Hypoxia-reoxygenation induces macrophage polarization and causes the release of exosomal miR-29a to mediate cardiomyocyte pyroptosis

To investigate the mechanism by which hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR) mediates macrophage polarization to the M1 phenotype and then mediates cardiomyocyte (CM) pyroptosis through exosome release. Mouse bone marrow macrophages and CMs were cultured in vitro under hypoxia for 12 h and reoxygenation for 6 h to establish an HR cell model. qPCR was used to detect the M1 or M2 macrophage markers IL-1β, TNF-α, MR, and Arg, and a macrophage and CM coculture system was then established. Macrophages were transfected with an exosome-CD63-red fluorescent protein (RFP) lentivirus, allowing secretion of exosomes expressing RFP, and GW4869 was used to inhibit exosome release by macrophages. qPCR detected miR-29 expression in macrophage-derived exosomes, and macrophages were transfected with miR-29a inhibitors to obtain exosomes with low miR-29a expression (siR-exos). Pyroptosis indicators were detected by Western blot and ELISA. Importantly, LPS induced bone marrow macrophage polarization to the M1 type as a positive control to further verify that these exosomes (LPS-exos) regulated CM pyroptosis by delivering miR29a. Dual luciferase reporter and Western blot assays were adopted to analyze the miR-29a and MCL-1 target relationship. In addition, MCL-1 overexpression was used as a rescue experiment to determine whether miR-29a regulates pyroptosis in CM by targeting MCL-1. Macrophages expressed the M1 macrophage markers IL-1β and TNF-α after HR exposure. After CM coculture, RFP expression was significantly higher in the HR group than in the normal (Nor) group but significantly reduced in the GW4869 group. Immunofluorescence showed that caspase-1 mRNA and protein expression in the HR group was significantly higher than that in the Nor group (P < 0.05). Caspase-1 expression was significantly decreased in the GW4869 group compared with the HR group (P < 0.05). Western blotting showed that the pyrolysis-related NLRP3 and ASC protein expression levels were significantly upregulated in the HR group compared with the control (Ctr) and Nor groups (P < 0.05). However, GW4869 effectively inhibited pyroptosis-related protein expression (P < 0.05). In addition, ELISA showed that the expression of the inflammation indicators IL-1β and IL-18 was significantly increased in the HR group compared to the Ctr group (P < 0.05) but decreased in the GW4869 group (P < 0.05). qPCR showed that miR-29a was upregulated in the HR group compared to the Nor group. Moreover, HR-induced exosomes (HR-exos) from macrophages exacerbated HR-induced CM pyroptosis, while inhibition of miR-29a in exosomes partially offset CM pyroptosis induction. LPS-exos promoted pyroptosis-related protein expression, as the IL-1β and IL-18 concentrations were increased in the LPS-exos group. However, pyroptosis-related proteins were observably decreased, and IL-1β and IL-18 were also significantly decreased after miR-29a inhibition when compared with that in the HR-exos and LPS-exos groups. Mcl-1 overexpression reversed miR-29a-mediated CM pyroptosis in an HR environment. HR treatment induced macrophage polarization towards the M1 phenotype, which mediated CM pyroptosis through exosomal miR-29a transfer by targeting MCL-1.

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S7609 GW4869 GW4869 (GW69A, GW554869A) is a neutral, noncompetitive inhibitor of sphingomyelinase (SMase) with an IC50 of 1 μM. It is selective for N-SMase, and does not inhibit acid SMase at up to at least 150 μM. (22) (1)

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