A DSTYK mutation activates ERK1/2 signaling to promote intraspinal dissemination in a case of solitary fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma

Intracranial solitary fibrous tumors/hemangiopericytomas (SFT/HPCs) are vascular tumors that have a high rate of local recurrence and extracranial metastases. Intradural extramedullary spinal dissemination of intracranial SFT/HPC is extremely rare. There is a paucity of data available to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of intraspinal dissemination of intracranial SFT/HPC. Herein, we presented a case of intracranial SFT/HPC with intraspinal metastasis. The resected tumor specimens were enrolled in a clinical sequencing program, including whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing. By comparing genomic sequencing data of the intracranial tumors with intraspinal metastasis, we established the somatic mutational profiles of these tumors. Clonality analysis revealed a distinct subclonal structure in the intracranial tumor and its intraspinal metastasis, which might reflect the possibility of intratumoral clonal selection and evolution during the process of tumor dissemination. Through bioinformatics analysis and Sanger sequencing validation, a DSTYK mutation (Met296Ile) was identified as a candidate driver of intraspinal metastasis in this SFT/HPC case. Further, an intracranial tumor-derived SFT/HPC cell line, HPC3, was established to explore the mechanisms of the DSTYK mutation in promoting SFT/HPC metastasis. Based on the HPC3 cell model, we found that the DSTYK mutation promoted cell migration and invasion of HPC3 cells via activation of ERK1/2 signaling, which was inhibited by the MEK/ERK inhibitor AZD6244. The DSTYK mutation was also shown to upregulate the expression of two metastasis-related molecules: MMP2 and MMP9 in HPC3 cells; however, this effect was attenuated by AZD6244 treatment. Therefore, the DSTYK mutation may activate ERK1/2/MMP2/9 signaling to promote tumor cell metastasis in SFT/HPC. In conclusion, our study revealed the potential role of DSTYK mutation in the regulation of intraspinal metastasis of SFT/HPC, which might provide new biological insights into this rare disease.

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