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Severe COVID-19 in a renal transplant recipient: A focus on pharmacokinetics

he current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic requires extra attention for immunocompromised patients, including solid organ transplant recipients. We report on a case of a 35-year-old renal transplant recipient who suffered from a severe COVID-19 pneumonia. The clinical course was complicated by extreme overexposure to the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus, following coadministration of chloroquine and lopinavir/ritonavir therapy. The case is illustrative for dilemmas that transplant professionals may face in the absence of evidence-based COVID-19 therapy and concurrent pressure for exploration of experimental pharmacological treatment options. However, the risk-benefit balance of experimental or off-label therapy may be weighed differently in organ transplant recipients than in otherwise healthy COVID-19 patients, owing to their immunocompromised status and potential drug interactions with immunosuppressive therapy. With this case report, we aimed to achieve increased awareness and improved management of drug-drug interactions associated with the various treatment options for COVID-19 in renal transplant patients.

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