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Diverse and Targetable Kinase Alterations Drive Histiocytic Neoplasms

Histiocytic neoplasms are clonal, hematopoietic disorders characterized by an accumulation of abnormal, monocyte-derived dendritic cells or macrophages in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) and non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis (non-LCH), respectively. The discovery of BRAF(V600E) mutations in approximately 50% of these patients provided the first molecular therapeutic target in histiocytosis. However, recurrent driving mutations in the majority of patients with BRAF(V600E)-wild-type non-LCH are unknown, and recurrent cooperating mutations in non-MAP kinase pathways are undefined for the histiocytic neoplasms. Through combined whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing, we identified recurrent kinase fusions involving BRAF, ALK, and NTRK1, as well as recurrent, activating MAP2K1 and ARAF mutations in patients with BRAF(V600E)-wild-type non-LCH. In addition to MAP kinase pathway lesions, recurrently altered genes involving diverse cellular pathways were identified. Treatment of patients with MAP2K1- and ARAF-mutated non-LCH using MEK and RAF inhibitors, respectively, resulted in clinical efficacy, demonstrating the importance of detecting and targeting diverse kinase alterations in these disorders.

SIGNIFICANCE:

We provide the first description of kinase fusions in systemic histiocytic neoplasms and activating ARAF and MAP2K1 mutations in non-Langerhans histiocytic neoplasms. Refractory patients with MAP2K1- and ARAF-mutant histiocytoses had clinical responses to MEK inhibition and sorafenib, respectively, highlighting the importance of comprehensive genomic analysis of these disorders.

Related Products

Cat.No. Product Name Information Publications Customer Product Validation
S8041 Cobimetinib (GDC-0973) Cobimetinib (GDC-0973, RG7420) is a potent and highly selective MEK1 inhibitor with IC50 of 4.2 nM, showing more than 100-fold selectively for MEK1 over MEK2 and showed no significant inhibition when tested against a panel of more than 100 of serine-threonine and tyrosine kinases. Cobimetinib induces apoptosis. Phase 3. (41) (3)

Related Targets

MEK