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Endosulfan induces cell dysfunction through cycle arrest resulting from DNA damage and DNA damage response signaling pathways

Our previous study showed that endosulfan increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. To identify toxic mechanism of endosulfan, we conducted an animal study for which 32 male Wistar rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: Control group (corn oil only) and three treatment groups (1, 5 and 10mgkg-1·d-1). The results showed that exposure to endosulfan resulted in injury of cardiac tissue with impaired mitochondria integrity and elevated 8-OHdG expression in myocardial cells. Moreover, endosulfan increased the expressions of Fas, FasL, Caspase-8, Cleaved Caspase-8, Caspase-3 and Cleaved Caspase-3 in cardiac tissue. In vitro, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with different concentrations of endosulfan (1, 6 and 12μgmL-1) for 24h. An inhibitor for Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Protein (ATM) (Ku-55933, 10μM) was added in 12μgmL-1 group for 2h before exposure to endosulfan. Results showed that endosulfan induced DNA damage and activated DNA damage response signaling pathway (ATM/Chk2 and ATR/Chk1) and consequent cell cycle checkpoint. Furthermore, endosulfan promoted the cell apoptosis through death receptor pathway resulting from oxidative stress. The results provide a new insight for mechanism of endosulfan-induced cardiovascular toxicity which will be helpful in future prevention of cardiovascular diseases induced by endosulfan.

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