TGF-β1 activates the canonical NF-κB signaling to promote cell survival and proliferation in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts in vitro

Activated fibroblasts continue to proliferate at injury sites, leading to progressive muscular fibrosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). TGF-β1 is a dominant profibrotic mediator thought to play a critical role in muscle fibrosis; however, the implicated mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we showed that TGF-β1 increased the resistance to apoptosis and stimulated cell cycle progression in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts under serum deprivation conditions in vitro. TGF-β1 treatment activated the canonical NF-κB pathway; and we found that pharmacological inhibition of IKKβ with IMD-0354 and RelA gene knockdown with siRNA attenuated these effects of TGF-β1 on dystrophic muscle fibroblasts. Collectively, our data suggest that TGF-β1 prevents apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in dystrophic muscle fibroblasts through the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway.

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S2864 IMD 0354 IMD-0354 (IKK2 Inhibitor V) is an IKKβ inhibitor and blocks IκBα phosphorylation in NF-κB pathway. (24) (5)

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