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Selinexor-induced thrombocytopenia results from inhibition of thrombopoietin signaling in early megakaryopoiesis

Selinexor is the first oral selective inhibitor of nuclear export compound tested for cancer treatment. Selinexor has demonstrated a safety therapy profile with broad antitumor activity against solid and hematological malignancies in phases 2 and 3 clinical trials (#NCT03071276, #NCT02343042, #NCT02227251, #NCT03110562, and #NCT02606461). Although selinexor shows promising efficacy, its primary adverse effect is high-grade thrombocytopenia. Therefore, we aimed to identify the mechanism of selinexor-induced thrombocytopenia to relieve it and improve its clinical management. We determined that selinexor causes thrombocytopenia by blocking thrombopoietin (TPO) signaling and therefore differentiation of stem cells into megakaryocytes. We then used both in vitro and in vivo models and patient samples to show that selinexor-induced thrombocytopenia is indeed reversible when TPO agonists are administered in the absence of selinexor (drug holiday). In sum, these data reveal (1) the mechanism of selinexor-induced thrombocytopenia, (2) an effective way to reverse the dose-limiting thrombocytopenia, and (3) a novel role for XPO1 in megakaryopoiesis. The improved selinexor dosing regimen described herein is crucial to help reduce thrombocytopenia in selinexor patients, allowing them to continue their course of chemotherapy and have the best chance of survival. 

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