Fin56-induced ferroptosis is supported by autophagy-mediated GPX4 degradation and functions synergistically with mTOR inhibition to kill bladder cancer cells

Ferroptosis is a form of regulated cell death that emerges to be relevant for therapy-resistant and dedifferentiating cancers. Although several lines of evidence suggest that ferroptosis is a type of autophagy-dependent cell death, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Fin56, a type 3 ferroptosis inducer, triggers ferroptosis by promoting glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) protein degradation via a not fully understood pathway. Here, we determined that Fin56 induces ferroptosis and autophagy in bladder cancer cells and that Fin56-triggered ferroptosis mechanistically depends on the autophagic machinery. Furthermore, we found that autophagy inhibition at different stages attenuates Fin56-induced oxidative stress and GPX4 degradation. Moreover, we investigated the effects of Fin56 in combination with Torin 2, a potent mTOR inhibitor used to activate autophagy, on cell viability. We found that Fin56 synergizes with Torin 2 in cytotoxicity against bladder cancer cells. Collectively, our findings not only support the concept that ferroptosis is a type of autophagy-dependent cell death but imply that the combined application of ferroptosis inducers and mTOR inhibitors is a promising approach to improve therapeutic options in the treatment of bladder cancer.

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S2817 Torin 2 Torin 2 is a potent and selective mTOR inhibitor with IC50 of 0.25 nM in p53−/− MEFs cell line; 800-fold greater selectivity for mTOR than PI3K and improved pharmacokinetic properties. Inhibition of ATM/ATR/DNA-PK with EC50 of 28 nM/35 nM/118 nM,in PC3 cell lines respectively. Torin 2 decreases cell viability and induces autophagy and apoptosis.

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mTOR DNA-PK Apoptosis related Autophagy ATM/ATR