Real-world survival of patients with advanced BRAF V600 mutated melanoma treated with front-line BRAF/MEK inhibitors, anti-PD-1 antibodies, or nivolumab/ipilimumab


The optimal treatment sequence for patients with advanced BRAF V600 mutant melanoma is unknown. BRAF/MEK inhibition (BRAF/MEKi), single agent anti-PD-1 (aPD-1) antibodies and combination immune checkpoint inhibition with nivolumab and ipilimumab (niv/ipi) are all approved; however, they have not been prospectively compared. Therefore, we sought to compare overall survival of patients with advanced BRAF mutant melanoma treated with either front-line BRAF/MEKi, aPD-1, or niv/ipi.


Patients with advanced BRAF mutant melanoma who had received BRAF/MEKi, niv/ipi, or aPD-1 in the front-line setting were identified from a nationwide database comprising de-identified patient-level structured and unstructured data derived from electronic health records. Survival was compared using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used to measure the effect of front-line treatment, age (>64 or not), LDH (elevated or not), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (>1 or not) on survival.


Five hundred and sixty seven patients with advanced disease and treated with front-line aPD-1 (n = 162), BRAF/MEKi (n = 297) or niv/ipi (n = 108) were identified. With a median follow-up of 22.4 months, median overall survival (OS) for patients treated with front-line niv/ipi was not reached (NR) while median OS for patients treated with aPD-1 or BRAF/MEKi was 39.5 months and 13.2 months, respectively. Front-line treatment with PD-1 and niv/ipi were associated with statistically longer survival than BRAF/MEKi in multivariate analyses.


In our real-world retrospective analysis, patients with advanced BRAF mutant melanoma treated with front-line niv/ipi or aPD-1 had longer survival compared to those treated with front-line BRAF/MEKi.

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