistant glioma cells. TUB and TMZ triggered pro-apoptotic signals of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and ER stress and reversed the ratio between HDAC6 and p97/VCP, which potentially attenuated the activation of heat shock proteins and mediated the reversal of ERST. The combination treatment also triggered the dissociation of Dynein-HDAC6 and attenuation of the Dynein-Dynactin motor complex. In addition, this treatment induced HDAC6-p97/VCP-mediated ubiquitination-autophagy turnover, which was involved in the degradation and clearance of ubiquitinated misfolded proteins. This effect could be partially reversed by HDAC6 KO and/or p97/VCP overexpression. Therefore, we proposed that glioma cells optimized the clearance of ubiquitinated misfolded proteins via the reinforcement of HDAC6-facilitated autophagy and attenuation of the p97/VCP-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). In conclusion, our findings showed that the balance of HDAC6-p97/VCP was crucial to ERST-associated TMZ resistance and that HDAC6 inhibition might be a synergistic target and strategy along with TMZ for the improvement of clinical glioma treatment.

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S8049 Tubastatin A Tubastatin A is a potent and selective HDAC6 inhibitor with IC50 of 15 nM in a cell-free assay. It is selective against all the other isozymes (1000-fold) except HDAC8 (57-fold). Tubastatin A promotes autophagy and increases apoptosis.

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