Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound promotes the proliferation of human bone mesenchymal stem cells by activating PI3K/AKt signaling pathways

Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a promising therapy that is widely used in clinical applications and fundamental research. Previous research has shown that LIPUS exposure has a positive effect on stem cell proliferation. However, the impact of LIPUS exposure on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) remains unknown. In our study, the effect and mechanism of LIPUS exposure on the proliferation of hBMSCs were investigated, and the optimal parameters of LIPUS were determined. hBMSCs were obtained and identified by flow cytometry, and the proliferation of hBMSCs was measured using the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay to determine cell cycle and cell count. Expression levels of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKt) pathway proteins and cyclin D1 were determined by western blot analysis. Next, hBMSCs were successfully cultured and identified as multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. We found that LIPUS could promote the proliferation of hBMSCs when the exposure time was 5 or 10 minutes per day. Furthermore, 50 or 60 mW/cm2 LIPUS had a more significant effect on cell proliferation, but if cells were irradiated by LIPUS for 20 minutes once a day, an intensity of at least 50 mW/cm2could markedly inhibit cell growth. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that LIPUS treatment drives cells to enter S and G2/M phases from the G0/G1 phase. LIPUS exposure increased phosphorylation of PI3K/AKt and significantly upregulated expression of cyclin D1. However, these effects were inhibited when cells were treated with PI3K inhibitor (LY294002), which in turn reduced LIPUS-mediated proliferation of hBMSCs. These results suggest that LIPUS exposure may be involved in the proliferation of hBMSCs via activation of the PI3K/AKt signaling pathway and high expression of cyclin D1, and the intensity of 50 or 60 mW/cm2 and exposure time of 5 minutes were determined to be the optimal parameters for LIPUS exposure.

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S1105 LY294002 LY294002 (SF 1101, NSC 697286) is the first synthetic molecule known to inhibit PI3Kα/δ/β with IC50 of 0.5 μM/0.57 μM/0.97 μM, respectively; more stable in solution than Wortmannin, and also blocks autophagosome formation. It not only binds to class I PI3Ks and other PI3K-related kinases, but also to novel targets seemingly unrelated to the PI3K family. LY294002 also inhibits CK2 with IC50 of 98 nM. LY294002 is a non-specific DNA-PKcs inhibitor and activates autophagy and apoptosis. (1553) (15)

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