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Piceatannol reduces resistance to statins in hypercholesterolemia by reducing PCSK9 expression through p300 acetyltransferase inhibition

The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of piceatannol (PT) in statin (rosuvastatin and simvastatin) resistance and tolerance and its association with PCSK9 expression via its p300 inhibitory (p300i) activity. An in vitro study was performed using HepG2 cells that were exposed to statins (rosuvastatin or simvastatin) with or without PT in delipidated serum (DLPS) medium. In the statin exposed conditions, PCSK9 expression was reduced following PT treatment when compared to HepG2 cells w/o PT treatment. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in the expression of the transcription factors SREBP2 and HNF1α, which regulate PCSK9 expression. This resulted in low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) stabilization and reduced cellular cholesterol levels. This indicates that PT epigenetically controls statin-induced PCSK9 expression. Interestingly, PT attenuated p300 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity. Moreover, simulation of PT-p300 binding suggested that PT inhibits p300 as PT could be docked in the p300 HAT domain. Furthermore, inhibition of p300 HAT activity using C-646, a selective p300 inhibitor, or through an siRNA system effectively reduced PCSK9 induction upon statin exposure in HepG2 cells. The chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that PT blocked the recruitment of p300 to the PCSK9 promoter region. In summary, PT attenuated statin-induced PCSK9 expression by inhibiting p300 HAT activity. Finally, co-administration of simvastatin and PT for 10 weeks further reduced plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and stabilized the hepatic LDLR protein level compared with those resulting from single treatment of simvastatin in a high-fat diet-induced hypercholesterolemia mouse model. Our findings indicate that PT is a new nutraceutical candidate to reduce the statin resistance and tolerance that occurs in patients with hypercholesterolemia.

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S7152 C646 C646 is an inhibitor for histone acetyltransferase, and inhibits p300 with a Ki of 400 nM in a cell-free assay. Preferentially selective for p300 versus other acetyltransferases. C646 induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and autophagy. (61) (6)

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