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Using JAK inhibitor to treat cytokine release syndrome developed after chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy for patients with refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A case report

Rationale: Significant concerns about the adverse effects following chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) therapy are still remained including cytokine release syndrome (CRS). In rare circumstances, CRS may be refractory to tocilizumab and/or corticosteroids, a new treatment is needed for the management of CRS.

Patient concerns: We present a case of a 20-year-old male patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed CRS after CD19/CD22 bispecific CAR-T treatment.

Diagnosis: The patient was diagnosed with BCR-ABL(P210) positive B-ALL and developed CRS after CD19/CD22 bispecific CAR-T treatment.

Interventions: Tocilizumab and methylprednisolone were administered, unfortunately the patient's symptoms of CRS were still not resolved. Another methylprednisolone and ruxolitinib were administered.

Outcomes: The persistent fever and hypotension of this patient achieved a rapid clinical remission within hours after ruxolitinib administration.

Lessons: Ruxolitinib can be used as an alternative therapeutic approach for severe and refractory CRS without impairing CAR-T amplification and anti-tumor effect.

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