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Revealing the Selective Mechanisms of Inhibitors to PARP-1 and PARP-2 via Multiple Computational Methods

Background: Research has shown that Poly-ADP-ribose polymerases 1 (PARP-1) is a potential therapeutic target in the clinical treatment of breast cancer. An increasing number of studies have focused on the development of highly selective inhibitors that target PARP-1 over PARP-2, its closest isoform, to mitigate potential side effects. However, due to the highly conserved and similar binding sites of PARP-1 and PARP-2, there is a huge challenge for the discovery and design of PARP-1 inhibitors. Recently, it was reported that a potent PARP-1 inhibitor named NMS-P118 exhibited greater selectivity to PARP-1 over PARP-2 compared with a previously reported drug (Niraparib). However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of this inhibitor remains unclear.

Methods: In the present study, classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations combined with structural and energetic analysis were used to investigate the structural dynamics and selective mechanisms of PARP-1 and PARP-2 that are bound to NMS-P118 and Niraparib with distinct selectivity.

Results: The results from classical MD simulations indicated that the selectivity of inhibitors may be controlled by electrostatic interactions, which were mainly due to the residues of Gln-322, Ser-328, Glu-335, and Tyr-455 in helix αF. The energetic differences were corroborated by the results from aMD simulations.

Conclusion: This study provides new insights about how inhibitors specifically bind to PARP-1 over PARP-2, which may help facilitate the design of highly selective PARP-1 inhibitors in the future.

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Cat.No. Product Name Information Publications Customer Product Validation
S2741 Niraparib (MK-4827) Niraparib (MK-4827) is a selective inhibitor of PARP1/2 with IC50 of 3.8 nM/2.1 nM, with great activity in cancer cells with mutant BRCA-1 and BRCA-2. It is >330-fold selective against PARP3, V-PARP and Tank1. Niraparib can form PARP–DNA complexes resulting in DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell death. Phase 3. (56) (4)

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