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Leishmania donovani Aurora kinase: A promising therapeutic target against visceral leishmaniasis

BACKGROUND:

Aurora kinases are key mitotic kinases executing multiple aspects of eukaryotic cell-division. The apicomplexan homologs being essential for survival, suggest that the Leishmania homolog, annotated LdAIRK, may be equally important.

METHODS:

Bioinformatics, stage-specific immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblotting, RT-PCR, molecular docking, in-vitro kinase assay, anti-leishmanial activity assays, flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy.

RESULTS:

Ldairk expression is seen to vary as the cell-cycle progresses from G1 through S and finally G2M and cytokinesis. Kinetic studies demonstrate their enzymatic activity exhibiting a Km and Vmax of 6.12μM and 82.9pmoles·min(-1)mg(-1) respectively against ATP using recombinant Leishmania donovani H3, its physiological substrate. Due to the failure of LdAIRK-/+ knock-out parasites to survive, we adopted a chemical knock-down approach. Based on the conservation of key active site residues, three mammalian Aurora kinase inhibitors were investigated to evaluate their potential as inhibitors of LdAIRK activity. Interestingly, the cell-cycle progressed unhindered, despite treatment with GSK-1070916 or Barasertib, inhibitors with greater potencies for the ATP-binding pocket compared to Hesperadin, which at nanomolar concentrations, severely compromised viability at IC50s 105.9 and 36.4nM for promastigotes and amastigotes, respectively. Cell-cycle and morphological studies implicated their role in both mitosis and cytokinesis.

CONCLUSION:

We identified an Aurora kinase homolog in L. donovani implicated in cell-cycle progression, whose inhibition led to aberrant changes in cell-cycle progression and reduced viability.

GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE:

Human homologs being actively pursued drug targets and the observations with LdAIRK in both promastigotes and amastigotes suggest their potential as therapeutic-targets. Importantly, our results encourage the exploration of other proteins identified herein as potential novel drug targets.

Related Products

Cat.No. Product Name Information Publications Customer Product Validation
S2740 GSK1070916 GSK1070916 is a reversible and ATP-competitive inhibitor of Aurora B/C with IC50 of 3.5 nM/6.5 nM. It displays >100-fold selectivity against the closely related Aurora A-TPX2 complex. Phase 1. (3) (4)

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