IL4/IL4R signaling promotes the osteolysis in metastatic bone of CRC through regulating the proliferation of osteoclast precursors

Background: Bone metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC) often indicates a poor prognosis. Osteolysis can be observed in metastatic sites, implying an aberrant activation of osteoclasts. However, how osteoclastogenesis is regulated in metastatic microenvironment caused by colorectal cancer is still unclear.

Methods: In this study, mice bone metastatic model of CRC was established through injection of MC-38 or CT-26 cells. BrdU assays showed primary CD115 ( +) osteoclast precursors (OCPs) proliferated at the first 2 weeks. Transcriptomic profiling was performed to identify differentially expressing genes and pathways in OCPs indirectly co-cultured with CRC cells RESULTS: The expression of IL4Rα was found to be significantly upregulated in OCPs stimulated by tumor conditioned medium (CM). Further investigation indicated that IL-4 signaling regulated proliferation of OPCs through interacting with type I IL4 receptor, and neutrophils were the main source of IL-4 in bone marrow. The proliferation of OCPs can be inhibited in IL4 deficiency mice. In addition, ERK pathway was activated by IL4/IL4R signaling. Ravoxertinib, an ERK antagonists, could significantly prevent bone destruction through inhibiting the proliferation of OCPs.

Conclusion: Our study indicates the essential role of IL4/IL4R signaling for the proliferation of OCPs in early metastasis of CRC predominantly through activating ERK pathway, which remarkedly impacts the number of osteoclasts in later stage and leads to osteolytic lesions. Moreover, Ravoxertinib could be a new therapeutical target for bone metastasis of CRC.

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S7554 Ravoxertinib (GDC-0994) Ravoxertinib (GDC-0994) is a potent, orally available and highly selective ERK1/2 inhibitor with IC50 of 1.1 nM and 0.3 nM, respectively. Phase 1.

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